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About the same time that Kichard Eolle the hermit completed 
the Pricke of Conscience for the use of his unlearned countrymen in 
the North of England, Dan Michel, of JSTorthgate, Kent, furnished 
the Southern folk with a devotional manual, bearing the quaint but 
thoroughly English title of the Ayenbite of Inwyt (the again-biting 
of the inner wit), or the Eemorse of Conscience. 

The Pricke, of Conscience is, as its author tells us, drawn 
out of divers books, but the Ayenbite of Inwyt is a literal trans- 
lation of a French treatise, entitled Le somme des Vices et de Vcrtues, 
and sometimes, but incorrectly, styled Li libres rolaux de Vices et de 
Vertus ; Le livre des Commandemens ; La somme le rot ; Le mirolr 
du monde. It was composed in the year 1279 for use of Philip 
the Second of France, by Frere Lorens (or Laurentius Gallus, as he 
is designated in Latin), of the order of Friars Preachers. l 

Two copies of the French treatise are preserved in the British 
t Museum collection — Cotton MS., Cleopatra, A v., and Royal MS., 
19, c. II., the former of which has been frequently consulted and found 
useful in explaining some few difficulties in the English text. 

Mr Stevenson notices two English prose versions much later than 
the one here printed. 

The earlier copy, written in a Midland dialect about the year 
1400, or perhaps a little earlier, is contained in Additional MS. 17013, 

1 No intimation of this is given in the Translator's preface. He speaks of the 
work as his own production. See pp. 1, 262. Mr Bond, of the British Museum, found 
it to he a translation, and pointed out to the Editor of the Roxburgh Club the MSS. 
containing the original French version. (See Ayenbite of Inwyt, p. vii-ix, edited 
by the Rev Jos. Stevenson, M.A., 1855.) 


and is entitled pe hoc of vices and vertices. The other, in the Bod- 
leian Library, MS. 283 (formerly MS. E. 7.7), may be referred to 
about the year 1440, or perhaps a little later, and is entitled The 
mirrour of the worlde that some calleth vice and vertu. 

The next prose version was made by Caxton, who calls his work 
The booh royal, or The book for a Jcyng. 1 

It was probably suggested by Chaucer's Persones Tale, which is an 
adaptation of some chapters of the French treatise, 2 to which it is of 
course much superior. The poet has introduced much original matter, 
as in the chapter on Pride, where he speaks of " inordinate scantiness 
and superfluity of clothing," and his treatment of the subject differs 
considerably from his author : thus Chaucer makes the remedium in 
each case immediately follow the description of any particular sin. 
Irere Lorens treats the remedia separately, as so many gifts of the 
Holy Ghost. 

In the Persones Tale there occurs, but once only, the curious 
phrase " the schipe (or the hyre or the wages) of seruauntes," in 
which the term schipe is explained by the words hyre or wages 
(probably an addition of the scribe's). Tyrwhitt and subsequent 
editors have left the word unglossed, and its meaning was not so 
clearly evident until I had found the following corresponding phrase 
in the Ayenbite of Inwyt: " ]>e ssepe of hare sergons," the pay of 
their servants. 3 

As I have not succeeded in finding the word in any English 
writer of the 13th or 14th centuries, I am inclined to think that 
Chaucer was not altogether ignorant of Dan Michel's version. 

For some years past a new edition of the Ayenbite of Inwyt has J 

1 Mr Stevenson does not appear to have known of the existence of any metrical 
English versions of Frere Lorens' work. They were probably more abundant than 
the prose translation. A copy in the Northern dialect, ascribed to Hampole, is 
preserved in Cotton MS. Tib. E vii. (and a later fragment among the Sion College 
MSS.), which seems to have given rise to several dialectical versions, among which 
may be mentioned Harl. MS. 435, MS. Bodl. 48, MS. Langb. 5, MS. More 215, 
MS. Singer. See Examination of the " Remarks on the Glossary to the Antient 
Metrical Romance of Raveloh the Dane" &c. (p. 30.) 

2 Tyrwhitt and subsequent editors have been altogether in the dark as to the 
original of this tale. 

3 ssepe is Kentish for schipe, for in this dialect an e is constantly put for a 
Northern and Midland i. 


been greatly needed, and Loth Wright and Thorpe have at different 
times proposed its republication. The Koxburgh Club edition is both 
scarce and high-priced, and therefore entirely out of the reach of 
ordinary students of Early English. Moreover, it is much to be 
regretted that Mr Stevenson has considerably lessened the value of 
his edition of so important a work by suppressing the English author's 
Preface and Table of Contents, as well as two little treatises following 
the larger work, which, being included in the Contents, should have 
been printed, or, at any rate, some reason assigned for their omission. 1 

From the Manuscript itself we learn that the Ayenbite of Inwyt was 
completed "ine fe yeare of oure lhordes beringe (birth) 1340," " ine 
J?e eue of J?e holy apostles Symon an Iudas," by Dan Michel of 
Northgate, a brother of the Cloister of Saint Austin of Canterbury. 
We cannot but regret that no more information is afforded us of one 
who so thoroughly identified himself with the country-folk among 
whom he dwelt as to choose this homely " English of Kent," in pre- 
ference to a less provincial form of English, adopted by other South- 
em writers, in which he might teach, as he himself says, old and 
young, parents and children, to eschew all manner of sin, and to 
preserve a conscience void of all impurity. 

Of all the English works written in the 14th century, the Ayen- 
bite of Inwyt is, unquestionably, the most important and valuable 
that has hitherto been published ; and we owe a debt of gratitude to 
Mr Stevenson who first called attention to its philological peculiar- 

Much uncertainty attaches itself to most of our Early English 
works of this period as to authorship, date, and dialect — particulars of 

1 Mr Stevenson has wrongly translated his author's title. Ayenbite of Inwit 
does not mean Redemption of the Soul. Dan Michel uses Wtybegge in the sense of to 
redeem, and the substantive formed from ftiis is wi\>begginge (Wicliffe has Ayenbying), 
and the correct term for soul is zauel. Many of the mistakes in the Text and 
Glossary to the Roxburgh edition might have been avoided by a reference to the 
French MSS. Thus Mr Stevenson prints tene (= tin) for teue (yesterday evening), 
and explains vendonginge as manure instead of uendage, or sale ; russoles he glosses 
as reeds, instead of cakes cooked in the frying-pan. With a boldness not to be com- 
mended, he occasionally alters his author's language, and in printing \>erne (a 
genuine 0. E. form) for \>esne, he teaches us how rigidly Editors of Early English 
works should adhere to their MSS. 


the greatest importance to the philologist who seeks to gain any- 
clear notions of Early English Grammar ; hut with rare good fortune 
the Ayenbite of Inwyt comes to us as a philological monument, the 
value of which is not diminished by any uncertainty on these points. 
And as such ib must ever be regarded as the standard of comparison 
for the language of the 14th century, by which a clearer knowledge 
of Early English inflexions may be gained than has, hitherto, been 
possible by means of the scanty materials within our reach. 

As a small contribution towards a more systematic investigation 
of Early English Grammar, the editor of this volume has endeavoured 
to place before the reader the chief characteristics of the Southern 
dialect, and the points of difference between it and Northern English. 
He felt he could not do better than avail himself of the present 
opportunity for discussing these matters, in the hopes that others 
may be induced to devote some attention to this subject, so that 
the future historians of our language will have no cause to endorse 
the opinion of no mean authority, "that there is not a general 
agreement of scholars on many cardinal points of English inflection, 
and indeed that no thorough systematic and comprehensive attempt 
at the investigation of these questions has yet been made." 

Tottenham, Dec, 1866. 


The Arundel MS. 57, containing the Ayenbite of Inwyt, is a 
folio copy, written on vellum, and is the autograph of the author. 

The printed catalogue thus describes the other contents of the 
volume : — 

1. "Versus Gylde de prophetia Aquile," fol. 4. b. Incip. Tolle 
caput Mart Is bis. 

2. Ejusdem " Versus Northmannie," fol. 4. b. Incip. Anglla 
transmittet leopardum lilia Galli. 

3. " Expositio versuum Gyldae de prophetia Aquilae et Heremitse," 
fol. 5. Incip. Continetur inter dicta heremite satis. 

4. Thomas de Erseldoune's prophecy of King Edward II., fol. 
8. b. 

Thomas de Erseldoune escot & dysur dit au Rey Alisand?*e le 
paroles de suthdites du Rey Edward ke ore est kaunt yl fust auestre 
To ny$t is boren a barn in Kaerneruam fat ssal wolden J?e out ydlis ylc 
an j?e kyng Alesand?^ acsede hwan ssal J?at be. J?e menstral 3ede hwan 
banockes bourne is y-det myd ma??,nis bonis, hwan hares kendle)> in 
hertj) stanes hwan laddes wendde]) 1 leuedes hwan me ledej? men to 
selie wytj? rapis hwan Rokys burj? is no burj> hwan men gyven an 
foln of tuenti pou^d for an seme of hwete. E. ssel. uordo. P. Jjor^. 
vi$t and strengjje of al Mi^t. Er M. Jjri croked xl. alle bi hoked. 

Ssel diuerse an daunce J?et neuir wes .y. mad. ine fronce. 

5. Les prophecies de Merlyn, fol. 8. b. 

6. Prologus in Evangelium S. Matthaei, fol. 97. 

7. Evangelium S. Matthasi cum expositione perampla, fol. 98^ 

1 wedde\> ? 



On list en la uie des peres que .i. saint homme conta comment 
il estoit deuenu moine e disoit quil auoit este £3 dun paien 
qui estoit prestre as ydoles . e quant il estoit enfes vne M3 entra on 
temple auoec son pere repostement. Iioec uit .i. grant diable qui 
sasist sor .i. faudestuel e toute sa maisnee enuiron lui. Iloec uint .i. 
des princes e laoura. Lors li demanda cil qui seoit ou throne dont il 
uenoit . e il respondi quil uenoit dune terre ou il auoit esmeu e por- 
chace mout de guerres e mout de troubles si que mout de gen3 i 
estoient mort . e mout de sane i estoit espandu3. Le mestre demanda 
en combien de tens il auoit ee fet : e il respondi en .xxx. iors. Cil 
li dist en tant de tens as si poi fet . lors commanda quil fust batu3 e 
mal menez ^[ aprcs celui uint .i. autre qui ensuit laoura com le 
premier. Le mestre li demanda dont il uenoit : Cil respondi quil 
uenoit de la mer ou il auoit fet mout de tempestes mout de niefs 
brisees . e mout de gen3 nee3- ^[ Le mestre demanda en combien de 
tens. II respondi en .xx. iours. Cil dist en tant de tens as si poi 
fet. ^[ Aprcs uint le tier3 qui respondi qil uenoit dune cite ou il 
auoit eues noces . e iloec auoit esmeu e pourchace tencows e mellees 
si que mout de gent i estoient mort . e enseur quetout il auoit occis 
le mari. Le mestre li demanda combien de tens il auoit mis a ce fere. 
II respondi que .x. iors. Lors co ramanda quil feust bien batu por ce 
qil auoit tant demore a ce fere san3 plus. *[[ Audarrein uint .i. autre 
deuant le prince e laoura . e cil li demanda dont uiens tu. II re- 
spondi quil uenoit del hermitage ou il auoit este .xl. an3 pour tempter 
.i. moine de fornicacion cest pecche de luxure . e tant ai fait que cele 
nuit lai uaincu . e tresbuche en eel pecchie. ^f Lors sailli sus le 
mestre e le baisa e acola e li mist la corone en la teste . e le fist seoir 
iouste lui . e li dist que grant chose auoit fet e grant proesce. % Ore 
disoit le preudorame que quant il out ce oi : e ce ueu il pensa que 
grant chose estoit de moine e par cele acheson estoit il deuenu 

1 For translation see pp. 238 — 240 of the present work. 


Introduction, page iii, 1. 25 ; for provincial istics read provincialisms 
Page viii, foot note 2, 1. 4 ; for occur read occurs 

— xxviii, foot note ; for and read to 

— xxxviii, 1. 5 ; for tde pe read ute we 

Page 128, 1, 21 ; for in prisone read ine prisons 

— 140, side notes, 1. 31 ; for ass is to its, 4'c, read assassin to 
his, $c. 

Page 159, foot note ; for answer ie]) read ansueriep 

— 184, I. 12 ; for wely-holpe read wel y-holpe 

— 187, 1. 24; \df\aymont. The MS. may be right. Palsgrave 
has aymant. 

Page 194, I. 19 ; for hebbep read habbep 

— 223, L 21 ; for hart en read herten 

— 231, 1. 11 ; for wy-oute read wy[p]-oute 

— 244, 1. 11 ; for zayte read zay[n]te 

— 246, 1. 3 ; for yuelded (so in MS.) read yuelde 

— 246, 1. 7 ; for na-$ read na$[t] 

— 253, 1. 25 ; for zayte read zay[n]te 

— 262, 1. 13 ; for imayttte read inwytte 

— 265, 1. 8 from bottom ; for ryuolliche read ry[$t\uolliche 

— 269, 1. 9 from bottom ; for broken read bropren 

— 270, 1. 4 ; for ueleyn read ule^en 

— 251, L 2 from bottom ; 'huer Jet is speJc of J>e wyttes," &c. ; 
is spek at first sight looks like either an error for ich speJc = I spake, 
or is y-speke = is spoken. The is, however, I believe to be an old 
and genuine form, corresponding to the modern provincial es, I. 

Margery. Wull ye eat a couust o' brid and chezee, cozen 

Andrew. No, es thankee, cozen Margery ; vor es eat a crub as es 
come along ; bezides es went to dinner jest avore. — Well, bet, cozen 
Margery, whot onser dest gi' ma to tha quesson es put vore now-reert. 

(An Exmoor Courtship.) 



In considering the characteristics of the Southern dialect, we 
shall not compare it with the Midland, which presents us with no 
one typical form, but with the Northern or Northumbrian, the gram- 
matical forms and inflexions of which are more uniform and constant. 
This appears to be the only mode of obtaining a clear conception 
of the great and distinctive features of these two extensive forms of 
our ancient speech, and it is, perhaps, the best means we could adopt 
to enable us to draw, as closely as possible, the line of demarcation 
between the dialects formerly spoken in the North and South of this 

We shall discuss these peculiarities of dialect under the following 
heads : — 

I. Orthographical Differences. 
II. Grammatical „ 

III. Lexicographical „ 

I. Orthographical Differences. 
A. Consonants. 
1. Cli for K. The Southern dialect prefers the soft sound ch to 
that of 7c. 1 The following examples may be added to those contained 
in Preface to Hampole. 






kele (cold) 


smek (smoke) 


crok (cross) 2 


smak (taste) 


caf (chaff) 


sek (sack) 3 


carl (churl) 

1 We find in the Sn dialect durchede for derknesse, darkness. 
7 Exists in English crook, crutch. 3 Cp. sack and satch-eL 



In the twelfth century we find wlach = wlak = luke(-wa,rm) ; 
bach = beck, stream ; folch, folk, people. 

In Wiltshire and Devonshire we may hear the following remnants 
of this pronunciation : — 
blatch = black pritch, prutch = prick putch (= pitch) = pick 

The pronominal and adjectival forms each, such, and which, 
were represented thus in the two dialects : — 
Southern. Northern. 

uen ; 

Southern. Northern, 

swuch \ 

zuych [ swilk 

such / 

whuch whilk 

The Semi-Saxon forms in the Southern dialect were 

elch sicelch and welch 
The Midland forms are mostly like the Southern with respect to 
the substitution of ch for k, but a preference is given to the i sound, 
e. g. ych, swich (sich), wich. 

Adjectives in the Southern dialect ended in -lich (sing.), and 
-liche (pi.), and Adverbs in -liche ; but in the Northumbrian, when 
the final -e had no grammatical functions, the distinction between 
Adjectives and Adverbs could not well be kept up, so that the 
terminations -lich and -liche were represented by -lie (-lik, like), 
and -ly. { We have a trace of the double adverbial form -U7ce and 
-ly in the Ormulum. 

2. V for F. The use of v for /, as vinger for finger, visch for 
fisch, &c, is another well-known peculiarity of the old Southern 
dialect, which has, however, gradually become disused in the Eastern 
division of the Southern counties (in Kent and Sussex). In the 
xivth, and up to the middle of the xviith century, this usage was 
well marked. 2 

We never find the v for / in any Northumbrian production. 
4. Z for S. The Ayenbite is the only work of the xivth century 
that contains examples of the use of z for s, as zinge for singe, zour 

1 -ly is of course a later form. 

2 In one or two instances, as vetch = fetch, vat = fat, we have retained the 
Southern and provincial form. 


for sour, &c. But while this pronunciation is well marked in 
modern Southern dialect, as spoken in the Southern and Western 
counties, we find no trace of it in the chronicle of Eohert of Gloucester. 
The modern Kentish vernacular has dropped this peculiarity, 
though it seems to have been common enough in Kent as late as the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

4. In the present dialect of the South of England (as spoken in 
Wiltshire, Devonshire, and Somersetshire) we find 


= brush 

hirch = rich 


= dread 1 

hirn = run 


= thrush 

hirsh = rush 


= great 

We have several good instances of this metathesis in the literature 

of the xiiith and xivth centuries. 



Southern. Northern. 

berne (berne) 

= brenne(burn) 

curlle = crulle (curl) 


= brende(burnt) 

fersch (versshe) = fresch (fresh) 


= breste (burst) 

forst = frost 


= brast (burst, 

gers = gres (grass) 


thirlle = thrille (pierce) 

burde (birde) 

= bride (lady, 

therste = threste(thirst) 


yrne = rinne (run) 


= crud (curd) 

orn (arn) = ran 

5. PS for SP Haps = hasp, waps = wasp, are well-known 
modern Southern provincialistics, but with the exception of crips for 
crisp (in Wright's Fragments of Popular Science) I know of no 
ancient examples. 

6. G for Y. The Southern dialects in some few instances 
retained a g, which in the Northern became softened into y, as in 
the modern English buy and say. 

Southern. Northern. i Southern. Northern. 

begge bye I segge saye 

7. B for V. The Southern forms libbe, habbe, and hebbe, were 
represented by the Northern live, have, and keve (heave). 

1 Cf. brid = bird, still in use in the North of England. 


B. Vowels. 

1. for A. I have previously pointed out in the preface to 
Hampole the substitution of b in the place of a in words of Anglo- 
Saxon origin. 

Southern. Northern. Southern. Northern, 

bon ban lore lare 

bor bar (bare) &c. &c 

horn ham 

But we also find the following forms in the Southern literature of 
the xivth century, which are never met with in any pure Northum- 
brian production : — 

honge = hang 
lome = lame 
plont = plant 
schome = shame 
stronde = strand 
In Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Somersetshire we still find 
examples of this pronunciation in hond (hand), land (land), dork 
(dark), lork (lark), oj>ple (apple). 

The Ayenbite contains fewer examples of this than most speci- 
mens of the Southern dialect, and in some few instances a preference 
is given to the a sound, as 

blaioe (blow) knawe (know) mawe (mow) 

zange (song) zawe (sow) 

This preference of o to a, which is also found in some of the 
Midland dialects, evidently explains the following curious forms : 


= can 


=: hand 


= land 


= man 


= stand 

Midland. Northumbrian. 



fro = fra (from) 


= sla (slay) 

no = fla (flay) 


= thare (there) 

gove = gave 


= ware (were) 

ond = and (anger) 


= ya (yea) 

E for A. In some few words 

we have e in 

the Southern dialect 

where the Northern prefers a. 

Southern. Northern. 



a3en agan (gan, gain) = 


hare = hair 






fle 1 

barn = bairn, 

(child, son) 
claw (clar) 
arn = eagle 
fla = flay 

Southern. Northern, 

sle sla = slay 

stre stra = straw 

wepen wapen == weapon 

3e yha = yea 

The following forms seem to come under this head : 

dei 2 


clai == (clay) 
dai = (day) 
aght = (eight) 



graithe = (prepare) 
hai = (hay) 
kai = (key) 

eye (eie) agh = (awe) 
With these we may compare the Midland forms of the North- 
umbrian personal pronouns : 

Midland thei, their, theim, for 

Northern thai (tJw), thair (thar), thaim (thain) 

The Southern preterites of one class of strong verbs often take an 
e. when the Northumbrian has a. 


bar = bore 
brak = broke 


spak = spoke 
swar = swore 


gaf = gave 

In the modern dialect of Sussex wo find fleg = flag ; heng = 
hang ; mersh = marsh ; reg = rag. In Devonshire, hep = cap ; 
kerjnng = carping. 

The Old Frisian language presents us with similar forms, as 
fftef = staff; bend = ha,Ti&; weter = water. 

Not only has the Ayenbite preserved similar forms in which a is 
replaced by e, but it presents us with a far larger number than any 
other Southern composition. 

bend = band 
berk = bark 
bleddre = bladder 
blest = blast 

leste = last 

mentle = mantle 

mere = mare 

merss = marsh 

1 Jle f sle, may stand ioxjiea and ska. 

2 In Dorsetshire day and whey are pronounced de, whe, &c. See Outlines of 
Dorset Grammar in Philolog. Soc. Proceed., 1864, p. 12. 



= bran 


= shall 


= brass 


= shade 


= chaff 


= shape 


= clapper 


= stripe 


= craft 


= staff 


= awl 


= thrall 


= apple 


= trap 


= ash 


= vat 


= glad 


= water 


= had 


= sad 


= kast (inf.) 

zeterday= Saturday 


= ladder 

Aw for At. 

(A.S. ag.) : 








ilain (flayed) 





ZJfor /. In the works of the Southern writers of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries we find the words fist, hill, thin, sin, &c., 
written/^, hid, thun, thunne, sun, &c. 

Our modern pronunciation coincides generally with the Northern 
dialects, in which this substitution of u for i was unknown. 

In Wiltshire we may still hear blunk (= blink), spark; frum 
(N.frim), fresh; hud, hide; huz, his; lup, Hp : putcher, pitcher ; 
vur> fire ; whuch, which. 

In the Old Kentish of the Ayenbite an e takes the place of the 
Southern u and the Northern i. 



(a) Western. (&) Eastern. 

hul hel 


kunde kende 


kusse kesse 


munde mende 


put pet 


rug reg 

rig (back) 

vur vere 


&c. &c. 




In the following list of words taken from the Ayenbite, the e 
represents u or i. 


= boil (bile) 


= milk 


= bustle 


= mind 


= busy 


;e = pit 


= bridale 


= pride 

bredgrome =bridegroom 


= rig = ridge 


= bring 



= guilt 


= skill 


= hill 


= stick 


= kitchen 


= stiff 


= kin 


= sting 


= kine 


= silk 


= kind 


= strip 


= kiss 


= filth 


= kith = cuth or 


= fire 

couth in un- 


= self 



= singe 


= kite 


= sink 


= limb 


= sin 


= mill 

We find in O.Frisian brenga, to bring, stek, stick, together with 
the double forms blenda and bttnda, helpa and hilpa. 

In the modern Kentish and Sussex dialects we meet with Tenet = 
knit ; meece = mice ; melk = milk ; pet = pit ; whelst == whilst. 
This use of e for i still prevails in some of the Southern counties. 

In Wiltshire we find peg = pig ; steel = stile ; steak = stink, and 
the published specimens of the Exmoor dialect contain the following 
examples : 


= bid 


= did 


= dusk 


= drink 


= mind 


= mince 


= P^ 


= print 


= prick 


= rip 


= thing 


= trim 


= fist 


= sad 


7= sick 


In some few instances we have retained the Southern orthography 
with the Northern pronunciation : busy = the Northern bysy, just 
as dizzy = the Southern dust. 

Build, guilt, &c, in Southern orthography were written bulde, 
gult, and in the Northern, bylde, gylt, &c. In stint and stunt "both 
dialectal forms have been preserved. 

The o in hop and slope seem to have arisen out of a u sound, since 
the older Southern forms were huppe and sluppe, corresponding to 
the Northern hippe and slippe. 

5. Eo for E. The Editor of the Ormulum, in pointing out some of 
the dialectical peculiarities of his author, notices the use of the simple 
vowel e for the compound eo. In no specimen of the Northumbrian 
dialect do we ever find the employment of the compound vowel. 
Thus the Southern forms breoste (breast) ; cheose (choose) ; creope 
(creep) ; deop (deep) ; leose (lose) ; neose (nose) ; teon (anger) ; 
weoved (altar), &e., are in Northern orthography breste, chese, crepe, 
dep, lese, nese, tene, iceved, &c. 

Occasionally in the Southern dialect the eo is written u, as dupe 
for deope, durh for deorlc, mullc for meollc ; duere for deore (dear). l 
Cp. Vul for feol, fell, and liuld for heold, held. 

In the printed examples of the Herefordshire dialect ue often 
takes the place of eo, as hue (they), for heo ; huere (their) for heore ; 
huem (them) for heom ; buen (to be) for beon ; buere (bear) for beore ; 
duere (dear) for deore ; huerte (heart) for heorte, &c. 2 

In Kemble's paper on the North Anglian dialect, we are told that 
the West Saxon eo was represented in Kentish Manuscripts by iu, to, 
ia, and ie. 

We find some traces of this in the Kentish specimens of the xivth 
century, for in the Ayenbite ie or ye is constantly employed for eo. 3 

1 This may account for the modern pronunciation of lese (lose) and chese (choose) 
== the Sn leose and cheose. 

2 Since writing the above I have found both forms in Trevisa's translation of 
Higden's Polychronicon (Cotton MS. Tiberius D. vii. written in the Sn dialect, 
probably of Gloucestershire), e. g., heo and hue, she ; \>eos or ]pues, this, these ; ue 
perhaps occur more frequently than eo, as thuef, thief ; wuesch, for weoseh, washed. 

3 The modern Kentish dialect has bly (used by Shoreham) for ble (A.S. bleo), 
colour, likeness. In the Ayenbite and Shoreham's poems we find by for beo, be ; vry 
iovfreo, free ; gly for gleo, glee ; zy for seo, see ; gryhond for greyhound, &c. 


chiese \ 
chyese > 
chyew ) 
diepe \ 
dyepe j 
diere \ 
dyere j 
lierny \ 
lyerny ) 
liese ) 

! ) 

Ordinary Southern form, 
breost (breast) 

cheose (choose), 

creope (creep) 
deope (deep) 

deore (dear) 

leorne (learn) 

leose (lose) 

Ordinary Southern form, 
leove (lief, dear) 

neode (need) 

theoster (darkness) 

teone (anger) 


lieve j 

lyeve ) 

niede \ 

nyede j 

thiester } 

thyester ) 

tiene \ 

tyene j 

wieued ) 

. > weoued (altar) 
wyeued j x ' 

wied wood (weed) 

vyend feond (fiend) 
lyese ; vryend freond (friend) 

Many preterites in eo take ie, as Meld, Mid, held, hielp, hilp, helped. 

6. In the South-west of England at the present day such words 
as cart, card, and garden, are pronounced as kyart, kyard, gyarden. 
Here the ya represents the original West Saxon ea, which in modern 
English is represented by a. In Somersetshire calf, grape, leap, 
leave, are pronounced heave, greap, leap, leave. In the Eastern 
division, as in Kent and Sussex, we may hear beam, deaw, gdut (geat), 
heaf, taust, for beam, dew, gate, calf, taste. (See Outlines of Dorset 
Grammar in Philolog. Soc. Proceedings, 1864, pp. 12, 13, 14.) 

We have no trace of tins in Kobert of Gloucester, Lives of the 
Saints, &c, but in the works of Shoreham and Dan Michel, we find 
abundant evidence (as the following examples will show) that the old 
Kentish folk of the fourteenth century retained the ancient West 
Saxon pronunciation, for ea is written yea, ya. 


byam ) 

bryead \ 

bryad j 



chyeaste \ 

chieaste j 

cheap = cheep 

= beam 

= bread 

= cheek 

= clepe (call) 

= strife cheaste 

dyad j 
dyead j 
dyeau j 
dyau j 
hyealde ) 
healde ) 

= dead 

= death 
= deaf 

= dew 

= hold 
= head 


hyeap \ 
hyap j 

= heap 


= salve 

= sloth 


= hue 


= spark 


= leaf 


= show 


= leap 


= virtue 


= lewd 


= dispute 


= rob 


= tear 


= shrew 
= salt 

vealde ) 
vyealde ) 

= fold 

The Kentish preterites bea$ (bent) ; cheas (chose) ; leas (lost) ; 
leat (bowed) ; stea$ (ascended) ; zeald (sold) ; teald (told), correspond 
to the ordinary Southern be$, dies, les, let, de$, teld (told). 

Sometimes the initial ea is represented by y, as yald, old ; yarm, 
arm ; yarn, ran ; year, ear ; yeast, east ; yerne, run ; yerthe, earth ; 
yestre, easter. 

With these We may compare the modern Southern provincialisms 
yarm = arm ; yarth = earth ; yeat = eat ; yeast = east, <fcc. 

7. The only old Kentish forms corresponding to the modern buoy 
(boy), cwoat (coat), &c, are 


= bone 


= good 


= go 

guos = 
ZU0I3 = (the Dorset zull) = 



The Ormulum, which is of Midland origin and abounds in North- 
ern forms, contains scarcely any plural nouns terminating in the 
syllable en 9 while the Ancren Rewle, St Marherete and Lajamon's 
"Brut," written in the Southern dialect, abound in them. 

In the longest and best specimens of the Northumbrian dialect 
of the early English period, I have not succeeded in finding more 
than three or four plural nouns in en, as eghen (eyes), oxen, and 
schon (shoes). But in Southern works of the same period they are 
almost as plentiful as in the earlier (Semi-Saxon) stage of the 
language. 2 

The following list of Southern plurals in en might no doubt be 
augmented, as they contain such forms only as have come under my 
own observation ; they all, however, serve to corroborate the statement 
made as to the frequent use of this inflexion. 







# bellen 




* benen 

prayers, boons 



* blissen 



j G %& 




blooms (flower) 





* bougeren 


1 The modern dialect of the South-western counties still exhibits a fondness for 
this termination, as housen, peasen, neighbour hooden* 

* All words marked thus (*) occur in the Ayenbite (1340) ; those marked with 
a dagger occur in Shoreham. 






* brothren 


brothers x 

* do3tren 









* dropen 



* bryesten 




* earen 






* carten 


* yearen 


# cellen 


* eddren 




* elmessen 











daws (choughs) 



* cherchen 

* children 




* e 3 en 



* clauen 



t verden 


troops, armies 

















# von 

* crouchen 











* halewen 


hallows, saints 




clothes, gar- 

* dyeuelen 



* diaknen 




l brethern and childern occur in Early Eng. writers. 


* heaveden 








rewards (meeds) 

* hennen 


* messen 



shirts of horse- 




* modren 


* hesten 

hests, com- 






* honden 












* nettlen 




# nykeren 




* nykken 






* herten 






t joyen 


* pesen 


# kempen 


* pinen 


* ken 












* reven 

sheriffs, reeves 



* roten 

roods (crosses) 

# lambren 


rothern l 

| rothers, oxen 

* lompen 







j souls 

# lenden 


* zaulen 





* lippen 




t loken 




1 In Cott. MS. Tib. D. vii. rotheron, oxon, chyldron, are written for rutheren, 
oxen, children. 








* zennen 












f sibben 


# ziden 




















# spearken 




* stablen 






# sterren 









* tongen 





* toknen 


t ton 


t tren 


# treppen 

J trees 
| traps 
unclen uncles 


* wellen 

* werren 

* wodewen 
f woken 

* womben 

* wonden 

* wrecchen 

* wychen 

* wyngen 

t wyken 

* wysen 

* ympen 

* vetheren 

* vle3en 

* vorbisnen 


weeds (clothes) 












ways, modes 






The whole of these do not, of course, belong to the n declension. 
Benen, deuelen, dorm, honden, sunnen, soulen, originally ended in 
-a; brotheren, dohtren (dohtren), heaveden, modren, sustren (sos- 
tren), terminated in -u ; and calveren, childeren, lyren, lambren, 1 
formerly ended in -ru. 

The A. -Saxon plural vowel inflexions -a, -u 9 &c, were repre- 
sented in the Semi-Saxon by -e, and in the Early English period by 

The Northumbrian forms corresponding to the Southern bretheren , 
childeren, kine, were br ether, child er, kye. 

The A.S. plural lendenu 2 (loins) became lenden in Southern 
English ; the Northern dialect employed the form lends, for which they 
formed a singular, lend, which is not to be found in any pure 
Southern writer. 

Occasionally the -en is represented by a final -e, as asse = 
assen, asses ; honde = honden, hands ; lippe = lipjpen, lips ; sterre = 
sterren, stars ; stede = steden, steeds. 

Dr Guest, in the second volume (p. 75) of the Philological 
Society's Proceedings, has noticed these forms, but considers them as 
Northern forms. His statement is as follows : — 

" Anglo-Saxon nouns belonging to the n declension, as steorra, a 
star, steda, a steed, assa, an ass, &c, generally formed their plural in 
-an, as steorran, stedan, assen, &c. But in the Northern dialect they 
substituted a vowel for the ending -an; and it is probable that these 
Northern plurals are represented by the sterre, stede, asse of the 
following examples : — 

(1) The fifte 3er he gan argument 

Of the sterre and of the firmement. 

(Sevyn Sages, 197.) 

(2) Whi kyng other eorl cam on hym to weorre, 3 
Quyk he lokyd in the steorre. — (Kany Alls. 76.) 

(3) As y you sey bothe heore stede 

Feollen to grounde dede. — (K. Alts. 2263.) 

1 Lambre = lambs, occurs in the Ormulura. 

2 The sing, does not occur in A.S. authors. 

3 The -e in weorre represents the -en in the infinitive. 


(4) And afftyr fyftene hundryd asse 
Bar wyn and oyle, more and lasse. 

(R. C. de Lion, 6453.)" 

' The three works from which the quotations are made, adds Dr 
Guest, are strongly marked with the peculiarities of the Northern 

They certainly do contain some Northern peculiarities, but not its 
distinctive peculiarities. The Seven Sages and the Rom. of King 
Richard are in a Midland dialect, and K. Alisander is in the dialect 
of a locality where both Southern and Midland forms were em- 

The substitution of a vowel for the -an (as ego = eyes ; wit go, 
witgu = prophets) was undoubtedly a characteristic of the Northern 
dialect during the ninth and tenth centuries ; but is not to be found 
in any Northern writer of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 

The substitution of -e for -n l is Southern rather than Northern, 
as the following examples will show : — 

The ni3tingale bigon the speche 
In one hurne of one breche 
And sat upone vaire bo^e 
Thar were abute blosme ino^e. 2 

(Owl and Nightingale, p. 1.) 

Berne = Bemen (trumpets). 

The engles in the dai-red 

Blewedh heore heme. — (Relig. Poems, p. 68.) 

Angles . . blewe here bemen. 

(Lives of Saints, Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 11 b.) 

1 The use of final -e for -n is quite common in the Southern dialect, not only in 
the plurals of nouns, hut also in the preterite plural, infinitive mood, and gerund 
of verhs. In addition to these we find such forms as aje = ajen (again) ; oy = oten 
(own) ; neo^e = neo^en (nine) ; blose, blosmen (blossoms) ; seove = seoven (seven). 

2 Blosme ino3e = flowers enough = many flowers. Ino^e is the plural of ino^ 
enough. The pi. Blosmen occurs much later, as in the following extract;— 

Lenten yo come with love to toune 

With blosmen ant with briddes roune 

That al this blisse bringeth. — {Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 43.) 


Browe == Browen (brows). 

(1) On heu hire her is fayr ynoh, 

Hire browe broune, hire e^e l blake. 

(Spec, of Lyric Poet p. 28.) 

(2) Hyre he^e l haueth wounded me y-wisse 

Hire bende browen that bringeth blisses — (Ibid. p. 39.) 

Chirche=. Chirchen (churches). 

(3) Horn let wurche 
Chapeles and chirche. 

(K. Horn, p. 39, E. E. Text Soc.) 

(4) That folc hi gunne quelle 

And cliurchen for to felle. — (Ibid. p. 2.) 
Breste = Bresten (breasts). 

Ther to me aneleth the wyttes fy3f, 

And fe^et, and breste and lenden. — (Shoreham, p. 43.) 

He het that me scholde hire lede : to the tounes ende 
And hire breosten fram hire bodie, with kene hokes rende. 

(St Katherine, p. 76.) 
Crowe = Crowen (crows). 

An hwanne heo habeth me of-slahe, 

Heo hongeth me on heore hahe, 

Thar ich a-schewele pie an crowe 

From than, the thar is i-sowe. — (Old and N. p. 55.) 

Wenestu that haueck bo the worse 

TI103 crowe bigrede him bi the mersh, 

And goth to him mid hore chirme, 

Ri3t so hi wille wit him schirme. — (Ibid. p. 304.) 

Seint Edmund & his felawe : as hit was ofte here wcne 
In a day fram Lenkenore : wende to Abyndone 
As hi come in a gret faleye : blake monekes he sej 
As hit crowen & chosen were : fleo bi their anhe^. 

(St Edmund, p. 76.) 

1 eye and he\e = eytn = eyes, 


Dede r= Deden (deeds). 

My gode deden buetli fol smalle. 

(Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 99.) 

Of myne deden fynde y non god. — (Ibid. p. 99.) 

When we bueth dempned after ur dede, 

A domesday, when ryhtes bueth tolde, 

When we shule suen thy wounde blede, 

To speke thenne we bueth unbolde. — (Ibid. p. 100.) 

lewe gode dede ich habbe ido. — (St Brandon, p. 27.) 

Ey& = E$en (eyes). 

. . . . syththe bifore here e$e 
He wende up to hevene as hi alle ise^e. 

(MS. Harl. 2277, fol. 23.) 

Gret fur heo let make bifore here aire e$e 

(Ibid. fol. 40.) 

Hyre lie^e haueth wounded me y-wisse. 

(Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 39.) 

Ne sholde he vor bothe his e^e 
So don, 3if he the bet ne se3e. 

(Owl and Nightingale, 1. 381-2, p. 14.) 

Hyre ey$m aren grete and gray ynoh, 

(Spec, of hyric Poet. p. 34.) 

Fere = Feren (companions), 

Coveytise myn keyes here 

Kithe ant onde were mi fere 

That bueth folkes fyle. — (Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 49.) 

Hi weren ure if ere. — (Moral Ode, p. 25.) 

This bosteres & this lieres as hi sitteth bi here fere 
Bringeth wimmen in sclaundre 

(Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 18 a.) 

Tuey feren he hadde 

That he with him ladde. — (King Horn, p. 92.) 


See K. Horn, p. 3. 
Herte = Herten (hearts). 

Ac hy habbeth "hire herten zuo arered ine God that hi ne prayzeth 
the wordle. — (Ayenbite, pp. 142, 152.) 

Tho they were on fote bothe, 

They foughte togedre with heorte wrothe. 

(K. Alts. p. 302.) 

Gret ioye hi hadde in here hurte that hi irn^te this iseo. 

(St Brandan, p. 7.) 
Here = Heren (hair shirts). 

He werede harde here, — (St Beket y p. 75.) 

The moder werede harde here : for oure louerdes loue 
Fram the schuldre to the hele. — (St Edmund, p. 71.) 

J is children . . . werede here here Jjrie a wyke. 

(Ibid. p. 72.) 

And euere as heo hem sende clothes : as heo hem mi^t iwynne 
Thervrith heo wolde heren sende. — (Ibid. p. 72.) 

Henne == Hennen (hens). 

The voxe hird amang al menne 
And tolde the wolf with the brode crune 
That on him send gees and henne l 
That other geet and motune. 

(Camden Society's Pol it. Songs, p. 198.) 

Honde = Honden (hands). 

We ne thore no^t this kny^tes seide : do bi the as we wolde 
For the kyng ous het the bringe him : thyn honde faste ybounde. 

He makede hem al a^en hire wille : his honden faste bynde 
& ladde him forth harde ynou3 : his honden faste bihynde. 

(St Cristopher, p. 63.) 
, . . . he het his men anon 
Seint Andreu scourgi so : tho that him oke ech bon 
And siththe bynde him honde & fet. — (St Andrew, p. 100.) 

1 Hennen, hens, occurs in the Ayenbite. 
c • 


Y-fetered were ys legges under his horse wombe ; 
Bothe with yrn ant with stele mankled were ys honde. 

(Politic. Songs 7 p. 218. 

He smot doun is heued 

. . . is honden gon he wrynge. — (Ibid. p. 193.) 

Mony frenshe wyf wryngeth hire honde. — (Ibid. p. 188.) 
Sone, y se thi bodi byswongen 
Fet ant honden thourhout stongen. — (Lyric P. p. 81.) 

. . . . atte last hi founde 

The forme of oure louerd in a Eode : ibeten and ibounde 
Inailled thurf fet and honde: as our louerd withvyf wounde (wounds) 
That hadde the gywes ido : god 3yve hem harde stounde (blows). 

(The Jews and the Cross, p. 43.) 

Lome = Lomen (tools). 

At eve-song even neh 
Ydel men 3et he seh 
Lomen habbe an honde. 

(Spec, of Lyric Poet. p. 41.) 

This other swore alle ant some 

That er wer come with lome 

That so nes hit nout ryht. — (Ibid. p. 42.) 

Mede = Meden (good deeds). 

Middel-erd for men wes made 

Un mihti aren is meste mede. — (Ibid. p. 22.) 

Schrewe = Schrewen (wretches, villains). 
Gywes hatieth oure leuedi moche : and hire suete sone also 
That is isene in manie dede : that the schrewen habbeth ido. 

(The Jews and the Cross, p. 42.) 

The king hadde al to fewe 
To^enes so vele schrewe. 

(King Horn, p. 2, E. E. Text Soc.) 

Sterre = Sterren (stars). 

Ine the Apocalyps Sent Iohan 

I-se3 ane wymman wyth sonne by-gon 


Thane mowe al onder hyre ton 

I-crouned wyth tuel(f) sterre 

Sych a leuedy nas nevere non 

Wyth thane fend to werre. — (ShoreharrCs Poems,ipA33.) 

And the cours of the steorren 

In heom he juggeth al his weorren. — (K. Alts. p. 67.) 

By the mone and by the sterren 

Hy connen ingge alle werren. — (Ibid. p. 203.) 

He loked and kneowe in the sterre 

Of alle this kynges theo grete weorre. — (Ibid. p. 113. 

Him tho3te that ther stod a treo : n*3t tofore his hedde 
That anon to the sterren tilde : and wel wide spredde. 

(St Kenelm, p. 51.) 

Hereof $e ssolle understonde that in the firmament beth 
Planetes yliche clere sterren sevene as ye seth. 

(B. of Gl. foL 39.) 

Hwat canstu wrecche thing of storre 
Bute that thu bi-haitest hi feorre. 

(Owl and Night, p. 45.) 

Thah thu iseo the steorre al swa 

Nortu the wisure neauer the mo. — (Ibid. p. 46.) 

The sonne and monne and many sterren 

By easte aryseth swythe ferren. — (Shoreham, p. 137.) 

Soule = Soulen (souls). 

Oure dettes byeth oure zennes that we habbeth ydo wexe ope 
our zaulen. — (Ayenbite, p. 88.) 

And lete us hatie the woh 

And luvie the ri^te 

And bringe ure sawle 

To heoveriche li^te. — (Relig. Songs, p. 80.) 

To there blisse us bringe god, the rixlit abuten ende 
Thenne he ure soule unbint of lieames bende. 

(Moral Ode, p. 34.) 


Alle halewene soule glade beoth : that in heuene beoth ido 
That suyeth oure loyerdes way .- and for him schadde also 
Here blod for his suete loue. — (St Dunstan, p. 39.) 
Shvldre = Shuldren (shoulders). 

A suetly suyre heo hath to holde, 
With armes, shuldre, ase mon wolde 
Ant fyngres feyre forte folde. — (Lyric Poems, p. 52.) 
A strong rop ther was siththe above : fram the schuldre ido 
To his buttok of hors her : to holde hit faste to. 

(St Edmund, p. 75.) 

Up here schuldren hi nome this holi bodi anon. 

(Si Beket, p. 125.) 
Theo delfyns woneth hire byside 
A strong best of gret pryde, 
They haveth- schuldren on the rygge, 
And eke as scharpe as sweordis egge. 

(K. Alts. p. 272.) 
SytJie = Sythen (times). 

In a wyndou ther we stod, we custe us fyfty sythe. 

(Spec, of Lyric Poet p. 91.) 
For pi. see Glossary to Ayenbite, s.v. Zy\en. 
Tunge = Tungen (tongues). 

tyme a Seint Petres dei, gret feste with here tunge 
In the see hi makede of Seint Peter, and here servise sunge. 

(St Brandan, p. 20.) 
Tongen occurs in the Ayenbite, pp. 22, 142. 
Lunge = Lungen (lungs). 

Nu schal for-rotien 
thine teoh and thi tunge 
Thi mahe and thi milte, 
thi livre and thi lunge 
And thi throte-bolle 

That thu mide sunge. — (Relig. Songs, p. 76.) 
Also in a man hys body 
Seme]) „ . . . aer in J>e longon. 

(Trevisa, 1387. Cott. MS. Tib. D vii.) 


Wede = Weden (garments). 

I-luved ich habbe goinen and gleo 
And prude and feire wede. — (Relig. Songs, p. 66.) 
Nolde ich 3even enne peni for his weden alle. — (Ibid. p. 71.) 

The kyng of Mantona and his knyghtes 
Buth y-armed redy to fyghte 
In bruny of stel and riche weden 
They doth go swithe on steden (steeds). 

(K. Alis. p. 57.) 
Wounde = Wounden (wounds). 

Wide were is wounde 

He tholede harde stounde. — (Lyric Poems, p. 97.) 

Sone y wil with the founden, 

Y deye y-wis for thine wounden. — (Ibid. p. 82.) 

His deope wounden bledeth fast. — (Ibid. p. 112.) 

The wonden bledde al longe ni3t. 

(StBtket,?. 113.) 
Ac overcome nas he no^t, thei is wounden dedliche were. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 67.) 
& he let him lede in to an yle, vor to hele is wounde, 
& deide as the beste kr^t that me wuste evere yfounde. 

(Ibid. 67 b.) 
See other example under Honde, Honden, p. xx. 
Tonge = Tongen (tongs). 

He sat longe and bitho3te him : longe hou hit were 
He bitho3te him ho hit was : he dro3 forth his tonge 
And leide in the hote fur : and spac faire longe 
Forte the tonge was al afure : and siththe stille ynou3 
The devel he hente bi the nose. — (St Dunstan, p. 36.) 
Tho come ther suche schrewen mo wel thicke bi eche side 
With tangen, and with hameres berninge meni on. 

(St Brandan, p. 22.) 
Sunne = Sunnen (sins). 

Godemen, for godes luve, 

bileveth eoure sunne. — Relig. Songs, p. 83.) 


Nai S Nai ! hi shalle wel avinde 
That hi mid longe wope mote 
Of hore sunnen bidde bote, 
Ar hi mote euer kume thare. 

(Owl and N. p. 30.) 

Wyke ■=. woken (weeks). 

Tuelmonth & elleue wyke : alle this maidenes were 
At Rome with this holi pope. — (The 11,000 Virgins, p. 68.) 
In thyssere joye we scholde by-louken 
Al hyre joy en of vourti woken 

The wyles he 3ede with chyld. 

(Slioreham, p. 121.) 

The following are additional examples of plurals in -e : — 
The water was ful of longe reede (reeds). 

(K. Alis. p. 210.) 

Ac wat etestu, that thou ne lije, 

Bute attercoppe (spiders), and fule vli$e (flies) 

An wormes. — (Owl and N., p. 21.) 

Ah thah my lif me bed at-schote, 

The 3et ich mai do gode note, 

Me mai upone smale sticke 

Me sette a wude ine the thicke, 

An swa mai mon tolli him to 

Lutle briddes and i-vo, 

An swa me mai mid me bi^ete 

Wel gode brede to his mete. 

(Owl and N. p. 56.) 

Of drawing of bowes and stikke (sticks) 
Theo eyr bycam tho trouble and thikke. 

(K. Alts. p. 168.) 

They haueth no wolle to spynne 

Heore clothis buth -of bestis skynne (skins). 

(Ibid. p. 279.) 

Ne hy ne han boures ne halles 
Ne casteles with heighe walles 


Bot in trowes and in denne (dens) 

And in roches holed withinne 

Thereinne is her wonyghing. — (K. Alls. p. 244.) 

This venym creopith under my ribbe (ribs) 
That y may no longer libbe. — (Ibid. p. 324.) 

The kynedom of heuene ten maidenes iliche is 
That is ech maner folc that ne wilneth no^t amis 
No folie of flesches wille ae thurf the ten hesie (commandments) 
Lede hys lyf in elennisse. — (Hart. 2277, fol. 11 a.) 
After numerals, in the older stages of the language, the gen. pi. 
is properly used, but in 1 4th-century English the pi. is often used. 
Of the hul of Olyvet sone hi wende adoun 
To the bor$ of Ierusalem, and bilevede in the toun 

A Jjousend stappe (paces) ther bituene 

A Jjousend stappen of such pas a myle no}t hit is. 

{Harl MS. 2277, fol. 24.) 

Of plurals in e representing older forms in -an, -«, -u (ru), numerous 
examples might be selected from the Southern literature of the earlier 
part of the 1 3th century. 



The Northern dialect during the tliirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies seems to have adopted the termination -es as the inflexion of 
the genitive singular for nouns of all genders. The Southern dia- 
lect, following the usage of the older stage of the language, formed 
the genitive of masculine and neuter nouns in ~es, but of feminine 
substantives in -e. 

Suete Ihesu, king of blysse 

Myn huerte loue, min huerte lisse 

Thou art suete myd y-wisse 

Wo is him that the shal misse. — (Lyric Poems, p. 57.) 

Suete Ihesu min huerte lyht 

Thou art day with-oute nyht. — (Ibid. p. 57.) 

For loue thou se3e thin heorte blode. — (Ibid. p. 69.) 


Thin heorte loue thou sendest us. — (Lyric Poems, p. 73.) 
The suert is at myn lierte grounde. — (Ibid. p. 81.) 

Suete Ihesu min huerte bote 
In myn huerte thou sete a rote 
Of thi loue. — (Lyric Poems, p. 57.) 

Suete Ihesu min huerte gleem 
Bryhtore then the sonne beem 
Ybore thou were in Bedlehem. — (Ibid, p. 57.) 

Suete Ihesu my soule fode 

Thin werkes bueth bo swete ant gode. — (Ibid. p. 58.) 

Ihesu, do me that for for thi name 

Me liketh to dre3e pyne ant shame, 

That is thy soule note ant frame 

Ant make myn herte milde ant tame. — (Ibid. p. 71.) 

So that Barint the olde man ri3t at his Imrte grounde 

Wei wepinge bigan to telle what he er founde. — (St Brandan, p. 2.) 

The wonde swelth an aketh 

So doth the naddre stenge. — (SJwreham, p. 104.) 

And (the devele) dede hym in an addre wede 
That best was of mest schreuhede of alle beste. 

(Ibid. p. 158.) 

At the woke end spake the ermyte 
And askede the munke of the spyryte. 

(Rob. B. Hand. Syn. p. 61.) 

Hit is gode monne i-wone 
A was from the worlde frome. 

(Or. N. p. 17, 1. 476.) 

An nime ^eme of chirche stevene 

Hu murie is the blisse of hovene. 

(Oivl and N. p. 25.) 
Heo mai hire guld at-wende 
A rihte weie thurh chirche bende. — (Ibid. p. 49.)] 


But tha^ the prest hys messe do 

Inne dedleche serine corse 

Thet sacrement man be thou syker 

For hym nys na$t worse ; For loke 

The sacrement nys na[jt] the wors 

Tha$ that Iudas hyt toke. — (Shoreharn, p. 27.) 

Thre maner peyne man fangeth 
For hys serine nede. — {Ibid. p. 37.) 

To wake 
Hy thet slepeth ine senne slep 
Amendement to niaky. — (Ibid. p. 51.) 

An hors is strengur than a mon ; 

Hit berth on rugge grete semes, 
An dra^th bivore grete temes 
An tholeth bothe 3erd and spure 
An stont i-teid at mulne dure. 

(Owl and N. p. 27.) 
The justise het his men openy thovene * (the oven's) mouth. 

(Harl. MS. 2277, foL 96 a.) 
Craddok erl of CornwaHe is avis sede 
That a senatour of rome yhote maximian 
Was of the kunde of this londe, a suithe noble man 
Vor he was Leoflines sone that Eleyne uncle was 
The gode Constantines sone moder, vor non betere nas. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 32.) 

Seynt Jame the gode man ri^t is to habbe in mone 
Seint Johnes brother the evangelist Godes aunte sone 
His moder was oure leuedi soster. 

(Harl MS. 2277, foL 97 a.) 

In godhed toke he then way 
That to helle gates lay. 

(Harrowing of Hell, p. 15.) 

1 This word is marked masculine by Boswortb. 


Thou wilt me bringe to helle deth. 

(Lyr. Poems, p. 103.) 

Tho the nabbeth god idon & therinne beth. ifunde 

He scullen falle swithe rathe in to helle grunde 

Thaer-inne he scullen wunie buten ore and ende 

]$e brecth never eft Crist helle dure to lese hem of bende. 

(Moral Ode, p. 27, 11. 90, 91 ) 

Ac helle king is oreles with tha the he mai bride. 

(Ibid. p. 29, 1. 109.) 

Sone so the queue fader Corineus was ded 
He vorsoc is owe wif and astrild made queue. 

(R. of Gl. Cott. MS. Calig. A xi. fol. 11.) 

Conan the queue cosyn he clupede tho al stille. 

(Ibid. fol. 33 b.) 

Modred is neveu 

y crouned him sulve king thoru the queue rede 

(R. of Gl. fol. 61 a.) 

This wes on oure levedy even. 

(Polit. Songs, p. 219.) 

This wunne weole (delight of joy) y wole for gon 
Ant wyht in wode be Heme. — (Lyr. Poems, p. 44.) 

Fram dethe to lyve he aros thurf oure levedi lore. 1 

(Saints, p. 59.) 
The gode for-horede the fend 

Wyth hys blaundynge stevene (with the voice of his flattery). 

(Shoreham, p. 59.) 

Ac Edward the other adde thre children bi is wive 
An sone that het Edward & do^tren also tueye 
Margarete. & Cristine that gode wimmen were beye 
This gode children a3te be evermore in munde 
Yor Engelond, 3if hii nere, were ^ut out of kunde, 
As ^e mowe ihure her afterward in king Henries lif 

1 Chaucer has " our lady veyl." See Prologue and Canterbury Tales, I. 695. 


How Engelond com to kunde o,^en thoru the gode quene Mold iwis 
That thes Margarete dorter was, Mold the gode quene. 

(R.ofGl. fol. 91 b.) 
He fond Horn in arme 
On Rymenhilde barme. 

(K. Horn, 1. 706, E. E. T. Soc.) 
The word bigan to springe 
Of Rymenhilde weddinge. — (Ibid. 1. 1018.) 

He dude Horn inn late 
Ki3t at halle gate.— (Ibid. L 1074.) 
A. Sax. ceddre, a vein. 1 

Ich haue the leten eddre blod. 
(Of the vox and of the wolf a fable. Relig. Antiq. p. 272.) 

Leove moder, quath Lucie : if thu leovest in holi churche 
And the wordes of the godspel : & wold ther-after wurche 
Thurf tuochinge of Seint Agace Tumbe : thu wost hoi anon. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 102, 1. 33.) 

Seint Lucie com 
To Seinte Agace holie Tumbe & hire moder with hire nom. 

(Ibid. p. 102, 1. 36.) 
To Seinte Lucie norici he wende : and eschte hire faste 
What Lucie were so onbicome hire god awei to caste. 

(Ibid. p. 103, 1. 59.) 
& Constantin Eleyne son $e witeth wel Eome nom 
& sut^t^e Maximan that of hor beyre blod ich com. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 60 a.) 

Richard due of Nbrmandie Emme brother the quene 
Adde an sone that het Roberd. — (Ibid. 99 a.) 

A (on) Seinte Marie dai in the leynte biheveded [were] bothe ifere. 

(Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 98 b.) 
Crist ycleped heuene lomb com to saynt Ion. — (Relig. Antiq. p. 87.) 

1 Clene orn out the veyne blod.— (Harl MS. 2277, fol. 14 a.) 


Ihesu Crist heouene king 
3ef us alle god endyng 
That bone biddeth the.— (Lyr. P., p. 59.) 
Ihesu for thi muchele myht 
Thou graunte us alle heuene lyht. — (Ibid. p. 60.) 
Helpe me heuene quene, for thyn ever ycham. — {Ibid. p. 93.) 
Suete Ihesu of Nazareth 
Thou do us heuene mede. — (Ibid. p. 112.) 
See Lives of Saints, p. 103, 1. 67 ; p. 107, 1. 202. 


No trace of the Genitive plural in -ene, -en (A. -Sax. ena), is to 
be found in the Ormulum, the Bestiary, or Genesis and Exodus, 
although examples of this inflexion are common enough in La^amon, 
Seinte Marherete, and other Southern writers of the Semi-Saxon 
period. It is entirely absent form any pure specimen of the Northum- 
brian dialect of the 14th century, but is frequently employed by 
Southern writers as late as a.d. 1387. 

Apostlene veet = feet of the apostles. 

Tho hym with a touwayle-schete Ihesu 
After soper by-gerte 

And water inta bacyn 

Myd a wel mylde herte, 
And wesschte 

Al his apostlene veet 

Thos ordre forthe he lesschte. — (Shoreham, p. 51.) 

Here god hi solde stille 

And to thapostlen fet hit caste. 

(Harl MS. 2277, fol. 25 l.) 
Da$en ende = end of fourty days. 

At fourty da$en ende. — (Shoreham, p. 126.) 
Deovlene fere = the companion of devils. 

Ich wisse men mid mine songe, 

That hi ne sunegi nowiht longe ; 


I bidde horn that heo i-swike 
That heom-seolve ne bi-swicke : 
For "betere is that heo wepen here 
Than elles-hwar to beon deovlene fere. 

(Owl $ N. p. 32.) 
Develen prynces = princes of devils. 

Seue develen prynces beth. — (Shoreham, p. 109.) 

Englene songs = songs of angels. 

Go we alle thene wei . for he us wulle bringe 
Mid tho faire fewe men . beforen heuene kinge 
Ther is aire meruthe mest . mid englene songe. 

(Moral Ode, p. 33, 1 177.) 

E$ene wepynge = weeping of the eyes. 

Therfore thy schrifte man schel be wythoute stoneynge, 

Myd herte I03, and, $ef thou my3t, 

Myd thyn e^ene wepynge. — (Shoreham, p. 35.) 

Feenden mestrye = power of the fiends ; fenden jewyse = judg- 
ment of fiends (devils). 

Schelde ous wanne we deade beth 

Fram alle feenden mestrye. — (Ibid. p. 84.) 

I-schelde ous wanne we dede beth, 
Fram alle fendene jewyse. — (Ibid. p. 85.) 

Fowelen Parays = Parish of Fowls. 

Ther is oure gode procuratour that moche god ous haveth ido 

In the Fowelen Parays and ine the Lond of Schep also. 

(St. Brandan, pp. 16, 17, 11. 353, 365, 379.) 

Bestyn kyng = king of beasts. 1 

That bestyn kyng 
Hys kynde may he noght forgo. — (Octavian, p. 177.) 

Doggen = of dogs. 

A dosyn of doggen 

JSTe myhte hire drawe. — (Polit. Songs, p. 239.) 

* Trevisa (1387) has bestone (or hestmn) kynde.— (Cott. MS. Vesp. J> vii, fol. 52 &.} 


Gromene = cf grooms (men). 

Gobelyn made is gerner 

Of gromene maw. — {Polit. Songs, p. 238.) 

Jewene J awe =. law of the Jews. 

To pe jewene lawe. — (Cott. Vesp., D. vii, fol. 148 b.) 

Gywene wille =. will of the Jews. 

Pilatus thurf the gywene wille : him demde therto. 

{Life of Pilate, p. 114, 1. 103.) 

Gyivene falsliede =^falsehood of the Jews. 
Whan thou undelete, quath themperour : the gywene falshede 
Whi naddestou ispeke ther a}e : and desturbed the lithere dede. 

{Life of Pilate, p. 116, 1. 200.) 

Eeg regum, that is hyngene kyng. — {Cott. Vesp., D. vii, fol. 282 b.) 

Prophetene = of the prophets. 

The man that healdeth thys two 

Of charyte the heastes 

Al he folueth the lawe of gode 

And prophetene gestes. — {Shoreham, p. 92.) 

Alle soulen day = Day of All Souls or All Souls' Day. 
& eke quath thangel that thou telle the pope her-of sone 
That me holde alle soulen day as ri3t is to done 
& as wide as holi churche that he makie his heste 
The morwe after alle halewen day * that me holde thulke feste 
That ech man ententifliche as forth as he may 
For alle the soulen in purgatorie bidde thulke day. 

{Harl MS. 2277, fol. 145 a.) 
Alle soulen day an urthe ri^t is to holde he3e. — {Ibid.) 
Souei^t he bile vede ther : for-to alle Soulen day, — {St Beket, p. 58.) 

Soulen ■=. Of Soul. 
Ther cometh two maner Soulen. — {Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 131.) 

1 Alle Halewen day = All Hallows' Day = All Saints' Day. (See Life of St 
Dunstan, p. 39, 1. 181, where phrase Alle halewene soule glad beoth = all the souls 
of the saints are joyful.) 


Spousebrechene sawe = words of adulterers. 

These spousebrechen sawe. — (Shoreham, p. 62.) 
Tren rynde = The bark of trees. 

Schipes they haven y-hote pyrates 
In the water is heore gates : 
Whan hit is ebbe, up they buth 
Whan hit is flod, y-scheot they beoth 
Heo buth ymad of oysers y fynde 
And y-bounde al with tren rynde. 

{King Alls. p. 255, 1. 6187.) 
Wermene mete = Meat of worms. 
Huet is man bot velthe and a zeehvol of donge, wermene mete. 

(Ayenbite, p. 216.) 
Thornene croune = Crown of thorns. 
Hy to-steke hys swete hefed 
Wyth one thornene coroune. — (Skoreham, p. 85.) 
See also Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 13 b. 

Occasionally we find -e as well as -ene, as the sign of the genitive 
plural, as in the following examples : 

Bole huden = Hides of bulls. 

Hi leten hem di3te a gret schip, and above it al bi-caste 
With bole huden stronge ynou ynailed (therto faste). 

(St Brandan, p. 5.) 
Engle § manne blisse = Bliss of angels and men. 

He (God) one mai & seal beo engle & manne blisse. 

(Moral Ode, p. 33, 1. 189.) 
Alle halewe = Of all Saints. 

a church he let rere 

Of oure loverd & alle halewe : in thulke place there 

Six hondred 3er & fyve : oure loverd ther bifore 

Of Marie his swete moder : an urthe were ibore 

The church that was of oure levedi & of alle haleioen ifonde 

Stont 3ut & is icleped Marie la rounde. 

(Harl MS. 2277, fol. 144.) 


Aire devele wei = The way of all Devils. 

& this tuei enehantours to grounde hem overcome t 
& dryve hem an aire devele wey. 

(Karl. MS. 2277, fol. 121 a.) 

hi also 

Schulle gon an aire devele wei bote god nyme 3eme ther to. 

(Ibid. fol. 145 b.) 
Vyf myle wei = The way of five miles. 

In pais hi wende forth here wey : & the bodi with hem toke 

Vyf myle wei hi were awend : er thothere awoke. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 56.) 

Twenty myle vieyes = The ways of twenty miles. 

Twenty myle weyes and mo 

No myght men astryde go 

Bote he step ondede men, 

In dale, in downe, in wode, in fen. 

(K. Alls. p. 183, 1. 4446.) 
Manne lif=z life of men. 

Alle manne lif =z the live of all men 

We scullen aire manne l lif icnawe ther also ure owe. 

(Moral Ode, p. 27, 1. 82.) 
Alle cliilde = of all children. 
The eldeste soster of hem j>reo oure levedi swete & mylde 
Bar oure loverd Ihesu Crist best of alle ehilde. 

(Harl. MS. 2211, fol. 37 a.) 
Alle thing e = of all things. 

Fairest of alle thing e. — (Ibid. fol. 38 a.) 

(See Moral Ode, p. 33, 1. 177.) 

Aire heme = of all children. 

Marie cleophee 

Hadde tuei holie sones bi hire loverd Zebedee 

Seint Jame the holi man & seint Johan the wangelist 

That was aire berne best mid our loverd Ihesu Crist. 

(Harl. MS. 2277, fol. 35 b.) 

1 Manne as the gen. pi. is used by Trevisa (a.d. 1387) in Cott. MS. Yesp. D 
vii, fol. 286 a. 


v. Traces of the genitive singular nouns in -e are not very 
common, and they are remnants either of the n declension or of 
that class of masculines in -u or -o, which made the genitive singular 
in -a. 

examples : 

" How he lepte with myght and mayne 
on the stede back." 

(Rom. of Octavian, p. 217, 1. 1446.) 

In is wode rage he wende 
Vor to awrekc l is uncle deth. 

(R. of Gl. Cott. MS. Calig. A xi, fol. 65 a.) 

Bidde we seinte Marie 

For hire milde mode, 

For the teres that heo wep 

For hire so ne blod. — (Rellg. Poems, p. 84.) 

Ich cristni the in the vader name 
And sone, and Holy Ghostes. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 10.) 

Fowel for thi false sawe 

For beddi (I forbid) the this wode schawe ; 

Thou fare into the filde. — (Relig. Antiq. p. 245.) 

Whil y wes a clerc in scole, wel muchel y couthe of lore, 

Ych haue tholed for thy love woundes fele sore ; 

Fer from horn ant eke from men, under the wode gore. 

(Lyr. Poems, p. 91.) 
He let his schup stonde 
And ^ede to londe ; 
His folc he dude abide 
Under wude side. 

(A. Horn, p. 29, 1. 1024, E. E. T. S.) 

1 Marsh treats tmcle (and quene) as following under the same rule as brother, 
moder, dorter, which dropped the genitive inflexion in A.-Saxon writers. 




Athulf heo sede be blithe 

And to Horn thou go wel swithe 

He is under wude bo^e 

And with him kni^tes ino3e. — (Ibid. p. 35, 1. 1227.) 


The adjective in the Southern dialects retains most of the older 
inflexions. In the Northern dialects the distinction between the 
definite and indefinite forms of the adjective is not preserved, and 
the final -e in the plural is for the most part disregarded. 


God (good), the gode (the good). 



Masc, Fern. Neat. 


gode gode gode 


goden \ 
gode ) 


J of all genders 
gode ) 


godene ) 

\ seldom 
gode ) 


goden | 
gode ) 


goden ) 
gode ) 


g ° / n 1 s ode S ode 

gode ) 


goden ) 
gode J 







Masc. Fern. Nmt. 


god god god 

Nom. & Ace. gode 


godes 1 godre 2 godes 


godre 2 


j _ [ godre 2 gode 
( goden ; 


( gode 
( goden 


godne gode god 

1 The genitive form of the indefinite adjective is more often used in indefinite 
and demonstrative words than in other adjectives. 
3 Seldom used. 


He (God) wythstent the prouden. — (Shoreham, p. 107.) 

And f e children ham. lovie togidere and beuly f e ue^rede of f e 
greaten. — (Ayenbite, p. 139.) 

Yor feme dyaf hi clepief lyf and fane dyaf pet is to f e guoden 
beginnynge of Hue hi hit clepiej) fan ende. — (Ibid. p. 72.) 

Alsuo tekf jje writinge f et me ssel zeche red ate yealden and 
na^t mid f e yonge, f e ne byef na3t yproued in nyedes ac mid fe 
yealde f et habbef yzo3e and yproued f e f inges, f et is f et wyt and 
f et red. Vor fan f et Eoboam, Salomounes zone, vorlet fane red 
of f e yealden guode men, vor fane red of yonge he vorleas f e 
gratteste del of his kingdome. — (Ibid. p. 184.) 

For 3yf thy wyl rejoth more 
In enyes Imnnes thynges 

Bote yn God .... thou ne anourest God ary^t. 

(Shoreham, p. 95.) 
Vuolf quad the vox him tho 
Al that thou havest her bifore ido, 
In thouht, in speche, and in dede, 
In euche other es kunnes quede 
Ich the for3eve at thisse nede. 

(Relig. Antiq. p. 277.) 

Herbi f ou mi^te wel understonde, 
J)at on his areu, fat of er schonde, 
To stele to o\ eres mannes bedde. — (Owl $ N. p. 51.) 

Bysshopes and barounes to the kynges pes, 
Ase men that weren fals, fykel and les, 
Othes hue him sworen in stude ther he wes, 
To buen him hold ant trewe for alles cunnes res. 

(Camden Society's Polit. Songs, p. 214.) 

And what may f e dyches be 

But hire f olemode poverte 

J)at nones kunnes assaylyng 

ISTe may derve f e tour for no f ing. 

(Castel of Love, 1. 855.) 


Ures formes faderes gult we abigget alle. — (Moral Ode, p. 28.) 

pes worlde us wule fordrenclie 
Mest alle men "he 3ive$ drinke of one deofles scenche 
He sceal him cunne sculde wel, 3if he him nele screnche 
Mid ealmihties godes luve ute pe us biwerien 
Wid (from) pes wrecches worldes luue, pat he ne mawe us derien. 

(Ibid, p. 32.) 

Elche rune he ihurd & he wot alle dede 

He pur$-sih$ elches mannes pane pat seal us to rede. 

(Ibid. p. 25.) 

He is elches godes ful. — (Ibid. p. 33.) 

Ther com to ous a 3img man suythe fair and hende, 
He welcomede ous everechon mildeliche and suete 
And nemnede evereches owe name and wel myldeliche ous gan grete. 

(St Brandan, p. 3.) 

The fox so godne ne can (knows) nanne 
The (though) he kunne so vele wrenche. 

Owl$N. p. 28.) 

Ieh wot hwo schal beon anhonge, 

Other ellesfulne deth afonge. — (Ibid. p. 41.) 

And hit is grat wonder thet hi loketh zuich ane fieblene castel as 
hare fyeble bodye aye zuych ane strangne vend ase is the dyeuel of 
helle. — (Ayenbite, p. 227.) 

Yor alsuo ase the angles of heuene habbeth grat glednesse of ane 
zene3ere huanne he him repenteth and deth penonce vor his zennes, 
alsuo the dyevelen ham gledieth huanne hi mo3e overcome and do 
valle into zenne ane guodne man ; and the more thet he is of grat 
stat and the parfiter, the more heth he the gratter glednesse huanne 
he him may gyly, ase the vissere heth more blisse vor to nime ane 
gratne visse thane ane littlene. — (Ibid. p. 238.) 

Non yzi} ane yongne boryeis and ane newene \mi$k. Mochel 
habbeth thos of vele tho3tes, newe, diverses, and wylvolle. — (Ibid. 
p. 161.) 


Of alle thise yefthes (of kende, of hap, and of grace) we ssel thonki 
god and servi vor thet hi cometh alle of him. Titles the proude 
hise zelth to the dyevele vor thane valsne peny of ydele blisse. 

(Ayenbite, p. 24.) 

tha3 me godne sckele hem telle, 

IS T au}t hyt ne ganth (avails). 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 135.) 

I wylle me ssrive and ich wille zigge alle mine zennes aye me, 
na^t of othren, ne ayens othren as doth the ypocrites. — (Ayenbite, p. 

Efterward the ssrifte ssel by yhol na^t to-deld ine vele ssriveres. 
Vor me ssel zigge al to onen, na$t o del to onen and thet other del to 
anothren, vor god ne taketh none hede of zuiche tales. — (Ibid. p. 175.) 

Hit is more zenne in one stede thane ine anothren. — (Ibid.) 

Thanne ssel he verst yzy the zeue dyadliche zennes, of huyehen 
we habbeth above yspeke, and yholliche of eehen him ssrive be than 
thet he him yvelth gelty, no-thing to hele, nothing wyth-zigge, na3t 
him to defendi ne nenne otkrenne wray. — (Ibid. p. 175.) 

Hy ne thencheth ne stndieth bote ham zelve to avonci and othren 
to harmi. Thet wyt is the develes wyt ase zayth Saint Jacob, thet 
eche daye him vondeth othren to harmy. — (Ibid. p. 82.) 

For hyre poer nys noujt y-lessed 
Ac toup alle othren hys y-blessed. 

(Shoreham, p. 127.) 

To nonen. — (Ayenbite, p. 121.) To eehen. — (Ibid. p. 122.) 

To alien. — (Ibid. p. 145.) Ee enne (by one). — (Ibid. p. 129.) 

He wile deme evrinne be his dedes. — (Ibid. p. 134.) 
In the herte of evrichen. — (Ibid. p. 146.) 

ii. Inflected Article (Definite). 

In the Ormulum the definite article is uninflected, the only 
remnant of the older inflexions being the phrase (still retained at the 



present day) ' for than anes ' = for the nonce. So, too, in the North- 
ern dialect during the E. Eng. period the article remains the same 
for all genders and cases — but not in the Southern dialect, in which 
the masculine, feminine, and neuter forms, and some case endings, were 
preserved as late as the middle of the fourteenth century, if not much 

In the Northern dialect that is the demonstrative adjective ; in 
the Southern it is the neuter of the definite article. 



Nom. f e, J Jjeo, 
fare, fere, 
far, f er, 
Dat. fan, fare, fere, 

Ace. {' ) bo. 
* Jjene, ( * 

v fen, 

Gen. fes, 1 


\ f et. 

fes. 1 
fan. 1 


Nom. and Ace. f o, f eo, fa. 


/ fan. 
( fane. 

examples : 

Zueche tyeares drivef f ane dyevel uram f e herte as f et weter 
cachchef pane hond out of f e kechene. — (Ayenbite, p. 171.) 

be fise virtue (pacience) f e guode overcomef alle 

his vyendes, f ane dyevel, pe wordle and pet vless. — (Ibid. p. 167.) 

Yor huanne man him berf hate to f e torment and f e zaule and 
f et bodi, zuo f et f e man ne may slepe ne non rest habbe, of er huyl 
him benimf f ane mete and pane drinke and makef him valle ine ane 
fevre ofer ine zuiche zor^e fet he nimf pane dyaf. — (Ibid. p. 31.) 

f os he lyest al his time and pe ni^t and pane day. — (Ibid. p. 52.) 

Loke fet f ou ha^i pane day of f e Sabat. — (Ibid. p. 7.) 

1 These forms are seldom used after 1300. 


serve June sseppere pet him restede pane zevende 

day of workes pet lie hedde ymad ine pe zix dayes bevore. 

(Ibid. p. 4.) 
Go we pene narewe wei & pene wei grene. 

(Moral Ode, p. 32.) 

Ei3t so hit farjj bi pan ungode 

Jjat no3t ne sup to none gode, 

And is so ful of uvele wrenche, 

ftat him ne mai no man at-prenche, 

And can wei pane pursstere wai 

And pane bri^te wei lat awai. — (Owl § N. p. 9.) 

Tho hit was Eve thane Sonedai the deuelen come blaste. 

(St Brandan, p. 27.) 

The thrid dai than amorow grisful hit sal be to loke. 

(Early Eng. Poems, p. 9.) 

And so he lay al thulke tyme : and also thane friday. 
He let clipie the Saterday the freres bifore him alle 
And bed alle godne day. — (Lives of Saints, p. 39, 1. 198.) 
, . . . Ofte heo gaf hem mede 
For to faste thane fridai : to watere and to brede. 

(Ibid. p. 71.) 

And God zayp ine his spelle pet huo pet zene3ep aye pane holy 
gost he ne ssel nevre habbe merci ine pise wordle ne ine pe opre. 

(Ayenbite, p. 28.) 

To quendride his lipere soster anon he gan wende 
And tolde here al pe lipere cas : fram bigynninge to pan ende. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 53, 1. 198.) 

He com of pan adel eye. — Owl § N. p. 5, 1. 133.) 

Also hit is bi pan ungode 

j)at is icumen of fule brode. — (Ibid. p. 5, L 129.) 

Ine p o manere and ine po vorbisne hep pe pri states of Godes 
zone ine erpe, huiche pe holy gost let and conduep, aze zayp Sainte 
Tmel—(Ayetibite 9 p. 122.) 


Seynt Jame seythe that oreyson 

Of ther holy byleve 

Of hiis siknesse helthe wynthe, 

That no fend schal reve the helj?e. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 41.) 

Ich am that ly3t 

Of alle ther wordle rounde aboute. 

(Ibid. p. 49.) 

. . . ther mot after spousynge 
Be ry3t asent of bothe, 
Of man and of ther wymman eke. — (Ibid. p. 57.) 

byternesse of mode 

That hiis thare saule galle. — (Ibid. p. 92.) 

Therthe schok, the sonne dym bycom 
In thare tyde. — (Ibid. p. 86.) 

Therfore nas helle nau^t yschet, 

Ke develyn therinne nar^t ydut, 

Ine thare crybbe. — (Ibid. p. 157.) 

\)o stod on old stoc J?ar beside, 

par \o nle song hire tide, 

And was mid ivi al bi growd ; 

Hit was jtare hule earding-stowe. — (Owl fy N. p. 2.) 

J?e ni3tingale hi ise^, 

And Jmjte wel wl of \are hale. — (Ibid. p. 231.) 

Wostu to fan man was ibore ? 

To \are blisse of hovene riche. — (Ibid. p. 25.) 

J)q wranne, for heo cujje singe, 
War com in fare more3eiing 
To helpe \are ni3tegale. — (Ibid. p. 59.) 
Of fisse riche (heaven) we fenchet oft 
& of \ere (helle) to selde. — (Moral Ode, p. 32.) 


To pere blisse us bringe god. p e rixlet abuten ende. 

(Moral Ode, p. 34.) 

In Shoreham's poems we have an example of the pi. dative pane. 

For ase wymman com of the ryb 
Of the mannes ry3t syde, 
So holyche spouse of God 
Sprange of thane wonden wyde. 

(Shoreham, p. 80.) 

in. Many of the older forms of this, wholly unknown in the 
Northern dialect, are preserved in the Southern until a very late 
period. It appears to have been declined as follows. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

( peos, pos, \ 
Norn. pes, 1 pis, \ pmSjl jj»s. 

Gen. pises, pisse, pises, 


Dat. T"' > bisse, bise. 

pisen, ) * ' r 

pisne, pesne, ) 

Ace. * J pisse, bis. 

perne/ 2 j y ' y 

]N"om. peos, pes, pos, pis, pise. 

Gen. pise, pisse. 
Dat. pise, pisen. 

Ace. pes, pise. 

j)es bo3 hep monie tuygges. — (Ayenblte, p. 41.) 

& wipynne a lytel stounde pes man pat semede so colde & a fyle 
mesel werp whyt & fayr & sty} up in to pe aer. 

(Cotton MS. Vesp. D mi, fol. 145 a.) 
pes William regnede pryttene 3er a monp lasse. 

(Ibid. fol. 145 a.) 
j)es Odo wastede & destruyede pe kyng hys rentes and escheytes. 

J)es Edward was veyr of body. — (Ibid. fol. 291 b.) 

j)es (= this man, i.e. Lotharius) was a lettrede man. 

(Ibid. fol. 280 b.) 

1 Retained as late as 1387. 2 Retained as late as 1340. 


In hys vurde 3er J?es (Honorius) changede 
pe copes of freres carmes. 

{Cotton MS. Vesp. D vii, fol. 288 b.) 

J?es seyde fat he was Ihesus Crist. — (Ibid. fol. 283 b.) 

peos Corsa hadde a bole. — (Ibid. fol. 28 b.) 

pues mayde was y wedded to Bobert de Brui}. — (Ibid. fol. 284.) 

He lay by pues mayde. — (Ibid. fol. 272 a.) 

Jpareuore pe kyng caste to wedde pues wyncbe. — (Ibid.) 

peos (these) Jire lawes. — (Ibid. fol. 45.) 

])ues (these) uorsede men .... chese pe uorsede Edward pe 
eldere to be here lord.— (Ibid. fol. 289 b.) 

pues voure breddes (birds) quaf pe kyng bej> my voure sones. 

(Ibid. 270 b.) 

On helle is unger & Jjerst, vuele tuo ifere 

pos pine poliede po pe were mete nithinges here. 

(Moral Ode, p. 29.) 

Sculde him elc man pe wile he mai of pos helle pine. — (Ibid, p, 31.) 

peos hule abod fort (until) hit was eve. — (Owl § N. p. 2.) 

Ac lete we awei pos cheste. — (Ibid. p. 7.) 

Heo bigan to sike sore : and in tho3te stod 

Alias heo seide that ich scholde thisne day evere abide. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 51.) 

Wend he seide whan thu horn comest to Edward 30iire kyng 
And sai him that he for was love he 3af thisne ring 
Him sende here his ring a3en and thonkede him also. 

(Ibid. p. 106.) 

Mid graate wille Ich habbe perne paske ywylned, J?et is to zigge 
perne dyaj?, pise 1 ssame, pise wendinge. — (Ayenbite, p. 133.) 

perne = pesne, is peculiar to the Kentish dialect, and occurs in the 
poems of Shoreham. 2 

1 \>ise shows that ssame and wendinge are feminine nouns. 

2 For thou areredst therne storm. — {Shoreham, p. 161.) 


Of \isen we habbej) vayre vorbysne. — (Ayenbite, p. 218.) 

In pise bene (fern.) j?et we do J) to gode we bezechep ane yefj?e of 
J?e holy gost. — (Ibid. p. 89.) 

Thissere (gen. and dat. sing, fern.), A.S. \issere ; Thissere (gen. 
and dat. pi.), A.S. tyssera occur in Shoreham's poems. 

To thyssere joy en (joys) scholle be y-leyd (placed) alle the 
joy en that moje (may) be yseyd (named). — (Shoreham, p. 126.) 

To thyssere joye longye (belong) scholle alle the joyen that 
hyre (to her) foUe (may befall) of hyre chylde God.— (Ibid. p. 123. ! ) 

6. The plural of Adjectives (mostly of Eomance origin) in -es, as 
wateres principales, is unknown to the Northern dialect. 

iv. Degrees of Comparison. 

Adjectives ending in -lich (sing.), -liche (pi.), often form the com- 
parative in -luker or -loiter (Kentish -laker). This inflexion is 
unknown in the Northern dialect, in which the affix -lich becomes -lik 
(-like) -ly, and the distinctions between the singular and plural forms, 
as well as that between the adjective in -lich and the adverbial in 
-liche, are lost sight of. 

The affix -lich has not given us the more modern -ly. It is pro- 
bable that this latter form has arisen from -Ug (thus barley, originally 
berlic, is corrupted into berlig and berley). 

Traces of this corruption occur in the Ormulum, in which we meet 
with the double endings of adjectives and adverbs in -like and -liy 

v. Numerals* 

Some Southern numerals (ordinals) end in -the, as seofethe (sevethe), 
seventh ; eiytethe, eighth ; neo^ethe (nithe), ninth ; tethe (tethe), 
tenth. 2 

The corresponding Northern numerals end in -nde, -nd, as sevend, 
achtande, neghend, tend, and are doubtless of Danish origin. 

The Kentish dialect, like the old Frisian, prefers -nde to -the. 

1 See pp. 53, 96, 121, 127 of Shoreham's poems. 
3 The forms in -nth are Midland varieties. 



1. Dropping of the final -n. 

Seoven (seven), neo^en (nine), in the Southern dialect, frequently 
drop the final -n, as seove (sove) ; neo^e, ne$Q. 

vi. Adjectives peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

\ilk, Ipilke, \ulk, pulke (older forms, pellich, ]>elliche) = this, 
these, such-like, are not employed by Northern writers. They are 
still retained in the modern provincial dialect under the form thick, 
thuck, thicky. 

Bather, bathers (of both), same, twin (two), thrin (three), 
slike, silk, sic (such), fir, \er, \ere (these), are unknown to Southern 


Our pronouns are substantially Northern ones. The Southern 
dialect had many pronominal forms which never occur in any 
Northern writer. 

The following table exhibits most of the Southern forms, in use 
during the xiiith and xivth centuries : — 

i. The personal pronouns are : Ich (I), \u, \ou (thou), he (he), 
heo (she), hit (it). 





Ich, uch, 

pu, pou. 





min, mi, 

fin, 1 pi. 



ure, ur. 


| me, 



( uric, \ 

\ hunke, ) 

ous, us. 


get, git, 

3 e , ye- 


( gunker, 
I inker, 

( eower, 

( 3ure, youre. 



f eow, ow, ou 
I 30U, yow. 



1 min and ]>in are used before words beginning with a vowel \ mi and \>i before 
a consonant. They follow the declension of the adjective, making in the oblique 
cases mine, \>inej minen, pinen, &c. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 
heo, -, 





Nom. ] ha, -< 
' he, 


-hue, -. 

Gen. his, hire, his. 

Dat. him, hire, him. 

. ( hine, ( _ . ' ) hit. 

Ace. { t . < hi, J . 

i 11 ™' (his, r- 

Nom. hi, hii, heo, hue. 

/ hire, here, heore, 
( huere, hor. 
Dat. heom, huem, hem, horn. 

Ace. hi, his, hise. 

Ich 1 or Uch is still retained in the modern Southern dialects 
under the forms Uch and utchy, and occasionally contracted into ch 
(as cham = I am, chell, chill, I will). Eobert of Gloucester fre- 
quently writes Icholle = jTc7£ woZZe, I will ; Jc/^ = Ich wot, I know. 
/c, 1 Ik, I, 2 are corresponding Northern forms. 

I occasionally occurs in the Southern dialect: (1.) before verbs 
commencing with a dental or nasal, as i" nam, I am not ; I not, I 
know not ; (2.) after verbs, as mosti, I must ; wolly, I will. 

Thritti wynter and thridde half yer 
Havy woned in londe her. 

(Harrowing of Hell, p. 15.) 

Thou miht wyten in thy lay 

That mine wolly have away. — (Ibid.) 

Thah men to me han onde, 

To love nuly noht wonde 

Ne lete for non of tho. — (Lyric Poems, p. 29.) 

Yhere thou me nou, hendest in helde 

Navy the none harmes to he the. — (Ibid. p. 37.) 

1 In the earlier periods of the language, Ic is the ordinary form. 

* Many editors have incorrectly printed ic instead of ich for the contraction I c . 


Mosti ryden by Rybbesdale 
Wilde wymmen forte wale. 

(Lyric Poems, p. 33.) 

Ne sixtu wel icham aliue, icliolle segge hou it is. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 51 a.) 

Hii verde idiot as gydie men mid wan no red nas. — (Ibid.) 

Icholle sulle min (lif) dere ynou. — (Ibid. fol. 67 b.) 

Thulke Woden adde a wyf that ycluped was Dame Frye 
A Latin Dame Venus as ichabbe ysed nou tuye. 

(Ibid. fol. 69 a.) 

An bendy bap ichabbe y-bent 
Ichot from heuene it is me sent. 

(Lyric Poems, p. 28.) 
See Lyric Poems, p. 94. 

Vor icham mid min fon in ecbe balf biset 

& 3 if ichom may ouercome. tboru 30U the bet 

Icb 30U wolle mid me at-bolde and in gret ricbesse 30U do. 

(P. of Gl fol. 39.) 
For wolny, nidni, bi sul fie and that in-to the pine of helle. 

(Early Eng. Poems, p. 12.) 

11. A or Ha = He. 

This form is very common in aU the Southern dialects, but never 
occurs in any Northern writer. It is still preserved in the modern 
provincial dialects of the South of England. 

Moi belovad be loik a raw or a yoong hart : Zee ! a? stand' th 
behind our wall a' look'th voath at th' winders, zhowing hiszel droo 
th' lattice. — (Song of Solomon, Somersetshire version.) 

Tha voice uv ma beluvid ! behold ha com'th laipin apin tha 
mowntins. — (Song of Solomon, Devonshire version.) 

Every body kneows owld Barnzo, as wears his yead o' one zide. 
One night a was coming whoame vrom market, and veil off's hos into 
the road, a was zo drunk. — (Akermaris Wiltshire Tales.) 


Trevisa uses a as an indefinite of the 3rd pers. pro. = he, she, 
it, they. 

Hy (they) habbef no wodes f erf ore a make]? ham fuyr of torues. 

(Cott MS, Vesp. D vii, fol. 28.) 

J)ar buf also cicade bryddes jjat synggef atte beste & habbef a 
pipe opon onder Jo f rote & synggej) betre whane f e heued is ofFe fan 
whyle hyt ys on & betre whanne a be]) deed fan whyle pay buf 
alyve.—(Ibid. fol. 29 b.) 

He ran home to uore & prayede hys wyf fat hue wolde helpe for to 
saue hym fat as moche as hue my^te hue scholde make here self uoul, 
bote a dude fe contrary, <fcc. — (Ibid. foL 222.) 

Yn f is ylond growef a ston fat hatte gagates ; . . . . a ys ablak 

as gemmes buf a brennef yn water, &c. — (Trevisa, quoted in 

Morris' Specimens of Early English, p. 334.) 

Also f er ys yn f e cop of an hul a bury el ; everych man fat comef 
& metef fat buriel a schal fynde hyt evene ry$t of hys onne meete & 
$ef a pylgrym of er eny wery man kneolef f erto, anon a schal be al 
fersch & of werynes schal he feele non nuy. — (Ibid. p. 337.) 

This pronoun is used by Robert of Gloucester and Shoreham. 
King Arthure a^en f e brest is felawe verst ahitte, 
A3en f e brust fat a vul & ne mi^te no leng sitte. 

(R. of GL 9 Cott. MS., Crilig. A xi, fol. 57 b.) 

Ac a deythe (dies) and he not (knows not) wanne (when). 

(Shoreham? s Poems, p. 3.) 

In the foreheved the crouche a set (setteth). — (Ibid. p. 15.) 

Ha (Crist) grade 'hely' to hys fader.— (Ibid. p. 86.) 

Dan Michael uses only the older form Ha * = he. 

Ha beat (beats) and smit and (both) wyf and children ase ha 
were out of his wytte. — (Ayenbite, p. 30.) 

1. Hine (ace), Him. 
In the Southern dialect hine is found as late as 1340. It still 

1 In the older stage of the language, called Semi-Saxon, ha s she and they. 


exists in the modern provincial dialects of the South of England 
under the forms -en or -un. No trace of this accusative is to be found 
in any Northern writers ; nor is it used in the Ormulum, one of the 
earliest of Midland productions, where its place is supplied by the 
dative him. 


A kni3t wyth one scharpe spere 

Stang hyne i the ry^t syde. — (Shoreham's Poems, p. 86.) 

j)e dyevel ferto proprelich uonde]? pane man : J?et he hine my3te 
wyjjdra^e uram Je loue of God. — (Ayenbite, p. 116.) 

j)e wrechche ne J?engJ? of him ]?et hine halt. — {Ibid. p. 128.) 

Third Personal Pronoun, Feminine. 

The Southern personal pronoun of the 3rd person is Heo, which 
occasionally takes other forms, as Hi (Kentish), as hue (South 
Western). Heo, He, Hue, is used as late as 1387. See extracts, p.xlix. 

The corresponding Northern form is Sco or Sho (Midland Sche), 
which seems to have arisen out of the older (or A.S.) Seo or Sio, 1 
and gradually to have crept into the Southern dialect towards the 
end of the xivth century, for we find it once or twice in Trevisa's 
translation of Higden's Polychronicon (1387), where heo or hue is the 
ordinary form. 2 

" Siborea made gret mone to-fore Judas of here wrechehede lyf & 
sorouful ; how heo hadde yput here yonge sone in to J?e stremes, how 
heo lost here hosbond sodeynliehe & how shee was ymaryed a^enes 
here wylle."— ( Cotton MS., Vesp. D vii, fol. 137 a.) 

Hi or hy, her, ace, is used as late as 1327-77. 

The ni3tingale hi ise3 (the owl) 
And hi bihold and over-se3, 
An thu3te wel wl of thare hule 
For me hi halt lodlich and fule.— (Owl $ N. p. 2.) 

i ^ = she, occurs once in the Ayenbite, p. 102. In the story of Genesis and 
Exodus (E. Midland dialect) sye (sge) occurs several times. 

2 1 do not find an earlier instance of the use of she in any pure Southern writer. 
It should he noticed, perhaps, that such a form as seo or sio would not become she 
but se (ze) or si (zi) ; but she arises out of a form like sceo or scce. 


And [thu] lerdest hi to don shome 

An im^t of hire licome. — (Owl § iV. p. 36.) 

Senne (= fern.) hys swete and lyketh, 
Wanne a man hi deth 
And also some hy bryketh (= brooketh) 
Wane he venjaunce y-seth. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 102.) 

To healde hy (erthe) op liyt nys no ned. — (Ibid. p. 136.) 

Personal Pronoun, 3rd Person Plural. 

Hii, Hi, Heo x = they ; heore, hure, huere, hor, hare = their, heom 
(huem, hem, horn, ham) =them, are Southern forms (retained as late 
as 1387), the corresponding Northern ones being Thai (tha), thair 
(thar), thaim (tham). 2 

Hi, them, is retained as late as 1327-77 by Shoreham. 


Ac he that ine saule is Strang, 

That he with-stent hi aJle, 
And hardeliche hert othre men, 

Adoun that hi ne falle. 

ac stonde. — (Shoreham'' s Poems, p. 14.) 

Anon J?e foend fondeth hy so, 

And he ne spareth nanne. — (Ibid. p. 16.) 

See also pp. 92, 94, 97, 112. 
• The forms hor and horn are, perhaps, Western and South-western 
forms. The Kentish dialect employs hare (hire) and ham. 

Hise (His, is), (ace.) = them. 
Until I saw the Midland version of Genesis and Exodus, I was 
under the impression that hise {is) = them, was peculiar to the South- 
ern dialect. Eut though it makes its appearance in some of the Mid- 

i jj e = they (East Midland) seems to have arisen out of Hia or Hie. 

2 Their, Theim (them), are Midland varieties. ^3, )>e%r, occur in the Ormulum. 
\>ei occurs in an East Midland MS., Trin. Col., Carab. (xiiith cent.), and in the 
Story of Genesis and Exodus. \>ay is used occasionally by Trevisa. 

e 2 



land dialects, having Southern tendencies, it is never employed by 
any Northern writer. 

Dr Gii33t has shown that this pronoun answers to the Gothic ins, 
ace. of eis. The oldest form of the pronoun in English appears to 
have been lies. 


j3ou zayst pet Jjou hest zixti year, pe dyaj? hise hep and neuremo 
his nele J>e yelde. — (Ayenbite, p. 71.) 

God ne hep hede of kueade yefjjes ac he his louej? trewe and guode. 

(Ibid. p. 192.) 

Alast thanne thet he [God] is vader be kende and be ri3te, he 
loveth thet he heth ymad, ase zayth the boc of Wysdome, and is 
zuete and milde and zuo loveth and dra3th vorth his children, and 
ham deth hare prou, and betere thanne hi conne devisi ; and he his 
byat and his chasteth huanne hi misdoth, vor hare prou ase guod 
vader and bletheliche he his ondervangth huanne hi cometh to hym. 

(Ibid. p. 100.) 

Of France & of opre londes fat we wonne mid ure mi^te. 
We mo we segge ]?at we nabbeth to ansuerye no3t mid ri3te. 
Whan hii vorsoke is & vor slewje & to none defense ne come 
])o we Jjoru chiualerie out of hor poer is nome. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 60 b.) 

Tho caste this gode molde hire mantel of anon 
& gurde aboute hire middel a vair linne scete 
& wess the meseles vet . echone ar heo lete 
& wipede is nessce afterward . & custe is wel suete. 

(Ibid. fol. 123 b) 

Jef he hys (Godes hestes) breketh and so byloefth, 

Hys saule schal he spylle. 

3ef thou hys halst man, God the seith, 

Ha wole be the so kende, 

He wole be fo to thyne fon, 

And frend to thyne frende. — (Shoreharris Poems, p. 90.) 

Ten hestes haueth yhote God, 


He hys wrot (and) Moyses by-toke. 

In sfcon ich wot that he hys wrot, 
In tokne of sykernesse. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 92.) 

Hise (hys, is), (ace.) = her. 

The Gothic Si = she, makes gen. izos, dat. izai ; a cognate root is 
probably preserved in the Southern form his = her. 

]5ulke soule (fern. ) nymef his (= herself) in and bileve]> iwis 
In fe childes brayn anhej J?at is J>e soule fat hext is. 

(Popular Science, p. 140.) 

And 3yf man halt ase hys wyf 

After the gelt [as] hys spouse, 
Tha^ he by hyre ne ligge no^t, 
Other halt hys ine hys house, 
In tome, 
Ne schal hy na^t departed be 
Frain hym for hordome. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 77.) 
Ho (who) halt ys (erthe) op 1— (Ibid. p. 136.) 

Josephes Ihevdy, tho hy vand alone him, hi wold do him zene3i 
mid hire, ac he him vledde ase wys and hise vorlet. 

(Ayenbite, p. 206.) 

The guode man mid the rede of his wyue yeaf his cou to the 
preste thet wes riche. the prest hi nom blethliche and hise zente to 
the othren thet he hedde. — (Ibid. p. 191.) 

Mochel is defouled, mid the vet of volleres, the robe (fern.) of 
scarlet, er-than thet the kuen his do an. — (Ibid. p. 167.) 

Thervore the dyevel playth ofte mid the zene3ere ase deth the cat 
mid the mouse (fern.), thanne he his heth ynome, and huanne he heth 
mid hire longe y played thanne he his eth (eateth). — (Ibid. p. 179.) 

And of Alisondre me ret thet he yaf ane cite (fern.) to onen of his 
sergons an huanne the ilke hise wolde forzake, vor thet grat thing him 


tho3te to nime zuych yefthe ; Alisondre answerede and zayde ' Ich ne 
loky na3t thet belongeth the to nimene ac me to yeue.' 

(Ayenblte, p. 195.) 
See also p. 203. 

He wende him worj? to chirche, & bivore the rod com, 

& mid mek herte pitosliche is kinges croune (= fern.) nom 

& sette is vpe pe rode (fern.) heved (head of the Cross). 

(R. of Gl. fol. 93 a.) 

Possessive Pronouns. 

The forms urs (ours), yhures (yours), Mrs (hers), thairs (theirs), 
appear frequently in Northern works written during the earlier part 
of the xivth century ; and from the fact that the Ormulum, whose 
tendencies are Northern, uses jte^rs (theirs), 1 we may reasonably 
suppose that these forms were in use much earlier. The Southern 
corresponding forms were ure, eowere, jure, Jure, here. The Northern 
dialect has also such forms as allirs and bathers = Southern aire (or 
alder), of all, and beire, of both. 

In the Lord's Prayer in the Northern version of the Cursor 
Mundi we have the phrase ' fader ures.' In a Southern work of about 
the same date we have the corresponding phrase ' fader oureJ 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the possessive 
pronouns in the two dialects. 

On of hem wile f^te 
A3en [other] thre kni3tes 
Jef other thre slen ure 
Al this lond beo $oure ; 
Jef we ure on ouercometh ^oure 2 three 
Al this lond schal ure beo. — (King Horn, p. 3, E. E. T. S.) 

A man of thair gains an of ur 
If urs mai him win in stur, 
That thai be urs & thair airs (heirs) ; 
If thai win urs that we be thairs, 
(Northern version of Cursor Mundi, Gott. MS. fol. 42.) 

1 In some Midland writers we find heres and hores = theirs. 

2 A Northumbrian could say yours three. 


Some few Midland dialects employ the forms ouren, your en, 
Keren. This seems to have arisen from the adjectival use of these 
forms. (In the Ayenbite Ave find th inert and hiren in the dative case.) 

Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns. 

The nominative pe is seldom used in the Southern dialect after 
1250, pet or pat being the ordinary relative in all dialects. Shoreham 
uses pe occasionally, 1 and many other Southern writers preserve the 
dative and accusative forms, thane, than (that), whan, wan (which, 
what), never employed by Northern writers. 


Therefore thys tale rymeth 
Hou men in senne beth, 
And hou senne ly-lymeth 
Than that to senne hym deth. 

{Shoreham } s Poems, p. 104.) 

To wyte (know) thanne wat God hajt (■=. hot = bids) 
Is echo man wel y-halde (bound). — (Ibid. p. 91.) 

And 3et for al pan bi is daie, thoru hor Infer mode 
Hii luxate oure louerd Ihesu Crist to dej?e on the rode. 

(R. of GL, Cotton MS. fol. 23 b.) 

An hwanne heo habbeth me of-slahe, 

Heo hongeth me on heore hahe 

Thar ich a-schewele pie an crewe 

From than, the thar is i-some. — (Owl fy N. p. 55.) 

The thridde condicion thet ssel by in elmesse is, thet me (one) 
ssel yeue largeliche be than (according to that) thet me heth huerof 

1 The sixte heste schoweth wel 
The sothe to al mankenne, 
The decle y-do in lechery 
Hys ry^t a dedleehe senne. 
And elles nere hy^t nau^t 
Forbode amange the hestes tenne ; 
Tlie that seggeth hys nys nau^t, 
So hare wyt is al to thenne. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 99.) 


the wyse zayth ' Yef to God be than thet he heth the y-yeue.' 

(Ayenbite, p. 195.) 

The ilke thet is zuo he3e arise ine prosperite thength in his herte 
verst to the dignete, efterward to his prosperite, efter than to his 
richesse efterward to his lostes thet his body heth, efter than to the 
greate ve^rede thet him vol^eth. — {Ibid. p. 24.) 

The thridde werre thet the wrethvolle heth is to than thet byeth 
onder him, thet is, to his wyve and to his mayne. — (Ibid. p. 30.) 

Hit is a perilous ziknesse thet ne may na3t tholye thet me him 
take, and to than thet alle medicines went in to venim. — (Ibid. p. 22.) 

Nou ich the habbe ssortliche yssewed huyche byeth the lyttle 
guodes and the midel guodes ; nou ich the wylle ssewy huet ys the 
zothe guod ari^t, thet maketh than thet hise heth guod ; and wyth- 
oute ham non ne wes nevre a^t guod. — (Ibid. p. 79.) 

Saynt Ion ase we habbeth yzed toparteth zeue overcomeingges 
and zeue crounes, thet is to zigge, zeue maneres of medes thet God 
behat to than thet ouercometh. — (Ibid. p. 170.) 

Two kuynden he (Crist) hajj, we witen bi pon 

j)Sit he is so J? God and so]? mon. — (Cast el of Love, p. 60. \ 

Tho hule one wile hi bi-tho3te 
And after than this word up-bro3te. 

{Owl $ N. p. 8.) 
Telstu bi me the wurs for than 
That ich bute anne craft ne kan. — (Ibid. p. 28.) 

Ich not hu mai eni freo man 

For hire sechen after than 
Jef he biweneth bi hwan he lai 

Al mai the luve gan awai. — (Ibid. p. 52.) 

Ac after than the he haved idon . he seal ther beon idemed. 
Blithe mai he thanne buen . the god haved iquemed. 

(Moral Ode, p. 27.) 
Efterward thench hou velezithe thou hest yby onbo^sam to thine 


vader and to thine moder and to than to huam thou ssoldest bo^e 
and here honoure. — (Ayenbite, p. 21.) 

This zenne [of prede] is ybounde ine than thet be his o;ene 
mouthe him yelpth other of his wytte, other of his kenne, other of his 
workes, other of his prouesse, &e. — (Ibid. p. 22.) 

An sum sot mon hit tihth thar-to 

Mid alle than that he mai do. — (Owl fy N. p. 49.) 

Wostu to than man was ibore 

To thare blisse of hovene-riche. — (Ibid. p. 25.) 

Evre-ilc man mid than the he haved mai biggen heuene-riche. 

{Moral Ode, p. 24.) 

. . bi than 30 wite than ende. 

(Lives of Saints, p. 72.) 

Anon so hi se3e the monekes come, hi gonne to singe ymone, 
A3 en hem with gret melodie, as hit were for than one. 

{St Brandan, p. 17.) 

This holi man makede loudere song as hit for than one were. 

{Ibid. p. 21.) 

Thyse byeth the tuelf articles of the Cristene Byleve thet ech man 
Cristen ssel yleve stedevestliche (vor otherlaker he ne may by ybo^e) 
huanne he heth wyt and scele ; and ther-of byeth tuelf by the tale 
of the tuelf Apostles thet hise zette to hyealde and to loky to alle 
thon ] thet wyleth by ybore. — (Ayenbite, p. 11.) 

The vifte article zuo is, thet ha wente into helle efter his dyathe 
vor to dra3e thannes and to delivri the zaules of the holi vaderes and 
of alle thon thet vram the gininnge wordle storve in zoth and guode 
byleave, and ine hope thet hi ssolden by ybo^e. — (Ibid. p. 12.) 

And thet he is ase the ymaymed ate porche of the cherche thet 
ne heth none ssame vor to sseawy alle his maimes to alle thon thet 
ther guoth vor thet me ssolde habbe of him pite. — (Ibid. p. 135.) 

He naveth bute one woning 
That his bischopen much el schome, 
1 pon is plural. 


An alle than that of his nome 

Habbeth i-hert and of his dede. — (Owl fy N. p. 61.) 

The stone upe whan ich sitte that maketh me sitte above 
In a wei ich him fond ligge, ther no neod nas to ston. 

(St Brandan, p. 27.) 

Icholle the make of this lond kyng thou ssalt yse 
& this lond al be thin : & the othre bruteine be 
Vor honour of bruteyne to wan thou addest kunde. 

(R. of Gl. fol. 34.) 

Ac a3en somer the emperour tho he adde al an honde 
Wende horn towarde Rome and mid gret love 
Nom with him the erl of Kent thoru wane he was above. 

(Ibid. fol. 23.) 
He let at Rome an stronge dich make al aboute 
& deop a3en Constantin & a^en is route 
Vor to holde horn ther, thoru wanne hii come with oute. 

(Ibid. fol. 31 6.) 
Tho adde he al is wille vor wanne it was al ido. 

(Ibid. fol. 38.) 
This were lo ure faderes of wan we beth suthtJiQ ycome 
That with such trey son abbeth this lond thus ynome. 

(Ibid. fol. 42 b.) 
Hwat sculle we beren biforen us. 
mid wan sculle we him iquemen. 

(Moral Ode, p. 25, 1. 48.) 
To wan were hi i-borene 
The sculle ben to dethe idemd & evre mo forlorene. 

(Ibid. p. 25, 1. 53.) 
Ac heo nas no^t ahwar : to whan hire hurte drou$. 

(Seinte Margarete, p. 25.) 

By ry3te toknynge thou ert the hel 

Of wan spellede Danyel. 
Thou ert Emaus, the ryche castel, 


Thar resteth alle werye ; 
Ine the restede Emanuel, 

Of wany x speketh Ysaye. — (Shoreham, p. 133.) 

Seint Dunstan com horn a3en ; & faire was underfonge 
Ladde his abbey al in pees, fram whan he was so longe. 

{Lives of Saints, p. 37.) 
We scolden alle us bi-thenche oft and wel ilome 
hwet we beth and to than we sculle & of ican we come. 

{Moral Ode, p. 32.) 


Present Tense, Indicative Mood. 

For the various dialectical forms in the present tense of the 

Indicative Mood, the reader is referred to Early Eng. All it. Poems, 

Introduction, pp. xx.-xxi. ; Genesis and Exodus, Introduction, pp. 

xvii., xxvii. 

Third Person Singular in -th. 

Jennings, in his Observations on the Dialects of the West of 
England, notices the fondness for the inflexion -th (not -etli), instead* 
of -es, in the 3rd per. sing, indie. This may be illustrated in the 
following passage from the Song of Solomon in the Devonshire 
version : 

A coin'th jumpin upon the mountains. He stanHh behaine our 
woll. He leukHh voath vrem the kezment an' shovfth his zel ta th* 
lattice.— (Ch. ii. 8, 9.) 

In the Southern dialect of the Early Eng. period we find the 
same fondness for the inflexion -th. In many cases it distinguishes 
the singular from the plural, as pinJcp = appears, pinkep = appear. 

Ac thanne he (the dronke) heth yslepe, and comth to him zelue 
thanne he yvelth his kuead and Jcnauth his folye and him playneth 2 
of his harm. 

Aten ende the zene3ere, ase zayth Salamon is ase the ilke thet 
slepth amide the ze and thet ssip spilth and he ne na3t hit ne velth 
ne none drede ne heth. — {Ayenbite, p. 128.) 

1 For wane ? 2 Playneth has playny for the infinitive, and therefore does 

not suffer contradiction ; its plural would be playnieth. 


Preterite Tense, Singular Number, Indicative Mood. 

The preterite tense 1 (first and third persons singular) of regular 
verbs terminates in -de, as lovede, hopede, &c. There is no final -e in 
the singular of irregidar verbs, e. g. slow (= slew), smot (= smote). 
In Northern writers we often meet with such forms as sloghe (slew), 
smate (smote), which in the Southern dialect would be considered as 

Second Person Singular, Preterite Indicative of Irregular Verbs. 

In the oldest English or A.S. period the second person of irregular 
verbs ended in -e, as heolde •=. heldest, droge = drewest. Those that 
change the vowel of the preterite plural, admit of vowel change in 
the 2nd pers. sing., as bunde (boundest), drife (drovest), clufe 
(cleavedst or clovest). 

The Southern dialect of the Early English period has numerous 
examples of this final -e in the 2nd pers. sing., but it is exceedingly 
rare in Northern writers. Dr Guest has already pointed out that the 
author of the Ormulum exhibits a tendency to omit this -e, as badd 
-=. baddest. 

Enes thu sunge, ic wod wel ware 

Bi one boure, and woldest lere 

The lefti to an uvel luve 

An sunge bothe k>3e and buve 

An lerdest hi to don shome. — {Owl fy N. p. 36.) 

Thar-to ]?ou stele in a day 

And leidest thar-on thy fole ey. — (Ibid. p. 104.) 

Slowe thu the holi prophete : to wrothere hele dudestu so. 

(Pilate, p. 116.) 

Ihesu for loue thou stehe on rode, 
For loue thou se$e thin heorte blod. 

(Lyric Poems, p. 69.) 
Thu ^eue us weole and wunne 
Thu brohtest dai, and Eve ni^t. 

(Relig. Songs, p. 65.) 
1 It is thus distinguished from the past participle which ends in -ed. 


Ich wille speke toward the 

Also thu speke toward me. — (Owl § N. p. 20.) 

And levedy, the was wel wors, 
Tho (when) that thou se^e in dede 
Thy leue childe reulyche y-nome 
And ase a thef forthe lede. 

(Shoreham's Poems, p. 83.) 

Preterite Tense, Plural Number, Indicative Mood of Regular Verbs. 

The plural of the preterite in the Southern and Midland dialects 
terminates in -en. 1 

The -n is, however, frequently dropped, as in the following 
examples : — 

& alle the men that hii founde hii slowe as hii come. 

(R. of Ol. fol. 34.) 
And the peces flowe aboute 

And smyte on this lithere men . wel harde to the grounde. 

(St Katherine, p. 96.) 

Hi norne ken hokes of ire : and hire flesche to-gnowe. — (Ibid.) 

In norjmumberland hi bigonne & ther hi slo^e to grounde. 

(Ibid. p. 87.) 

& hi se$e hire (the cou) sitte a dai in the valeye ther-doune. 

(St Kenelm,^. 54.) 

Vowel change in the Plural Preterite of Irregular Verbs. 

The Southern dialect, as in the older stages of the language, 
changes the vowel of the preterite pi. of that class of verbs repre- 
sented by binden (to bind), driven (to drive), eleven (to cleave), in 
which the vowel of the pret. pi. is the same as the past participle. 
The Northern dialect does not furnish us with any examples of this 
vowel change. 

And (hi) yeueth ham to sterue vor the loue of him (Crist) thet 

1 The Northern dialect has no inflexion in the sing, or pi. pret. 



star/ vor ham, other ine the londe beyende the ze other ine anothre 
stede. — (Ayenbite, p. 165.) 

Ha wente into helle .... to delwri the zanies of the holi vaderes 
and of alle thon thet vram the giningge of the wordle storve in zoth 
and gnode byleaue, &c. — (Ibid. p. 12.) 

Alle hi storuen in zo^e ine the desert. — (Ibid, p. 67.) 
And hor either a3en other gaderede hor ost vaste 
So that hii come and smite an bataile atte laste. 

{R. of Gloucester, Cott. MS., Calig. A xi, fcl. 29.) 

For meni men yyve onre louerd god : that were of gode tho3t 
To susteynie his apostles. — (Judas Iscariot, p. 110.) 

Preterite forms of Regular Verbs peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

1. Some few verbs in the Sonthern (and in some of the Midland 
dialects) ending in -che or -ge often make their preterites and past 
participles in -nte (-nde) and -nt (-nd). 

Inf. Pret. Past Part. 

( cleinte icleint 

( clente iclent 

dreynte idreynt 

( meinde imeind 

( meynde imeynd 

queynte iqueynt 

seinde iseind 

seinte iseint 

/ spreynte ispreynt 

( spreynde ispreynd 

2. The preterites of snch verbs as drede, lede, sjwede, &c, were in 
the Northern dialect dredde, ledde, spredde, forms which are also 
found in the Southern idioms, but in the latter dialects we often 
find a change of vowel, as 

Inf. Pret. 

clothe ) n _ , 

\ cladde 

clethe J 

drede (dread) dradde 

grede (cry) gradde 

clenche (fasten) 

drenche (drown) 

menge (mix) 

quenche (quench) 
senge (singe, toast) 
sinke (sink) 

springe (sprinkle) 

Past Part, 






Past Part. 

lede (lead) 



leve (leave) 



reve (bereave) 



schede (shed) 



sprede (spread) 



swelte (die) 


is wait 

threte (threaten) 



Infinitive Mood in -en ; Gerund in -enne or -ene. 

The ^Northern dialect drops the -en 1 of the infinitive, which is 
retained by the Southern and Midland dialects. The -n is mostly 
dropped, and the final -e strongly sounded represents the older 
inflexion -an, as hreope, to creep, yeue, to give. 2 

The gerundial infinitive in -enne or -ene (originally in -anne or 
enne) survived as late as 1340. It more often takes the inflexion -e 
of the infinitive. 3 

Ich ne loky na3t pet belongep J?e to nimene ac me to yeue. 

(Ayenbite, p. 195.) 

He ous yef J) his blod to drinke and his vless to etene. 

(Ibid. p. U6.) 

The inflexion -enne of the gerundial infinitive being pronounced 
very much like the present participle in -inde or -ende, is very often 
confounded with it, and before the date at which I^amon's Brut 
was written we find the participle in -inde or -ende doing duty as 
the gerund ; thus, to helpinde = to helpenne, to help. 

When the -inde or -ende became -inge or -ing the mistake still held 
its ground, as we find late in the xivth century such forms as to 
Jcepynge kepene =to keep, &c. 

1 In the Northern dialect we meet with many verhs ending in -en, but they are 
not to be regarded as infinitives, but rather the earliest examples of such forms as 
lighten, darken (= to make light, to make dark), &c. 

2 This full form -en is frequently used by poetical writers as a convenient rhym- 
ing syllable. 

3 What some writers have called the long forms of the infinitive used by 
Chaucer, as to done, to slane, are in reality gerundial infinitives. 


Damascus ys to menyng schedyng blod. 

(Trevisa, 1387 Cotton MS, Tib. D vii, fol. 9 a.) 

Hy (they) tau3te ham to hontyng and to schetyng. 


Also he hadde sum tyme yuonge to hepynge his dorter of 
Frauns, vor a scholde marye here to his sone. — (Ibid. fol. 272 a.) 

J)ues men wonede under J>e hulles of Jude .... and wente 
(turned) to robbynge & reuynge. — (Ibid. fol. 281 b.) 

Infinitives in -ie or -y. 

Infinitives in -ie, -ye, or -y l (from older forms in i-an), are exceed- 
ingly common in the Southern dialect as late as 1387. No trace 
whatever of this inflexion is to be found in any Northern work, and 
though met with in the West Midland are of rare occurrence in the 
East Midland dialect of the xivth century. They are still retained in 
some of the modern dialects of the South of England. 2 

" Chell whistley and zing and capery vor oil yow cheesen." 

(Exmoor dialect.) 
Present Participles. 

The present participle in the Southern dialect terminates in -inde* 
in the Northern in -ande (-and) : as Southern lovinde, Northern 
lovande (lovand). 

As early as the beginning of the xivth century we find a tendency 
in some of the Southern and Midland dialects to use the form in 
-inge (-ing) instead of -inde or ende. 3 

In Trevisa's translation of Higden's Polychronicon, written 1387 
(Cotton MS., Tib. D vii), there are no examples of participles in 
-ende ; all end in -inge or ing. 

In the Northern dialect the -and was employed as late as the 
xviith century. 

1 Many verbs adopted from the Romance dialects took this inflexion, as chasty 
= chastise ; crouny, to crown ; sovy, to save, &c. 

2 Dr Barnes has shown that they still exist in Dorsetshire, as mowy, to mow ; 
zawy y to sow. 

3 -end is a Midland form, and is frequently used hy Gower ; -ande {-and) was 
adopted in some of the Midland dialects, and is mo3t frequently employed by East 
and West Midland writers. The participial form in -ing is no doubt a corruption 


Past Participles. 

1. In the Southern dialect up to a very late period the /- or y- 
(A.S. ge) was retained as the prefix of the past participle : as idemd, 
judged ; ihote, called. 

]S T o instances of this prefixal element is to be found in any 
Northern writers. In Midland works with Northern tendencies, like 
the Ormulum, the i- 1 is frequently dropped. 

The modern Southern dialects have corrupted this prefix into 
a, as ayete = eaten ; abroke, broken. 

2. Past Participles of Strong or Irregular Verbs originally ended 
in -en : as {broken, broke ; icorven, cut; if a ten, gone. Southern writers 
frequently omit the -n, as in the following passages. 2 

j)e tyding to J?e contasse sone was ycome, 
Jjat hire louerd was aslawe & J?e castel ynome. 

(R. of G., Cotton MS., Calig., A xl, fol. 51a.) 
ycome =** yeomen (come) ; ynome = ynomen (taken). 
But when the participle is used adjectivally in the plural, the 
full form is often retained, as yboundene (bound), ybrokene (broken). 
Northern writers never omit the -n, and instead of ycome, 
yifome, &c, write eomen, nomen, <fcc. 

Negative Verbal Forms. 

The Northern dialect makes but little use of negative forms, 
which are very common in Southern writers. 

nam, am not ; nis, is not. 
ne8,was not ; nere, were not. 

of -inde, and not of -ende or -ande. As before observed, there is good evidence for 
supposing that the sounds of -hide and -inge (and -en; see Genesis and Exodus, 
p. xxxviii.) were closely related ; in fact, we find kervynge (= kervinde = cutting) 
rhyming with fynde. 

** He hath in his front strong, 
An horn foure feet long, 
So as Y in bokesfynde 

No rasour is so kervynge" — {K. Alys., 11. 6551-2.) 
1 This y or i is frequently found : I. in other parts of the verb, as yleve, to believe ; 
yknau)>, knows {Ayenbite). 2. In nouns, a^ y-fion^ arrows; yvon, foes; ibede 
(prayers). 3. In adjectives, as yredy, ready ; yioer, wary {Ayenbite). 4. In ad- 
verbs, as ylome, frequently; ymene (in common). 

- All Trevisa's past participles of strong verbs end in -e. 



nabbe, have not ; neth, hath. not. 
nade, had not ; not, knows not. 
nost, knowest not ; nnste, knew not. 
nille, nile, will not. 

Verbal prefixes peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

1. An (a), as anginne (anginne), to begin. Angrise (agrise), to 
terrify. Anhete, to inflame, kindle. Anhitte, to strike. Anhonge 
to hang. Anlikny, to compare. 1 

2. Of : (a.) for (negative), oflpinche = for think, repent ; of-guo = 
forgo ; of-holde, withhold. 2 (b.) for, as in ofseche, seek for ; ofsende, 
send for. 

3. At (A.S. (Jet), as at-berste, burst from; at-wite, English at-wit, 
reproach; 3 at-route, to advance. 


The Southern dialect retains numerous adverbial forms un- 
known to the Northern speech. 

1. Adverbs in -e : as (a.) longe (for a long time) ; unriyte, wickedly 
(b.) ene, twie, thrie* (Northern ernes, twies, thries h ) = Semi-Saxon 
enen, tweien, thrien, A.S. cene, twiwa, thrywa. (e.) henne, hence ; 
thenne } thence ; whenne, whsnee ; = hennene (heonene, heonnen) ; 
whanene (whannen, ivannen) ; themene (thennen) = A.S. heon-an, 
thanon, htvanon. 6 

2. Adverbs in -es, as alles, altogether ; ivttles, willingly ; thonkes, 
willingly (as his thonkes = he being willing) ; unthonkes, un- 

3. Adverbs in -en, ferren, selden, whiten (= also ferre, selde, 
while). The Northern forms end in -um or -om, as ferrum, seldum, 

1 In the Southern dialect, such verbs as ago, awake, arise, are exceedingly 
common, but scarcely ever occur in any Northern works. 

2 of-serve occurs in Southern writers for deserve. 

3 Chaucer uses at-renne and at-iede (to run from, out-run ; get rid of, out- wit). 

4 mode, nede, occurs for nedes = needs, of necessity. 

5 These forms are not unknown to the Southern dialect. 

6 Towards the middle of the 14th century these forms became hennes, thennes, 
whennes (whannes). The corresponding Northern forms are hethen, thethen, 
uhethen (quethen). 


4. Adverbs in -wat, as cdivat, alhuet, until, neiwat, nearly. 1 

5. Ac (but) ; ek (also) ; so — so (as — as) ; forte (for to), until. 2 

6. Dropping of e, as a$e 9 aye. again ; siththe, seththe, since, 

» Prepositions. 

The following forms are peculiar to the Southern dialect. 

1. An? on, in (before a vowel) ; a (before a consonant) : e. g. An 
erfe, in earth ; an-ende, lastly ; an-he^ on high ; a-lyve, alive • 
a-slepe, asleep. 4 

Tha Northern dialect prefixes on : as on-live, alive ; on-loft t aloft ; 
on-slepe, asleep ; on-slante, aslant, &c. 

The preference for on explains the curious Northern forms, 
obove (above) ; omang (among) ; ollhe (alike) ; onan (anon). 

2. From, from (Northern fra ; Midland fro). 

3. Mid, mide (Northern with). 

4. Toppe (Kentish), above. 5 

1 -gate, as in algate (algatos), thusgate, sivagate, is unknown to the Southern 

2 Sum, &s ; warm, unless ; utwith, without ; inwith, with ; forivith, before, are 
not used by Southern writers. 

3 An is used by Southern writers as a separate word, as well as a prefix. It is 
still known in Sussex, where the peasants say, " Put your hat an." 

4 The a is still preserved in anon = in one (minute), a-hunting, a~building, &c. 
s at = to ; til, to, are not found in the Southern dialect. 

f 2 



a.d. 1250—1340. 



Hw, Wh 





Specimens of E. 
English, p. xvi 












U (or E) 
Eo (le, Ue) 
Ea (Ya, Ye) 











Large number of plurals 

in -en (-n) 

Plurals in -ren 

Plurals in -e 

Genitive singular of 

feminine nouns in -e 
Genitive plural of nouns 

in -ene and -e 
Adjectives retain many 

of the older inflexions 

j)a, j)o (fern.), the 

)pes (masc), ]peos, j>ues 

(fern.), this 
Beye, both, gen. pi. beire 


Very few plurals in -en 

Brether, childer, ky y 



Adjectives drop all the 
older inflexions, ex- 
cept alder and bather 














pat, pet, neuter of the 

pat, a demonstrative 




Atten, Attan, Atte 




Atter (fern.), at the 




per, pir, pere, their 



pas (those) 



Slik (sic), such 


Ich, Uch, I 

Unknown. Ik and / 
used instead 


A y Ha, he 


xlviii, xlix 

Hi, He, Heo, Hue, she 

Unknown. Seo, echo, 
sho, used instead 


Hine (ace.), him 



Hi, Hii, Heo, Hue, 

Unknown. pa,pay,used 




Heo, Here, Hire, Hor, 

Unknown, pair, par, 


Heore, Huere, their 

used instead 

Hem, Horn, Ham, Heom, 

Unknown, pam, paim, 



used instead 

His, Hise, Is, them 



His, Is (ace), her 



Ure (Dure), eower 

Unknown. Urs,yhoures, 


(your p.), here (hire), 

p<i Ires [pa, irs) , used 

ours, yours, theirs 


Wan (which) 



-ep in all persons of the 

-es in all persons of the 


pi. pres. indie. 

pi. pres. indie. 

-e, -est, -ep (-)?), the in- 

-es in all persons of the 

See Early Eng. 

flexion of the sing. 

sing. pres. indie. 

Allit. Poems, 

pres. indie. 

pp. xx, xxi 

-ede, -edest, -ede, the in- 

No inflexion in the 

See Ibid. 

flexion of the sing. 

sing, past indie, of 

past indie, of regular 

strong verbs 

or weak verbs 

-e, the ending of the 2nd 

No inflexion in the 2nd 


pers. past of irregular 

sing, past indie, of 

or strong verbs 

irregular verbs 

Change of vowel in 



pret. pi. of strong 


Infinitives in -en, -e 

Infinitive ending drop- 


Gerundial Infinitives 


in -ene 

Gerundial Infinitives 

>» » 


in -ing 




Infinitives in y or ei 


Infinitive ending drop- 



-inde or (-inge) the end- 

-ande (-and), the ending 


ing of the present 

of the present parti- 



y- prefix of the past 

y- omitted as the sign 



of the past participle 

-n dropped in past par- 

-7i never dropped in 


past participles 

Schal (ssel), ssolde, 

Sal (shall), suld (should) 

See Hampole's P. 


of Consc. p. xxiv. 

j)arf (need), Iperfte, 

]>ar, ]>er, purt 

perste (needed) 

j)onkes, willing ; un- 



\071~kes, unwilling 

Henne, ]>enne 9 hwanne, 

He)>en, \e\en y w?iej>en 9 


hence, thence, whence 

(quelpen), used instead 


Mun, 7U071 (shall) 


Ha (have), ma (make), 

See Hampole's P. 

ta (take) 

of Consc. p. xxiv. 

Adverbs in -e, as ene, 



twie, thrie, neode, nede, 

once, twice, thrice, 


Adverbs with prefix cm- 




Su77i (as), fra (from), til 
(to), at (to, sign of 
infinitive), at (that), 
wa7iie (unless) 



Affixes, -gate, -tinges 



The differences in the vocabularies of the Northern and Southern 
dialects may be discussed at a future period under the following heads : 

i. Words peculiar to the Southern dialect, e.g., dene, a dean, 
valley ; more, a root ; zuol$, a plough, 1 &c. 

ii. Words peculiar to the Northern dialect, e.g., brathe, wrath ; 
fel, a hill ; wll, astray, &c. 

in. Double forms, one of which is found in the Southern dialect 
and the other in the Northern, e.g., 







woe, woke 

ivayhe (weake) 


snalpe 1 (snub) 



1 Plough does not occur in A.S. writers ; and Southern authors of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries employ it only in compound terms, as plow-land, &c. 

2 Snaipe and wayhe are evidently Norse forms. 


(a.d. 1327—1340.) 


1. Gender. The genders of Nouns are the same as in the older 
stages of the language. 

2. Declension. Nouns may be divided into four declensions. 


Nouns of the n declension, containing masculine, feminine, and 
neuter substantives ending in -en or -e (originally in -a or -e) and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -an). 


Class i. Nouns (originally feminine) ending in a consonant and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -a). 

Class ii. Nouns (originally feminine) ending in -e (originally in -u) 
and forming the plural in -en (originally in -a). 


Class i. Nouns (originally neuter) ending in a consonant and 
having the singular and plural alike. 

Class ii. Nouns (originally neuter) ending in a vowel (originally 
in -w 9 -e, or -u) 9 together with some few ending in a consonant and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in <i). 


Class i. Nouns (originally masculine) ending in a consonant and 
forming the plural in -es (originally in -as). 

Class ii. Nouns (originally masculine) ending in a vowel and 
forming the plural in -en (originally in -u). 





Masc. Fern. Neut. 

]S r om. Sterre (star), tonge (tongue), e$e (eye). 

Gen. Sterre, 



Dat. ) n 

\ Sterre, 
Ace. ) 


e^e. * 






Norn. \ 

Ace. J Sten ' en ' 



Gen. Sterrene, 



Dat. Sterren, 



In like manner are declined : — bee, *pl. been; chirche, pi. chirchen; 
eare, ere (ear), pi. ear en, eren; flo (arrow), pi. fion; fo (enemy), pi. 
fon; gome, gume (man), pi. gomen; to (toe), pi. ton; wise (manner), 
pi. wisen; woke, wuke (week), pi. woken. 



l^om. Zauel (soul). 
Gen. Zaule. 



]STom. Zaulen. 
Gen. Zaulene. 



Thus are declined : — ben (prayer), pi. benen; edder (adder), pi. 
eddren; zyn (sin), pi. zynnen. Niyb (night), wi$t (wight). 



Norn. Dore (door). 
Gen. Dore. 



Nom. Doren. 
Gen. Dorene. 


To this declension belonged originally cu, cou (cow),- pi. Jcun, ken 




$"om. and Ace. Hors (horse). 
Gen. Horses. 

Dat. Horse. 



Xom. and Ace. Hors. 
Gen. Horse. 

Dat. Horse. 

After the same manner are declined : — hus (house) ; der (deer) ; bern 
(child) ; spel (story) ; ssep (sheep) ; wif (woman, wife) ; yer (year). 


Nom. and Ace. Ssip (ship), 
| Ssipe, 

( traw \ 
( trow ; 





Norn, and Ace. Ssipen, 


( Ssipene, \ 
\ Ssipe, J 


c trowes, 
( trauwes. 






/ trauwene, 

j trowene, 

\ trene. 


In the same way are declined :- 

/ trauwen, 
< trouwen, 
\ tren. 
-dyevel (devil) ; vet (vat) ; heved, 
heaved (head) ; Urn (limb) ; riche (kingdom) ; token (sign) ; sorwe 
(sorrow) ; wonder (marvel) ; werre (war). Calf, child, ey (egg), lamb, 
form their plural in -ren (originally -ru), as — Calvren (A.S. cealfru) ; 
children, ehildern (A.S. cildru) ; eyren (A.S. wgru) ; lambren (A.S. 







Kom. and Ace. 

Del (part). 







Dat. \ 
Ace. ) 


Dat. \ 
Ace. ) 




Thus also are declined : — day ; ' engel (angel) ; veld (field) ; mouth 
(mouth) ; king ; ston (stone) ; wey (way). Viend (enemy), vriend 
(friend), are used as plurals, the older forms being fynd or fcdnd, 
frynd ovfreond. Winter has the pi. winter and winters; got, gayt 
(goat), makes the pi. geet. Vader drops the -es in the genitive case. 




ISTom. and Ace. Sone, Sune (son). 


Sonen, Sunen (Sune, 

Gen. Sone, Sune. 


Dat. ) 

. Sone, Sune. 
Ace. ) 


Sonene, Sunene. 
Sonen, Sunen. 


Sone, Sune (Sonen). 

In the same manner are declined : — dorter (daughter), pi. dotfren; 
moder (mother), pi. modren; r other (ox), pi. rotheren; zoster (sister), 
pi. zostren. Brother, moder, dorter, are indeclinable in the genitive 
singular. Brother makes the plural brothren. 

Case endings. — a. The dative singular of all the declensions is 
denoted by a final e. Words ending in / change it into v before 
adding e. Norn, wyf ; Dat. wyve. Xouns having a short vowel 
before d, t, double these letters, as — Xom. bed; Dat. bedde. 

b. The A.S. dative pi. -urn, in some few cases, is denoted by -e; 
in the majority of instances it is the same as the nominative. 

For declension of Adjectives see p. xxxvi. 


The personal pronouns 


: Ich (I), pou 

(thou), he (he), hi (she), 

hit (it). 



Nom. Ich. 1 

]JU, J)OU. 

we. ye. 

Gen. min, mi. 

J?in, J>i. 

oure. youre. 

Dat. \ 
Ace. J 


ous, us. you. 

1 This pronoua is still preserved in the South-Western dialects under the forms 
Uch and TJtchy. 












Fern. Neut 








Norn. hi. 



( hire, 
( hare. 


hi, his, hise, ham. 

The personal pronouns are frequently used reflectively ; as, Ich 
me rests, I rest myself. 

Self is declined like an adjective (in the oblique cases, selve sing, 
and pi.) ; so that we easily understand such forms as Ich silf = I 
myself; \u silf — thou thyself; (Ich) me sylf ' = I myself, where 
self is placed after the dative of the personal pronoun. Cp. Fr. moi- 
meme, lui-mime, &c. 


The possessive pronouns are identical in form with the genitive 
case, e.g. oure = our, ours, of us ; youre = your, yours, of you ; 
hare = their, theirs, of them. 


Masc. and Fern. Neut. 

Nom. hua, huet. 

Gen. huas. huas. 

Dat. huam. huam. 

Ace. huan, wan. huet. 


Moods. — There are four moods : Indicative, Subjunctive, impera- 
tive, and Infinitive. Besides the ordinary infinitive there is a gerund 
(used after to) ; infin. comen, to come ; ger. to comene. This dis- 
tinction between the two forms is not always preserved. 

Tenses. — Only two tenses are formed by inflection — the present 
and the past. 



Participles. — The present participle ends in -inde; the past 
participle has the prefix i- or y- (unless the verb commences with 
one of the following prefixes : a-, at-, bi-, be-, for-, vor~, of-, to-, un-, 

There are two conjugations of verbs, the Strong (or irregular), 
and the Weak (or regular) . 


infinitive mood — Lovien, loven, to love. 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Lovie, love Lovieth, loveth 

2. Lovest Lovieth, loveth 

3. Loveth Lovieth, loveth 

Singular. Plural. 

Lovie, love Lovien, loven 


Sing. Love. Plural, (a.) Loviep, love]) ; (b.) Lovie, love 

(followed by the pronoun). 

Gerund. To lovienne, lovene. 

Pres. Part. Lovinde. 

Past Part. I-loved, Y-loved. 

Like lovie, to love, are conjugated clepie, to call; herie, to praise; 
hopie, to hope ; makie, to make ; schunie, to shun ; tholie, to suffer. 




1. Lovede 


2. Lovedest 


3. Lovede 










mood — Hyere, to hear. 







1. Hyere 


1. Hyerde 


2. Hyerst 


2. Hyerdest 


3. HyerJ) 


3. Hyerde 







Singular. Plural. 

Singular. Plural. 

Hyere Hyeren 

Hyerde Hyerden 


Sing. Hyer. Plural, (a.) Hyere J) ; (b.) Hyere (followed "by 

the pronoun). 
Gerund. Hyerene. 

Pres. Part. Hyerinde. 
Past Part. Yhyerd. 

1. In the 3rd pers. sing, indie, of verbs having t or d for the last 
syllable, t is often used for -teth or -detli, as gret, cries ; let, hinders ; 
let, leads ; zent, sends ; went, turns, &c. 

2. If the root of the verb ends in d or t doubled, or preceded by 
another consonant, the de or te of the past tense, and -d or 4 of the 
past participle, are omitted : e.g., wende, to turn ; pret. wende, pp. 
wend ; lette, to hinder ; pret. lette, pp. ylet. 

The following verbs, among many others, belong to this class : — 


Calle, to call 



Deme, to judge 



Deppen, to dip 



Hede, to hide 



KeJ>e, to show 



Lende, to lend 



Ssrede, to clothe 



Some verbs of this 

class have double forms 

for the preterite and 

past participle. 




Clebe, ) 

~, [to clothe 

GloJ>e, ) 

t cledde 
* cladde 

( yclad 
. ( ycled 

Dele, to deal 

( delte 
( dalte 

( ydelt 
\ ydalt 

Grede, to cry 

c gredde 
( gradde 

( ygred 
( ygrad 



t. i M t - ( redde yred 
Kede, to advise I 

. 1 radde yrad 

( spredde yspred 
feprede, to spread in i 
( spradde sprad 

a j. . ( swelte yswet 
Sweten, to sweat ] 

{ swalte yswat 

Cacche (catch) and techcn (teach) make the preterites cayte 

and ta^te. 

Habbe, to have, is thus conjugated : 

Indie. Pres. Sing. 1. habbe; 2. liest ; 3. hep. 

„ „ PI. 1. habbe]p ; 2. habbe]) ; 3. habbe]). 

Indie. Pret. Sing. 1. hedde ; 2. heddest ; 3. hedde. 

„ ,, PL 1. 2. 3. hedde (Jieddeii). 


indicative mood — Tellen (A.S. tellan), to tell. 


Singular. Plural, 

Singular, Plural. 

1. telle telle]) 

1. tealde tealden 

2. telst telle]) 

2. tealdest tealden 

3. telj? telle]? 

3. tealde tealden 


Sing, telle Plur. tellen 


Sing, tealde Plur. tealden 


Sing, telle. Plur. (a.) telle]? ; (b.) telle. 

Gerund. to tellene. 

Pres. Part. tellinde. 
Past Part. y-teald, ytald. 

To this class belong the following verbs : 

Begge, buy bo^te yho3t 

Brenge, bring bro3te ybro3t 



Seche, seek 

Zelle, sell 

Werchen, work 
}3enehen, seem 


( zealde 

( zalde 








Zlgge (zegge), to say, makes 2nd per. sing. pres. indie, zayst 
(zeayst); 3rd, zayde (zeayde). 
Wille, will, makes pres. indie. 

1. wille 2. wilt 3. wile (sing.) 

1. 2. 3. wille} (plural). 

Preterite 1. wolde 2. ivoldest 3. wolde (sing.) 

1. 2. 3. ivolden or wolde (plural). 


(No change of vowel in the preterite plural.) 

Infinitive, Healde 1 (to hold). 

Singular. Plural. 

1. Healde Healde]? 

2. Healdest (Halst) Healde]? 
I Halt Healde]? 


1. Hield} 
Hild ) 

2. Hielde 

3. Hield 



Singular. Plural. Singular. 

Healde Healden (Healde) I Hielde 

Hielden (Hielde) 


Sing. Heald. Plural, (a.) Healde]? ; (b.) Healde. 

Gerund. Healdene. 

Prest Part. Healdinde. 

Past Part. ] Yhealde - 
i Yhyealde. 

Verbs of this division fall under three classes : 

Also written Hyealde. 







(a.) Bere, bear 



Bidden, bid, ask 



Bihote, promise 



Breke, break 



Ete, eat 


yyete (= y-yeate) 

Fonge, take 



Voryete, forget 



Zitte (sit) 

(•zat ) 


Speke (speak) 



Wreke (thrust out) 


( ywreke 
( ywroke 

(b.) Come 



Xeme, take 




Bete, beat 



Cnowe, know 



Valle, fall 



Lhepe, leap 

/ hliep \ 
(hlip i 


yhlope ! 

Dra3e, draw 



Vare, go 



Hle3e, laugh 



Vorzake, forsake 



Slea, sle, slay 



Ssape, create 



Stonde, stand 




(Change of vowel in pret. plural.) 

Infinitive. Binde, to bind ; Drive, to drive. 

1 Does not occur. 








1. Bond, Drof 

2. Bounde, 1 Drive 

3. Bond, Drof 


) Bounden 1 
( Driven 

2. Binst, Drifst £ Binde]?, Drive]) 

3. Bint, DriiJ> ) 


Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 

Binde, Drive. Bounden, Driven | Bounde, Drive. Bounden, Driven 


Sing. Bind, Drif. Plural, (a.) Binde)?, Drive]) \ (b.) Binde, Drive. 

Gerund. Bindene, Drivene. 

Present Part. Bindinde, Drivinde. 
Past Part. Ybounde, Ydrive. 

The following verbs belong to this division : 



; PRET. 


(a.) Binde, bind 



Biginne, begin 



Delve, dig 



Drinke, drink 



Terne, (= eorne) 

{ orn | 
( yarn ) 

y yerne (= iurne) 

Yinde, find 

(vond ) 
\ vand ) 


Yi3te, fight 



Helpe, help 



Zinge, sing 

( zang | 
' zong ; 


(b.) Bei^e, protect 



Kerve, cut 



Sterve, starve, die 



Yelpe, boast 



1 The older forms are : 2nd 

sing, bunde ; 1. 2. 

3. pi. bunden ; zinge, to sing, 

makes 2nd pers, pret. zunge ; 1. 2 

3. pi. zungen. 













Ssrive, sliriue 












Bede, offer 

byead (= bead) 


Chyese, choose 



Cyepe, creep 



Vly, flee, fly 



Lyese, lose 

f tyeas | 
( leas / 


Schete, shoot 

/ ssat \ 
\ sseat j 


Lute, \ 
Lote, j 



Le^en, lie 

3e ? 

( ilo3en 
' ilowen 

Ssete, shut 



Zi, see 


/ iso3e 
\ ize3e 

Sethen, seethe, boil 



Bugen, | ^ 
Buwen, ) 


/ ibo3en 
( ibowen 

Lute, \ _ 

( bow 
Lote, j 



Loken, lock 



„ , '[ ascend 
St^en, ; 



S 2 


General Remarks on the Strong {or Irregular) Conjugation. 

1. If the base of a verb ends in -e or -ie the -e or -ie is the -e of 
the inflexions in the present indicative and imperative, as vie} = 
flees ; ze} = sees. 

2. Yerbs having -d or -£ as the final letter of the root-syllable, 
take -t instead of -de% or -te$, as the personal inflexion, as bint = 
bindeth, binds ; grint = grindeth, grinds ; 7fc«Z£ = holdeth, holds ; 
rit = rideth, rides ; s£ora£, s£ew£ = standeth, stands. 

3. The 2nd and 3rd pers. are frequently contracted thus : est = 
eatest ; 5iW = bindest ; drink} = drinks ; drifp = drives. 

4. Yerbs whose base originally terminated in ^ often retain it 
under the form 3 in the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, indie. : as dra^en, to 
draw ; dra^st, drawest ; dra^}, draws ; vli, to fly ; vli$st, fliest ; vlijp, 
flies ; wri, to cover ; wri$}, covers. 

5. In some verbs the vowel is changed in the 3rd sing. pres. 
indie, as healden, to hold ; halt, holds ; hoten, to command ; hat, 
commands ; stonden, to stand ; stant, stands. 


1. 0$en, oicen, to own; 1st and 3rd sing. pres. indie. 03; o^en ; 
pret. o$te. 

2. Am is the 1st pers. sing, of the old infinitive wesan, to be. 
The other persons are as follows : — 2nd pers. pres. indie, art ; 3rd, 
is ; pret. 1st, wes ; 2nd, were; pi. weren, were. 

3. Bi, to be ; ger. byenne. 1st pers. pres. indie, bi ; 2nd, best ; 
3rd, beth ; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pers. pi. beth ; imper. pi. beth. 

4. Gunne, to be able, to know; 1st sing. pres. indie, con ; 2nd, 
const ; 3rd, con ; pi. connen ; pret. cuthe, couthe. 

5. Daren, to dare. 1st sing. pres. indie, dar, der ; 2nd, darst ; 
3rd, dar ; pi. dorren, dorre; pret. sing, dorste. 

6. jDo, to do ; ger. doenne. 1st sing. pres. indie, dfo ; 2nd, cfestf / 
3rd, deth ; pi. c?o^ / pret. dede ; imp. cfo£7i. 

7. (x^o, to go ; ger. guonne. 1st sing. pres. indie, go ; 2nd, </es£ ; 
3rd, #e£ft (pi. guoth) ; pret. ?/e<#e ; imp. guoth ; pp. i<7wo. 

8. Mowen, to be able, may; 1st sing. pres. indie. may(mai) ; 2nd, 
miyt ; 3rd, may (mat) ; pi. mo^en ; pret. miyte. 


9. 1st sing. pres. indie, mot, may, must ; 2nd, most ; 3rd, mot, 
mitt ; pi. mot en ; pret. moste. 

10. 1st sing. pres. indie. ssel y shall ; 2nd, sselt ; 3rd, ssel ; 
pL ssollen, ssolle ; pret. ssolde. 

11. Witen, to know. 1st sing. pres. indie, wot; 2nd, wost; 3rd, 
wot ; pi. wlteth ; pret. m's^e ; imp. sing, ivite ; pi. witeth. 

Negative Forms. — Am, have, wille, witen (know), take negative 
forms, as nam, am not ; nk, is not ; nes, was not ; nedde, had not ; 
nde, will not ; not, knows not ; neste, knew not. 


Many adverbs with the prefix y are preserved, as yvere, together > 
Home, iliolliche, entirely ; ymone, together ; ymene, together. 


Atte, Atten (dat. masc), at the = at pan, at pene ; Atter (dat. fern.), 
at the = at pere ; Mytter (dat. fern.), with the = myd pere, — are used 
by Shoreham (see pp. 34, 57, 64). 


Author's Preface 
Table of Contents 
Prologue (Vore-speche) 

The Ten Commandments, 

The first Commandment. . 

second „ 

third „ (Mosaic 4th). 

fourth „ „ 5th 

fifth „ „ 6th 

sixth „ „ 7 th 

seventh „ „ 8th 

eighth „ „ 9 th 

ninth „ (1st half of 10th) 

tenth „ (2nd half of 10th) 

The Creed. 

The twelve Articles of the Christian belief 
1st Article : written by St Peter . . 
,, St John . . 



St Jacob, brother of John 

St Andrew 

St Philip 

St Thomas 

St Bartholomew 

St Matthew 

St Jacob, brother of Simon and 

St Simon 

St Jude 

St Matthias 













The Seven Deadly Bins. 

Of the vision that Saint John the Evangelist saw . . 

(Of the beast that came out of the sea with seven heads 

and ten horns) 




The tokens of the Heads of the Beast 

(The seven heads = seven deadly sins, and the ten horns 

= breaking of the ten behests) 

The First Head of the Beast — Pride and its Seven Boughs 
The First Head of the Beast is Pride . . 

(Pride caused the fall of Lucifer) 

The Might of Pride 

(Pride is the devil's own daughter) 

How one shall classify the seven boughs of Pride . . 
The First Bough of Pride — Untruth; its three twigs are 
Foulness (crime), madness, apostasy . . 
Second — Despite (contempt) 
(Three kinds of Despite : a. Not praising those deserving 
it ; b. Not giving honour to whom it is due ; c. Dis- 
obedience to those to whom obedience should be given) 
The Third Bough of Pride — Arrogance or Overweening 
This sin shows itself in six ways — in, 1. Singularity; 2 
Prodigality (extravagance) ; 3. False strife ; 4. Boast- 
ing (yelping) ; 5. Scorn ; 6. Opposition 
The Fourth Bough of Pride — Foul Desire (Ambition) 

Ambition is the devil's frying-pan 

The Fifth Bough of PrTde— Idle Bliss (Yain glory) . 

Idle Bliss is the devil's penny 

It has three small boughs 

God's gifts — 1. of nature; 2. of fortune; 3. of grace 
The devil tries man in three ways 
The Sixth Bough of Pride — Hypocrisy 

Three kinds of Hypocrisy : 1. foul ; 2. foolish ; 3. subtle 
The Seventh Bough of Pride— Foul Dread and Shame 

The Second Head of the Beast— Envy 

Envy is a poisonous adder 
It poisons heart, mouth, and works of man 
The envious man sins in a threefold manner 
Three states of the envious . . 

The Sins against the Holy Ghost 

(Overweening, Despair, Obstinacy, Impenitence, 
Opposing truth) 
The Third Head of the Beast — Hatred 

The four wars of the Hater 

The seven twigs of Hate : Chiding, Wrath, Hate. 

Vengeance, Murder, Deadly War 
The horrors of war 

The Fourth Head of the Beast — Sloth 

The devil's advice to the slothful 

The six vices of Sloth prevent good beginning and good 
amendment . . 











31, 32 



Forgetfulness springs from Sloth 

The peril of Slackness 

The six points of Sloth that bring a man to his end . . 
1. Disobedience; 2. Impatience; 3. Murmuring; 4. Sorrow 

5. Desire of Death ; 6. Despair 
The Fifth Head of the Bead — Avarice 

Avarice, a great schoolmistress 
The Eoots of Avarice: 1. Usury; 2, Theft; 3. Bobbery 
(with violence) ; 4. False Claim ; 5. Sacrilege 

6. Simony 
7. Fraud; 8. Chaifer ; 9. Wicked Craft; 10. Wicked 

Usury and Usurers (seven kinds of) 

The Second Bough of Avarice — Theft 

Four kinds of thieves (1. The open thief; 2. Covert 
3. Privy ; 4. Accessory) 
The Third Bough of Avarice — Eobbery 

The roots of Avarice : 1. Evil executors ; 2. Unfaithful 
3. Harbouring of robbers ; 4. Dishonest debtors 
5. Eobbery of underlings by prelates ; 6. Oppression 
of the poor by provosts and beadles . . 
The Fourth Bough of Avarice — False Claim (or False Accusation) 

Seven kinds of false challengers 
The Fifth Bough of Avarice — Sacrilege . , 

Seven kinds of sacrilege 
The Sixth Bough of Avarice — Simony 

The six twigs of Simony 

How lewd (lay) men may be guilty of Simony 
The Seventh Bough of Avarice — Depravity , . 

To this sin belong Heresy, Witchcraft^ &c. 
The Eighth Bough of Avarice — Chaffer . . 

Seven kinds of Chaffering 
The Ninth Bough of Avarice — Unlawful Traffic (Wicked Craft) 

This sin is practised by foolish women, heralds, and soldiers 
The Tenth Bough of Avarice — Gambling (Wicked Games) . . 
A Tale: 1. Of a knight who swore by God's eyes..; 2. Of 
an archer who shot at God 
The Sixth Head of the Beast — Lechery 

The devil tempts man to this sin in five modes : L Foolish 
sight ; 2. Foolish words ; 3. Foolish handling ; 4. 

Foolish kissing ; 5. Foolish deed 

Two kinds of Lechery : a. of heart (its four steps). . 
b. Lechery of body (five sorts) 
Fourteen kinds of Adultery . , 
The Seventh Head of the Beast— Sins of the Mouth and 






35, 36 


37, 38 




39, 40 

41, 42 

44, 45 

45, 46 





48, 49 




1. The sin of gluttony 

The glutton often comes to the gallows 

Five kinds of gluttony 

1. Eating before time 

2. Immoderate eating and drinking 

Gluttony like the kite 

Hypocrites are the devil's martyrs 

Dispute between the belly and purse of the glutton 

The tricks of the devil . . . . 

3. A hasty running to meat, like the hound after the hare 

4. Extravagance (three kinds of) 

5. Undue anxiety about eating (three kinds of ) . . 
Jests and jokes form the glutton's entrees . . 

The tavern is the devil's chapel . . 

The devil's miracles . . 

The tavern is the devil's castle 
The Sins of the Tongue (ten kinds of) 

In idle words man may sin in five ways 
Of the Sin of Boasting . . 

The boaster is God's thief 

Five kinds of boasting 

The boaster is like the cuckoo, he can only sing of himself 

Affected humility — Many folk make themselves devils 
so that they may be esteemed angels 
Of Flattery 

Flatterers the devil's nurses 

The Five Boughs of Flattery 

1. Inconsiderate praise; 2. Exaggeration; 3. Assumption 
of virtues ; 4. Singing placebo . . 

5. Excusing another's faults 

Flatterers like, 1. Mermaids ; 2. The adder Serayn ; 3. The 
hyaena ; 4. The farrowed sow ; 5. Dung beetles 

Five Boughs of Evil-speaking 

Leasings . . 

The liar is like, 1. Chaff among corn ; 2. The devil ; 3. The 
chameleon (that hath wind only in his guts) . . 

Three small twigs of leasing 
Of the Sin of Lying 

Swearing and forswearing (perjury) 

Seven modes of swearing 

Strife like the devil's works 

Seven boughs of Strife 

The chider is like, 1. A hedgehog; 2. A snarling dog 

Slandering and slanderers 

Of Murmuring, that is, of him that dare not be answered (be 


51, 52 




61, 62 


62, 63 


65, 66 



For this sin the Israelites lost the Land of Promise 

Two boughs of Murmuring 

The Songs of Heaven and the Songs of Hell 
Of Opposition (withstanding) . . 

Four boughs of Opposition . . 
Of Blasphemy 

Blasphemers are like mad hounds 


Death is a separation and departure . . 

Man's life but a point compared with Eternity 

The Songs of Hell 

We have not our years — death has them, and will not give 

them up 

Death a separation of soul and body 
Three kinds of death . . 

What is death 1 

Go out of thyself into the other worlds (heaven, hell, and 

The Torments of Hell 
Of Purgatory . . 
The Bliss of Paradise . . 
The holy man is like the greyhound 


The beginning of good life is to seek virtue 
Of Temporal Goods (gifts) 

(The small goods, the goods of time, the goods of fortune) 
Of the Lesser Goods 

The middle goods are the gifts of nature and of teaching 

(a. beauty, strength, &c. ; b. learning, good manners) 

Of the True Goods 

Grace, virtue, and charity 

What the old philosophers thought to be the greatest good 

Dame Charity the queen of virtues . . 
Of three hinds of Good . . 

(Honourable, desirable, and profitable) . . 

True Virtue combines all three 
Of Virtue 

Six things are desired because they are honourable 

The Lynx can see through a wall 

Beauty soon fades 

Beauty of the Soul . . 

Of Wit (toisdom) and of Clergy (learning) . . 

Those who love this world think the moon to be the sun. 
and mistake a glass for a sapphire ; they are like, 1 
children ; 2. like a pregnant woman who prefers a 
sour apple to a wheaten loaf 


Q8, 69 
69, 70 




73, 74 


78, 79 

79, 80 

80, 81 




Their wit is the devil's wit . . . . 82 

True Virtue and True Prowess . . . . . . . . 83 

Foolish Undertaking 83, 84 

He that is without virtue hath no courage ; like a child he 

prefers a mirror to a kingdom . . . . . . . . 84 

Virtue makes a man as bold as a lion 84 

Might 84 

Man's lordship 84, 85 

Virtue makes a man to be master of himself . . . . 85 

Freedom . . 85 

Three sorts of freedom (of nature, of grace, and of bliss) . . 85, 86 

L Free will SQ 

Deadly sin bereaves man of this freedom . . . . . . 86 

2. Freedom of grace — Those who possess this care not a 

button for the world . . . . . . . . . . 86 

3. Freedom of bliss is possessed by those who have 

passed from this world . . . . . . . . 87 

Nobility : 

True nobility springs from the gentle heart . . . . 87 

It does not spring from the body . . . . . . . . 87 

For all are descended from one mother, i. e. earth and mud 87 

Our true Father is God 87 

True nobility consists in being like God . . . . . . 88 

It begins in grace and is completed in bliss . . . . 88 

None need be proud of earthly nobility, for the earth 

nourishes hogs as well as kings . . . . . . 89 

Gentle Good 89 

No good (gifts) truly honourable but virtue and charity, 

that is, the love of God . . . . . . . . . . 89 

Charity is good chaffer — never loses but ever wins . . 90 

Charity is God's penny 91 

Of two lustful (desirable) goods . . . . . . . . 91 

The five wits (senses) . . . . . . . . . . 91, 92 

Spiritual gifts the best (peace of heart, mastery of devils, 

bliss of conscience) . . . . . . . . . . 92 

The Oil of Bliss 93 

Of Virtue more especially . . . . . . . . . . 94 

The soul of a good man like a fair garden, of which God is 

the gardener . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 

Of three things needful to the Earth . . . . . . . . 95 

1. Good mould ; 2. moisture ; 3. heat . . . . . . 95 

The Tree of Life 95 

The root — the love of God ; the wood — the flesh of Christ ; 

the rind — Christ's fair conversation ; the sap — His 

tears, sweat, and blood ; the leaves — His holy words ; 

the flowers — His holy thoughts ; the fruit — His twelve 

apostles ; the boughs — the whole elect . . . . 95, 96 






Father mine ' .. 101 






The Sermon on the Mount specifies the seven boughs of 

the Tree of Life 96 

In it we find the sum of the New Law . . . . . . 97 

The Well of God's grace and its seven streams . . . . 97 

In the Lord's Prayer we pray for the seven gifts of the 

Holy Ghost 98 

The Prologue of the Holy Pater Noster 98 

The Lord's Prayer, the first thing we teach a child . . 98 

It is short in words, and long in meaning . . . . . . 99 

God cares not for sleek and smooth words . . . . . . 99 

Here beginneth the Pater Noster 

< Our Father,' &c 

Of the sweet name of Father. . 
Why we say ' Father our,' and not ' '. 
Of adoption 

Of the word ' our ' 

' That art in Heaven ' . . 

1 That art ' asserts God's existence 

God alone is everlasting 

Of the words Father, our, art, Heaven 104-5 

The First Petition of the Holy Pater Noster 105 

The preface is as the ingoing (prelude) of the fiddle . . 105 

There are seven notes in this song of the Pater Noster . . 105 
The seven petitions obtain the seven gifts of the Holy 

Ghost 105 

The three first make man holy ; the other four make him to 

abide in righteousness 105 

Man's holiness like the Trinity (for there are three things 

in the soul — thought, understanding, and will) . . 105 

< Hallowed be thy Name' 106 

In this petition we ask the gift of wisdom 106-7 

The Second Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . . . 107 

c Thy kingdom come ' 108 

In this petition we ask for the gift of understanding, 

whereby man may see and correct his faults . . . . 108-9 

The Third Petition of the Holy Pater Noster 109 

'Thy will be done,' &c 109 

In this petition we ask for the gift of good counsel . . 109-10 

The Fourth Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . . . 110 

' Give us this day,' &c 110 

What may the son ask of father better than bread? . . 110 

In this petition we ask for the everlasting bread — the food 

of the soul 110 

The bread of the altar is to be eaten ravenously, and with- 
out chewing, for it is the true body of Christ . . Ill 
Christ left us this bread as his last bequest 112 



It is more nutritious than all other bread 
The Fifth Petition of the Holy Pater Noster 

' Forgive us our trespasses,' &c. . . 

Our debts are our sins — the interest is Hell-pain . . 

The Court of Mercy and the Court of Doom (Justice) 

In this petition we ask the gift of knowledge . . 
The Sixth Petition of the Holy Pater Noster . . 

' And lead us not into temptation ' 

The devil — the tempter 

The devil's temptations are like the blows on the back of 
knight, whereby he is ennobled and honoured 

In this petition we ask for help and pity 

We do not seek to be delivered from temptation, but only 
to be aided 
The Seventh Petition of the Holy Pater Noster 

1 But deliver us from evil,' i.e. Deliver us from the devil and 
his sleights 

In this petition we pray for the gift of fear 
The Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost 

Seven spirits and seven gifts received in baptism 
Wherefore they are called Gifts. . 

They are called gifts for three reasons : 1. for their dignity 
and worth 

2. They remain with us for ever ; 3. They are given^through 


Wherefore they are called Gifts of the Holy Ghost . . 

Works of might are the works of God the Father . . 

Works of wisdom belong to the Son 

Works of goodness belong to the Holy Ghost 

The Holy Ghost is the well, the gifts are the stream 
Wherefore Man is Saved 

1. Man is saved ; 2. by eschewing evil and doing good 

The gift of dread causes us to flee from evil, and the other 
six gifts enable us to do good 

Dread is the door-keeper, the watch of the castle or the 
weed-hook of the gardener 

Three stages of people in heaven 

Of the gifts peculiar to these states . . 
Of the Three First Virtues 

Belief, hope, charity are called godly virtues 

Three things cause a man to love another . . 
Of the Four Cardinal Virtues 

Prudence, Temperance, Strength, Equity . . 

These virtues are the four towers in the four corners of the 
good man's house 
Of the Office of the Four Virtues 

Prudence (three offices of) 
















Temperance (three offices of) 
Strength (three offices of) 

Rightfulness (Equity) . . 

Philosophy the love of wisdom 

The old philosophers put false Christians to shame 
The four cardinal virtues are four kinds of loves 

Of the Gift of Dread 

Dread rouses the sinner 

The sinner is like, 1. a drunkard ; 2. one bound in irons and 

fetters, who dreams of feasts and weddings instead of 

the gibbet 

The Holy Ghost is the Good Physician . . 
The three questions the Angel asked Hagar in the wilderness 
Four questions put to the sinner by the Holy Ghost are like 

four strokes of thunder 

How Mildness (Meekness) toaxetli in the heart 

Pear strips the heart of its pride and confidence . . 

The tree of meekness is set beside the well of the fear of God 

Of the Steps of Meekness 

1. To know one's defects ; 2. to bewail one's sins \ 3. to 
confess and shrive our sins ; 4. to acknowledge our 
un worthiness ; 5. to hear willingly of our imperfec- 
tions ; 6. to endure reproach willingly ; 7. to desire to 
be accounted vile 
Of the Seven Boughs of Meekness 
The First Bough of Meekness is to honour God as a child 
doth its master . . 
The Second Bough of Meekness 
Is to praise others (for three reasons) 

Of Meek Heart 

The meek keep their virtues behind their back, their defects 

before their face 

Of an holy courteousness 

The meek man blames himself in three ways 
The Fourth Bough of Meekness 

Is to love poverty (for three reasons) 

This is shown in three ways 
The Fifth Bough of Meekness 
Is to serve others joyfully 

Meekness is the mother of obedience 
Of Obedience (Buxomness) 

Of the seven ornaments of obedience 

Holy simplicity is the good daughter of meekness 

The meek man is like, 1. the star Saturn; 2. the mill-ass 

3. the sun 

The Sixth Bough of Meekness 

Is to avoid praise and flattery 





















The meek man despises the world — but loves solitude 
He is like a modest virgin 
The Seventh Bough of Meekness 

Is steadfast belief 

Belief is like a grain of mustard seed 
Four kinds of love 
Of the Virtue of Love 

Pity is an antidote to envy . . 
Why Christians should be united . . 
The Boughs of Love 

Love shows itself in seven different ways 
Nature teaches us to seek " the common profit " 
On the right mode of administering correction 
The friendship and teaching of Christ 
The First Step of Equity {Rightfulness) 

Is to know one's self 

The gift of wisdom is the Prior in the cloister of the soul 
The two sides of the heart (1. Understanding and Will 
2. Eeason and Affection) 

The four offices of Reason 

The faculties of the WiU \ 

The union of Eeason and Will 

The Second Step of Equity 

Is to hold the body in subjection 

The five wits (senses) should be under the authority of the 
The Third Step of Equity 

Is to observe discretion in the use of temporal things 
The Fourth Step of Equity 

Is to follow the example of good men 
Novices like young greyhounds . . 
iEsop's fable of the Hound and the Ass 
The Fifth Bough of Meekness 

Is to avoid the follies of the foolish 

Pools and Sinners are not to be derided, but to be pitied 
The bad man may be good to-morrow 
The Sixth Step of Equity 
Is to keep an eye upon the devil's snares and devices 
The spirits of men are like a mirror » . . 

The devil puts thoughts into the heart 

The Seventh Step of Equity 

Is to keep God always before us 

Of the Boughs of Equity 

The Boughs of Equity are seven in number : 1. Obedience 
2. Love ; 3. Meekness ; 4. Prowess ; 5. Liberality 
6. Chastity ; 7. Sobriety 























This world is called the Yale of Tears 

Six kinds of tears are shed by good men . . 
Of the Gift of Strength 

Life of man may be compared to knighthood or to citizenship 

The gift of Strength enables a man to endure the hardships 

of this world 

Prowess strips man of sloth and idleness 

The Divisions of Virtue (Prowess) 

1. Magnanimity ; 2. Affiance ; 3. Security ; 4. Patience ; 
5. Steadfastness; 6. Magnificence; 7. Hunger and thirst 
of righteousness 
The First Step of Prowess 

To despise the world 
The Second Step of Prowess 

Is Belief 

The Third Step of Prowess 

Is Confidence (or Security) 
The Fourth Step of Prowess 

Is Patience 

Patience is acquired by trial, just as the cup of gold has 
to undergo the strokes of iron ere it is fit to place on 

the king's table 

The Fifth Step of Prowess 

Is Steadfastness or Constancy . . 

The Sixth Step of Prowess 

Is Perseverance or Magnificence 
The Boughs of Prowess 

Seven Boughs of Prowess; for in seven battles seven 
crowns may be obtained . . 
The First Fight 

Is against deadly sin 

Of the Repentance of King David . . 

David repented in tears and sighs . . 

The sinner must so sorrow that his heart shall melt to tears 

The sinner is the murderer of his own soul 

The sinner's bed is the soul 
Of Shrift 

Of the six conditions of Shrift 

1. Let the sinner look, a. to the Shriver and seek a good 

confessor ; b. to his own sins before he comes to shrift 

2. Shrift must not be delayed 

3. Let shrift be made openly 

4. Let shrift be made without reservation 

Let the sinner tell first the deadly sins he has committed 
And how often he has fallen into sin, and with what 

members he has sinned 



















5. Let shrift be made meekly and timidly 

6. Shrift must he made often, for eight reasons 
Five things disturb shrift 

Of Penance 
Penance must be made by fasting, alms, and prayers 
The sinner's contest with, 1. sin ; 2. with his own heart 

3. With his flesh ; 4. with the world ; 5. with Dame Fortune 

6. With the limbs of Antichrist 
Of the Gift of Counsel and of the Virtue of Mercy 

This gift bestows forethought and foresight 

Seek good advice 

Seven steps of the tree of Mercy — that is, the seven 

things that lead to mercy. 1. Nature 
2. Grace ; 3. Behests of Holy Scripture 
The devil a "shut-purse" 

4. The liberality of Christ ; 5. the honour of God (the Story 

of St Martin) ; 6. Dread of Doom 

7. The Seed of Mercy 
The Stories of St Germain, John the Almoner, and St 

The poor man who gave his one cow to the Priest 
Of the Goodness of Alans 

Three things to be considered in Almsgiving 

1. Give not of thy unlawful gains 

2. Give not to ribalds and minstrels 

3. Give, a. ungrudgingly . . 

b. Without delay 

c. Liberally ; d. Willingly 
Despise not the poor 
Alms alone will not save a man 
Cursed are the unmerciful 

The Gift of Understanding and of the Virtue of Chastity 
1. Life Active, and, 2. Life Contemplative 
Martha a type of the first 
The Gift of Understanding is given by the Holy Ghost 
The Holy Ghost enlightens the soul 
He purifies the soul from the filth of lechery 
A lecher is no better than a beast 
Of the Seven Steps of Chastity . . . . 
I. Have a clear conscience ; a. True Shrift 
Jordan signifies * the Stream of Judgment * 
b. A remembrance of Christ's passion 
The adder of brass betokens Christ 

II. Abstain from foul words 

Foul words denote a filthy heart 
III Guard all the wits (senses) of the body . 











The five senses are the five gates of the city of the heart, 

whereby the devil oft enters . . . . . . . . 204 

IV. Austerity of Life 204 

Lusts mar chastity . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 

Jeremiah's girdle denotes chastity . . . . . . . . 205 

Great meats nourish lechery .. .. 205 

V. Avoid the fellowship of the wicked . . . . . . 205 

VI. Be occupied with good works . . . . . . . . 206 

Idleness the ruin of Sodom . . . . . . . . . . 206 

VII. Offer good prayers to God 207 

Prayer a shield against lust 207 

Prayers are shored up with four posts 207-8 

Ask not what is improper for thee to have . . . . . . 208 

Let the sinner take heed to the poor beggars that exhibit 

their infirmities before men in order to obtain alms . . 208 

God will not give thee a pear or apple as one doth a child 208 

Ask all things in the name of Christ . . . . . . 209 

Devotion of heart is necessary to prayer . . . . . . 210 

It is no use to move the lips while the heart is dumb . . 210 
Prayer without devotion is like a messenger without letters 

of recommendation .. .. .. .. .. 211 

Pray especially to God on Sunday . . 212 

The Sunday is more holy than the Saturday . . . . 213 

Of the great festivals . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 

An answer to those who say ' We cannot always be praying ' 213 
And l if all days be mass days and holy days, how then 

should we sow, reap, mow,'? &c . . 214 

Let great lords and ladies lay aside their dignity when in 

church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 

Ladies should take pattern of Queen Hester . . . . 216 

They should not be busy about decking their heads with 

gold and silver 216-17 

The two wings that bear prayer to God are fasting and alms 217 

Come not empty-handed before God 218 

The parable of the Ten Virgins 218 

Moses overcame Amalek by prayer . . . . . . . . 219 

The prayers of many are more effective than those of one 


The Seven Boughs of Chastity are according to the states of 

men in this world 

1. Chastity of those who have preserved their maidenhood; 

2. Chastity of those who lost their maidenhood before 

marriage 220 

3. Chastity of married folk 221 

The three cases in which the deed of spousehood may be 

sinless 222-23 




The proper times for abstaining from the deed of spousehood 
The elephant will not dwell with his wife while she is 
with child 

4. Chastity of widowhood 

Three things to be observed in this state . . 

5. The Fifth Bough of Chastity is unmarried life 
The devil tries to steal the treasure of maidenhood 
Why the life of maidens is to be praised . . 

Maidenhood like a white robe 

Three spots defile the white robe 

Rich robes often hide a poor and naked conscience 

Maidenhood like a lily 

The flower of maidenhood and its six leaves 

The three grains of the lily 

Virginity most fruitful in good works 

6. The Sixth State of Chastity is of Hooded Clerks . 

The girdle of chastity 

The wickedness of the minister impairs not the efficacy of 

the sacraments 

7. The Seventh State of Chastity is the State of Religion, i. 

of those who are dedicated to God 
The devil is most anxious to cause the ' religious ' to fall 

into sin, just as the fisherman has greater joy in taking 

a great fish than a little one 
Here lies a Tale of the devil-princes' reports of their evil 

deeds to a great devil who sat upon a folding stool ; 

and how one devil had, after forty years' trial, tempted 

a monk to commit fornication, for which he was 

hugged, kissed, and crowned by the 'great devil,' his 

master 238-39 

Religion is like a desert 240 

True poverty the hoard of the religious man « . . . 241 

The story of Lot's wife and its lesson 242 

' Religious folk ' that seek temporal riches put the plough 

before the oxen 243 

The pure of heart shall see God 243-44 

Of the Gift of Wisdom. Of the Virtue of Temperance and 

of Sobriety 245 

Wisdom, the last and greatest gift of the Holy Ghost, makes 

man to know God perfectly 245 

The glue of love 246 

The spirit drags down the flesh 247 

In the great tavern (heaven) one shall drink to the full of 

God's sweetness 247 

Sobriety springs from wisdom 248 

Death seizes the glutton suddenly, ' as one taketh a fish by 

the cheek' 248 








Wine drowns the glutton 

The mouth is the chief gate of the castle of the heart 

All creatures teach man sobriety 

Sobriety must be exercised in good deeds, as fasting, vigils. 


Of the high rock (Christ) and the well of love 
Of the Seven Steps of Sobriety 

1. Measure (moderation) in the understanding 
Unbelievers overstep moderation — they seek a natural 

reason in what transcends the understanding . . 
The understanding should be subject to belief . . 

2. Moderation in the lusts and desires of the will . . 
Control the will with the bridle of sobriety 

3. Moderation in words 

Weigh thy words in the balance of discretion . . 

4. Moderation in hearing 

Flatterers and liars are plentiful, but there is great dearth 

of those who adhere to truth 

* Of the adder called in Latin Aspis ' 

5. Moderation in clothing and precious robes 
Excess is a sin 
The wearing of clothes comes of the sin of our first parents 
Nature has given man no clothes of which to be proud, like 

the tail of the peacock and the comb of the cock 

6. Moderation in Conduct 

The child of a hundred years shall be accursed 

7. Moderation in Meat and Drink 

The virtue of sobriety is above all other virtues 
He who hath this virtue is joined to God by charity 

Of rest in God 

The Ayenbite of Inwyt is written in the English of Kent 
Date of its completion 

Pater Noster . . . . 4 - *. 

Ave Maria 


For to shake away heaviness and dread, and turn them into the 
love of God (Sermon on Matthew xxiv. 43) 

The Father of the House — the Will of Reason 

The House — Conscience 

The Thief— the Devil * 

Door-keeper — Prudence 

Dread, the messenger of death 

Dread's description of hell 

Love of Everlasting Life — a messenger from heaven 

Description of heaven 

Difference between Men and Beasts 


















Aye pe uondi[w]gges of pe dyeule : zay J>is pet uo^ej?. " Zuete iesu 
J)in holy blod / pet J>ou sseddest ane pe rod / uor me and uor man- 
kende : Ich bidde pe hit by my sseld / auoreye pe wycked uend : 
al to mi lyues ende. zuo by hit." 

Jpis boc is dan Michelis of Northgate / y-write an englis of bH 
03ene hand. Jet hatte : Ayenbyte of inwyt. And is of pe boc- 
house of saynt Austines of Canterberi. mid pe lettres : C : C : 

Holy archan[g]le Michael. 

M C\ ' f\ ' Saynt gabriel. and Raphael. 

• \J • *J ' Ye brenge me to }>o castel. 

j)ev alle zaulen varej? wel. 

Lhord ihesu almi^ti kyng. Jet madest / and lokest alle Jyng. 
Me Jet am Ji makyng : to Jine blisse me Jou bryng. Amen. 

Blind, and dyaf. and alsuo domb. Of zenenty yer al uol rond. 
Ne ssolle by dra$e to pe grond : Yor peny / uor Mark / ne uor pond. 


Jjise bye)) pe capiteles of pe boc uo^inde / And bjep y-wryte to 
vynde y-redliche / by Jje tellynge of algorisme / ine huyche leaue of 
Jje boc Jet hy by. And ine huyche half of pe lyeaue be tuaye lettres 
of pe abece. J?et is to wytene .A. and .b. .A. betocnej pe uerste 
half of pe leaue .b. pe ojerhalf. 



fie uore-speche of pise boc uol- 

3ynde .1. a. 
fie uerste godes heste .La. 
fie o]?er godes heste .La. 
fie J?ridde godes heste .La. 
Jpe uerjje godes heste .Lb. 
Jpe vifte godes heste .Lb. 
J?e zyxte godes heste .2. a. 
#e zeuende godes heste .2. a. 
fie e3tende godes heste .2. a. 
)}e godes heste .2. b. 
fie tende godes heste .2. b. 
fie tuelf articles of jje cristene 

beleaue .2. b. 
Of pe sseawynge Jjet sayn Ion J?e 

godspellere y-ze3 .3. b. 
Jpe toknen of p e heaueden of Jje 

beste .3. b. 
fiet uerste heaued of pe beste .4. a. 
Hon me ssel to dele / pe zeue 

bo3es of prede .4. b. 
fie o)>er bo3 of prede" .5. a. 
J)e ]?ridde bo3 of prede .5. b. 
fie verjje bo3 of prede .6. a. 
J)e vifte bo3 of prede .6. a. 
J)e zixte bo3 of prede .7. a. 
}pe zeuende bo3 of prede .7. a. 
J?et o£er heaued of pe beste of 

helle .7. a. 
Jjet Jjridde heaued of pe queade 

beste .8. a. 
Jje uerfe heaued of pe queade 

beste .8. b. 
J?e yyfte heaued of pe queade 

beste .9. b. 
fie o]>er bo3 of couaitise .10. b. 

fie jjridde bo3 of auarice .10. b. 
fie verjje bo3 of auarice .11. a. 
Jpe vyfte bo3 of auarice .11. b. 
fie zixte bo3 of auarice .11. b. 
fie zeuende 003 of auarice .12. a. 
fie e3tinde bo3 of auarice .12. b. 
j)e ne3ende bo3 of auarice .12. b. 
fie tende bo3 of auarice .12. b. 
fie zyxte heaued of pe beste .13. a. 
fie zeuende heaued of pe queade 

beste .14. a. 
Of pe zenne of yelpinge .17. a. 
Leazinges .18. a. 
Of pe zenne of lye3ynge .18. b. 
Cheaste .19. a. 
Of grochinge .19. b. 
Of wyfstondynge .20. a. 
Yor to lyerny sterue .20. b. 
Hou me ssel knawe guod and 

kuead .22. b. 
Of tymlyche guodes .22. b. 
Of pe lesse guodes .23. a. 
Of pe zoj?e guodes .23. b. 
Of J?ri maneres of guode .23. b. 
Of uirtue.23. b. 
Of wyt / and of clergy e .24. a. 
My3te .25. a. 
Yrydom .25. b. 
Noblesse .26. a. 
Gentyl guod .26. b. 
Of tuo lostuolle guodes .27. a. 
Of virtue more specialliche .28. a. 
Of J?ri finges nyeduolle / to pe 

erjje .28. b. 
fie uore-speche of pe holy pater 

noster .29. b. 


Hyer begynj? Jet holy pater nos- Of Jje zeue k^es of Myldenesse 

ter l .30. a. .41. a 

pe uerste bene of Jje holy pater pe ojjer bo^ of Mildenesse .41. b. 

nosier .31. b. Of Milde herte .41. b. 

J5e ojjre bene of Jje holy pater pe uerjje bo^ of Mildenesse .42. b. 

noster .32. b. pe vifte 003 of Mildenesse .42. b. 

pe Jjridde bene of Jje holy pater Of bo3samnesse .43. a. 

noster .33. a. pe zixte bo3 of Mildenesse .43. b. 

pe uerj>e bene of Jje holy pater pe zeuende bo^ of Mildenesse 

noster .33. a. .44. a. 

pe vifte bene of Jje holy pater Of Jje m'rtue of loue .44. b. 

noster .34. a. pe bo3es of louerede .45. a. 

pe zixte bene of ))e holy pater pe ueTste stape of ri3tnolnesse 

noster .35. a. .46. b. 

pe zeuende bene of pe holy pater pe ojjer stape of i^tuolnesse .47. b. 

noster .35. b. pe Jjridde stape of ri3tuolnesse 
pe zeue yefjes of Jje holy gost .48. a. 

.36. a. pe uerjje stape of ri3tuolnesse 
Hueruore hy bye]? y-cleped yefjjes .48. a. 

.36. b. „ pe vifte stape of ri3tuolnesse 

Hueruore hy bye]? y-cleped yefjje .48. b. 

of ]?e holy gost .36. b. pe zixte stape of ri3tuolnesse 
Hueruore is man y-bor3e .37. a. .48. b. 

Of Jje Jjri uerste uirtues .37. b. pe zeuende stape of ri^tuolnesse 
Of Jjeuourmrtuescardinales.37.b. .49. a. 

Of Jje office of Jje uour mrtues Of Jje bo3es of ri3tuolnesse .49. b. 

.38. a. Of J?e yefjje of stre[n]gjje .50. a. 

Temperance .38. a. pe todelinge of mrtues .51. a. 

Stre[n]gjje .38. a. pe ojjer stape of prouesse. 51. b. 

Ei3[t]uolnesse .38. a. pe jjridde stape of prouesse .51. b. 

Of Jje yefjje of drede .38. b. pe verjje stape of prouesse .51. b. 

Hou myldenesse wext ine herte pe vifte stape of prouesse .52. a. 

.39. b. pe zixte stape of prouesse .52. a. 

Of Jje stapes of Myldenesse .40. a. pe bo3es of prouesse .52. b. 

1 MS. nosiwer. 

1 * 


pe uerste vr$t .53. a. \)e vifte bo3 of chastete .70. h. 

Of pe uorJ>enehinge of )>e king Hyer ly]j a tale .74. b. 

dauijj .53. a. Of J?e yefj?e of wysdome. Of 

Of ssryfte 53. b. >e mrtue of temperance. 

Of yno3bote .56. a. And of sobrete .76. b. 

Of ]?e yefj?e of red / and of mrtue Of pe stapes of sobrete .79. a. 

of merci .97. a. Paternoster. Aue maria. Credo 

Of J?e guodes of elmesse .60. a. .82. a. 

j)e yefjje of onderstondi[/i]ge. and Vor to ssake a-way heuinesse an 

of J?e m'rtue of chastete .62. a. drede .82. b. 

Of Je zeue stapes of chastete .63. a. Huet is betuene man and best 

J)e zeue bo3es of chastete .68. b. .84. b. 


J?E UORE-SPECHE. Prologue. 

Almi3ti god / yaf ten hestes / ine pe la^e of iewes / God CF gave' Moses 

pet Moyses onderuing / ine J» helle of Synay / ine tuo ^ttwo'tf 

tables of ston / Jet were i-write / mid godes vingre. and blesofBtone - 
him-zelf / efter his bermge / ine his spelle / het hise 

healde / and loki / to ech man / J>et wile by y-boi^e. and whoso breaketh 

huo J?et agelt / ine enie of pe ilke hestes : him ssel )>erof hi^ re^nTtherl 

uorJ?enche / and him ssriue / and bidde god merci / yef of ' 
he wyle by ybor^e. 

J)is boc is ywrite / l This book is writ- 

,. . ten for English- 

uor engiisse men pet hi wyte / men, that they 

i i • if i i / may know how to 

hOU hi SSOlle ham-Zellie SSnue/ shrive and cleanse 

and maki ham klene / ine bise Hue. them in this life ' 

' T This book is 

JplS b0C hatte huo j>et Writ / named by its au- 

AYENBITE OF INWYT. Ayen-bite of 

auerst bye], fe hestes ten / 25S2ET 
pet loki ssolle alle men. 

First are the Ten 
Behests that all 
men should keep. 


be uerste heste bet god made / and het : is bis. " bou The Flrst Con> 

J ' * ' mandment, 

ne sselt habbe / uele godes." Jet is to zigge / " J)ou ne 
sselt habbe god / bote me. ne worssipie / ne serui. And 
j?ou ne sselt do J?ine hope / bote ine me." Vor pe ilke / 
j?et dej his hope / l^liche ine ssepje : zewe^ep dyad- God. 
liche. and dep aye Jise heste. Zuiche bye J? pe ilke / Jet 
1 The following lines are written continuously as prose if) the MS. 

is to worship one 


against which 
they sin who too 
much love their 
goods (wealth). 

worssipej p e momenes. and make]? hire god / of ssepje / 
huich Jet hit by. 

Aye Jjise heste / zene^ef Jo / Jet to moche / louiej 
hire guod. gold. ojer zeluer. ojer ojre Jiwges / erjliche. 
Huo Jet J ine Jise Jinges ageltej : zettej zuo moche 
hire herte / and hire hope : ]>et hi uoryetej / hire 
sseppere. an letej him / Jet alle Jise guodes ham lenj. 
And Jeruore / hi ssolden him serai / and Jonki / and 
toppe alle Jinges / louie / and worssipie / alzuo Je tekj / 
Jis uerste heste. 


The Second Com- 

J)e ojer heste / ys Jellich. " Jou ne sselt nime / 
godes name : in ydel." Jet is to zigge : " Jou ne' sselt 
zuerie / nor na3t / and wyj-oute guode scele." pet onre 
lhord him-zelf / ous uorbyet / ine his spelle. Jet me ne 
zuerie / ne by pe henene / ne by Je erje / ne by ojre 
swear not except ssepje. J^les ine guode skele / me may zuerie / wyj-oute 

Snerg^cause. zenne - ase ine dome / huer me okse ]> / °J> I ° f Z0 ^ & ' 

of er out of dome / in ojre guode skele. and clenliche / 

and skeluolliche. Ine non ojre manyere / ne is no ri3t 

to zuerie. And Jeruore / huo Jet zuerej wij-oute skele / 

Jane name of oure lhorde / and uor na3t : yef he zuerej 

uals / be his wytinde : he him uorzuerj. and dej / to 

ayans / Jise heste. and zuerj dyadliche. uor he zuerj / 

ayens inwyt. J?et is to onderstonde / huanne he him 

swearing lightly uorzuerj / be Jo3te / and be longe Jenchinge. Ac pe 

18 mi '* ilke Jet zuerej zoj / be his wytinde / and alneway uor 

na3t. ojer uor some skele kueade / na3t kueadliche / 

ake h^tliche / and wyj-oute sclondre : zuerej ^tliche. 

Ja3les Je wone / is kueaduol / and may wel wende / to 

zenne dyadlich / bote yef him ne loki. Ac Je ilke / 

swearing hideous- jet zuerej hidousliche be god / ojer by his ha^en / and 

ly is deadly sin. . _ 

him to-bre3 J / and zayj him sclondres / Jet ne byej na3t 
to zigge : Je ilke zene3ej dyadliche. Ne he ne may 


habbe skele : Jet he him mo3e excusi. And Je ilke / Jet 
mest him wonej to zuerie : mest zene^ep. 

j)E JjRIDDE GODES HESTE. The Third Com- 


f)e Jridde heste / is Jellich. " Loke / Jet Jou hal^i / 
Jane day / of Je sabat [Zeterday]." Jet is to zigge. [Foi.i.b.] 
Jou ne sselt do / ine Je daye / of Je sabat [Zeterday] / 
fine nyedes / ne fine workes / Jet Jou nu^t do / ine ojre 
dayes. Ac Jou sselt Je resti / uor betere / Je yeme to R* 8 t the seventh 
bidde / and to serui Jine sseppere / Jet him restedey fane B ^rve God. y ** 
zeuende day / of workes / Jet he hedde ymad ine Je zix 
dayes benore. ine huichen he made Je wordle / an 
ordaynede [di3te.]. Jjis heste / uoluelj gostliche / him 
Jet loke J / be his nn^te : Je pays / of his inwyt / god uor 
to send / more holylaker. ])awne Jis word / zeterday / Saturday or Sab- 
Jet Je iurie / clepe J sabat. is ase moche wor J : ase reste. bath means re8t * 

Jjis heste / ne may non loki gostliche : Jet by ine 
inwyt / of dyadlich zenne. Vor zuich inwyt / ne may 
by ine reste / Jer huyle / Jet lii is / ine zuich stat. And instead of it, Holy 
ine Je stede / of Je sabat / Jet wes straytHche y-loked / da y in the New " 
ine Je yalde la3e : zet holi cherche / Jane sonday / to ^ : t0 be kept 
loky / ine Je newe la3e. Vor oure lhord / aros / uram 
dyaje to lyue / Jane zonday. An Jeruore / me ssel hine 
loky / and urejie / zo holyliche / and by ine reste / of 
workes / ope Je woke, and more of workes / of zeraie. 
and yeue him more / to gostliche workes / and to godes 
seruise / and Jenche / ane 'his sseppere / and him bidde / 
and Jonky / of his guode. And huo / Jet brekj Jane and whoso breaks 
zonday / and Je ojre he3e festes / Jet bye J y-zet to loky / ^gh feast", s^s^ 
ine holy cherche : zene3ej dyadliche / uor he dej / aye deadly » 
Je heste of god. to-uore yzed. and of holi cherche / 
bote yef hit by / uor zome nyede / Jet holi cherche 
grantej. Ac more zene3ej / Je ilke / Jet dispende J and worse if he 
Jane zonday / and Je festes / ine zewne / and ine hordom / and whoredom. 
and in ojre zewnes / aye god. J)ise Jri hestes / di3tej 
ous / to gode specialliche. 


The Fourth Com- J) E TjERbE GODES HESTE. 


fie uerpe heste / is pellich. " Worpssipe pine uader / 

and pine moder. uor pu sselt libbe pe lenger ine yerpe." 

fiis heste / ous amonestep / pet we ous loky / pet we / ne 

Wrath not thy Fa- wr eppi uader /ne moder / wytindeliche. And huo bet 

ther or Mother. rr I I J Y 

onworpep / his uader /and his moder / be his wytinde / 
oper ham missayp / oper wrepep / mid kueade : zene3ep 
dyadliche / an brekp pise heste. 
weshouidhonour j ne j,i ge y^ e h es te / is onderstonde / be worpssipe / 

our ghostly fa- * ' I T I r i 

thers and the over- bet we ssolle bere / to oure uaderes / gostliche. bet is to 

lings of Holy r ' ' & Y 

Church, ham / pet habbep / pe lokingge / ons to teche / and ous to 

chasti / ase byep / pe ouerlinges / of holy cherche. and 

who have the care p bet habbep / be lokinge / of oure zaules / and of oure 

of our souls. r Y r ' Y ° ' * 

bodyes. And huo Jet nele / bou^e to ham / pet habbep 
pe lokinge of him / huanne hi teche]? pet guod. pet me 
is y-hyalde to done : zene3ep kueadliche. and zuych 

Disobedience to 
them is a deadly 

sin. may by / pe onbo3samnesse : pet hit is / dyadlich zenne. 

The Fifth Com- j)B VIFTE GODES HESTE. 


Thou shait slay no fi e v ifte heste / is pellich / " pou ne sselt / sla^e nenne 

man." fiis heste uorbyet / pet non ne ssel / sla^e opren / 

neither for venge- hot a-wrekinge. ne uor his guodes. ober uor obre 

ance, nor for his * * 

goods, for this is wyckede skele. uor pet is zenne dyadlich. J^les uor to 

deadly sin. . 

it is right to slay s^e pe misdoeres / ri^t uor to done / and loki / and 

e mis oers. ^^ ^^ guode skele. hit is guod ri3t / by pe la3e / to 

[Foi. 2. a.] ;hj m jj e £ sse i j^t do J an( j yliyealde is perto. 
in this behest is l ne pis heste ys uorbode / zenne of hate / and of 

forbidden the sin J . 

of hate, wrath, wrepe / and of grat ire. Vor alse zayp / pe writinge. pe 

and great ire. -n / . / 

The brother-hater like / pet hatep his broper : he is / mansla3pe / ase to 

is a man-slayer. , . n / i -, ,,. -, , .-.-,; 

his wylle / and zene3ep dyadhche. and pe like / pet 
To bear long berp longe wrepe / ayens obren. vor zuich wrebe / 

wrath against ' J ' " * T ' 

others is a deadly longe yhyealde / and byuealde ine herte : is ine wrepe / 

sin * • • 

and me hate : pet is dyadlich zenne. and aye pise 

heste. And yet zene3ep he more / pet dep / oper por- 

chacep / ssame / oper harm / to opren : wrongliche. oper 


is ine rede / and ine helpe / uor to do harmi o)>ren / 
him to awreke. J^les wre]>c / oJ>er onworjmesse / Jet Harm done un- 
gef h^tliehe / wyfoute greate wille / an willinge / uor i^ota^eadtysin! 
to harmi opren": ne is na3t dyadlich ze/me. 



j)e zixte heste / is bellieh. " bou ne sselt do / Thou shait do no 

whoredom, nor de- 

non hordoim Jet is to zigge / Jou ne sselt na^t wylni sire fleshly feUow- 
ueh^rede nlesslich / wyj> ojjre ma/me wyf. me^'swives. er 

Ine bise heste / ous is uor-bode / alle zenne of ulesse / This behest for- 

i it i # i i • • / * biddeth lechery, 

pet me clepep generallicne / lecnerie. Jet is on / of pe which is one of the 

zeuen dyadliehe zennes. pa$ per by zome bronches / Jet ea yslns, 

ne bye]) na3t dyadlich zenne. ase byej manie arizinges 

of vlesse / Jet me ne may na3t al[7]e bevly. and Jo me 

ssel na3ti / and wyjdra3e / ase moche / ase me may. some branches of 

whicli fts ftirisinfirs 

na3t uor to norici his / ne porchaci / ojer be to moche of the flesh, are 
mete / ojer drinke / ojer be euele J03tes. to longe y- n ° ea y 8lns " 
hyealde. ojer be kueade takinges. Vor ine zuiche 
Jinges / me may habbe / harm of zaule. Ine Jise heste in this behest are 
is uorbode / alle zennen a-ye kende / ine huet manere / against kind (na- 
hy byej y-do / ojer ine his bodie : ojer in ojren. fcure) * 



be zeuende heste / is bellieh. " bou ne sselt do / Thou shait do no 

' r * J ' theft. 

none Jiefje." J)is heste ous uorbyet / to nimene / and 
of-hyealde / o]>re marine Jing / huet Jet hit by / be 
wyckede skele / aye pe wyl of him / Jet hit 03]?. 

Ine bise heste is uorbode / roberie / biefbe / stale / This behest for- 

r ' I r r I I biddeth robbery, 

and gauel / and bargayn wyb obren / uor his osen to theft > stealing, 

. usury, bargain. 

habbe. And pe ilke / J?et de J / aye Jis heste : is yhyalde 
to yelde. Jet he hej / of ojre manne kueadliche / yef 
he wot to huam. And yef he not : he is yhyalde / to 
yeue hit uor godes loue. ojer / to done by be rede of 

,,., , tti.i .11,/ • He thatwithhold- 

noli cnerche. Vor he Jet wyjhalt / o Jre mawne Jmg eth other men's 
mid wrong / be kueade skele : mne^ep dyadliehe : bote dead!y. Smneth 



The Eighth Com- 
Thou shalt bear 
no false witness 
against thine 
This behest for- 
biddeth lying and 

Against this be- 
hest do those 
who are guilty of 
the sins of " de- 

and of flattery and 
of treachery. 

[Fol. 2. b.] 

The Ninth Com- 
Thou shalt not 
covet thy neigh- 
bour's wife. 

Thou shalt not 
consent to do sin 
with thy body. 

The difference be- 
tween the ninth 
and sixth Com- 

The sixth forbids 
the outward deed, 
the ninth forbids 
the inward con- 

yef he hit yelde / pei ha ssel / yef he hit wot / and mo^e 
hit do. ojer yef he ne de]? / by ]>e rede of holy cherche. 


]>e e3tende heste / is Jellich. " J)ou ne sselt zigge / 
none ualse wytnesse / aye J?ine emcristen." 

Ine J?ise heste / ous ys uorbode / pet we ne lye^e / ne 
ous uor-zuerie / ne ine dome / ne wyJ?-oute dome / uor to 
do harmi J?ine emcn'sten. and J?et me ne lede nenne 
in wytnesse / nor to ampayri his guode los. o)?er his 
grace / Jet he he]? / uor J?et is dyadlich ze?me. To-ayens 
J?ise heste do]? ]?o / ]?et misziggej? guode men / be-hinde 
ham / be hire wytinde. and by kueadnesse. Jet me 
clepe]? / ]?e zenne of detraccion. and ]?o also / J?et herie]? 
pe kueade / and hire dedes / of hire kueadnesse / and of 
hire folies ywyte / o]?er yzo3e / o]?er yherd. J?et is zeraie 
of blondi[w]gge / o]?er of lozengerie / huaraie me hit 
zay]? to-uore ham. oJ?er ualshede / oJ?er lyesinges / 
huaraie he pet me spekj? of / ne is na^t present. Vor 
alle Jos byej? ualse wytnesses. 


]>e ne3ende heste / is JelHch. " j)ou ne sselt na3t 
wylni / fine ney3bores 1 wyf. ne his wylni / ine J?ine 
herte." Jjet is to zigge / ]?ou ne sselt na3t co^senti / to 
do zenne / mid J?ine bodye. 

j)is heste uorbyet / to wylni mid wyl of herte / to 
habbe ueh^rede ulesslich / mid alle wyfmen 2 / out of 
spoushod. And J?e kueade tocnen wy]?-oute / ]?et bye]? 
ymad / uor to dra3e zeraie / ase byej? / kueade wordes / 
of zuyche manere. o]?er yefj?es / o]?er kueade takinges. 
And J?e difference of ]?ise heste / mid pe zixte / aboue 
y-zed : zuo is / Jet Je zixte heste uorbyet / pe dede 
wyj-oute. ac ]?is uorbyet / pe grantinge wy]?inne. Yor 
pe grantinge / to habbe uek^rede ulesslich / mid wyf- 
men / J?et ne is na3t his be spouse : ys zenne dyadlich / 

1 MS. netybores. 2 MS. wyfmem. 


be pe dome / of godes spelle / }>et zayj?. " Huo Jet zi^J? 
ane wyfman / and wylnej) his ine herte : he hej> 
y-zene3ed / ine hyre : ine his herte. " Jet is to zigge : wyj> 
aperte wylni[w]gge / and mid J>03te. 

j)E TENDE GODES HESTE. The Tenth Com- 


j)e tende heste / is Jellich. "J?ou ne sselt na3t Thou shait not de« 
wylni Jjing / J?et is Jjine nixte." ftis heste uorbyet / iiSyne^hwi! 
wyl to habbe opre mawne Jjing / by wyckede scele. 

Ine pis heste / is uorbode enuie / of ojjre ma?me in this behest iB 

__ ... . , forbidden envy, of 

guode. o]?er of ojjre ma/me grace. Vor pe like enuie / which comes co- 

comj) of kueade couaytise / nor to habbe J>et gnod / ofer deadly sin.' 

pe ilke grace : Jet he y-zi3j> ine ojren. And pe ilke 

conaytise / huanne pe consentement j and pe J^tes Jer- 

to : is dyadlich ze?zne. and a-ye Jise heste. J^les / 

li^te couaytise / to habbe oJ>re mawne Jing / by 1 

guode scele : ne is no zew,ne. and yef per is / eni kuead Any evil arising 

. without will is no 

arizinge / wyf-oute wylle / and wyp-oute grantmge / to sin, but if there be 

, . _ , . . . i « , sin, it is not dead- 

narmi ojren : nit ne is no zeraie. and yet per is zewne : i y but light. 
hit is hjt zenne. 

bis byeb be ten hestes / huer-of be bri uerste / ous These are the Ten 

T f ' / t • Behests, whereof 

di3t wel to god. j)e ojre zeuen / ous di3t to oure nixte. the three first di- 

. i / j recteth us to God, 

J)ise ten hestes / bye J to echen / Jjet ne]> scele / and the other seven to 
elde / yhyealde to conne / and to done. Vor huo pet ournelg bour - 
dej) Jerteyens / be his wytinde : zene3e]) dyadliche. 


cles of the Chris- 

byse byeb be tuelf articles / of be cnstene byleue / * ian Belief - , 

' * 7 J r r it j i There are twelve 

bet ech man cWsten / ssel yleue stedeuestliche. uor articles of the 

r i J Christian belief, 

ojerlaker / he ne may by yboi^e / huanne he he]? wyt / 

and scele. And berof byeb tuelf. by be tale / of pe "bythetaieofthe 

. twelve apostles," 

tuelf apostles / Jet hise zette to hyealde / and to loky / 

to alle bon / bet wyleb by y-borse. ba/me be uerste / be- The first belongs 

r ' T T J f . to the Father, 

longej to pe uader. pe zeuende : to Je zone, pe uerje / the seven foiiow- 
to Je hob gost. uor Jet is Je byginni[n]ge/of the beleaue: l„d the remaking 
yleue ine pe holy trmite. pet is ine pe uader / and ine g££ the Holy 
1 wy in MS. 


pe zone / and ine pe holy gost. on god / an pri persones. 

Alle pise articles / bye]) ycontyened ine pe credo. / pet 

pe tuelf apostles made, huer-of / ech zette his. 

The first article j)e uerste article, ys pellich. " Ich beleue ine god / 

was set by st pe uader almi^ti / sseppere / of heuene / and of erpe." 

j^is article zette zaynte peter. 

The second article j)e oper article / belongep to pe zone / aze to his 

head) was set by godhede. j)et is to zigge / pet he is god. and is pellich. 

st John. u j^ beleue ine yesn crist / oure lhord / godes zone pe 

uader / ine alle pinges / Jet belongep to pe godhede / an 

is onlepi ping / mid pe uader : bote of pe persone / pet 

is oper / paraie pe persone / of pe uader. J)is article zette / 

[Foi. 3. a.] sa y n I° n p e godspellere. 

The third article J>e pridde article / and pe vifte / pet uo^ep efter / 

of the son? man- belongep to pe zone / ase to pe mawhode : pet is to 

hood> zigge / ase pet he is man dyadlich. j)a,rme mid pe pridde 

of his conception article / is ycontened / pet he wes y-kend / of pe holi 

gost / and y-bore of pe mayde Marie. J2et is to onder- 

stonde / pet he wes y-kend / ine pe Mayde Marie / be 

pe dede / and by pe uirtu / of pe holi gost / and 

noping / of dede / of man. And pe mayde Marie / 

This article was blefte eu re mayde / an yhol be-uore / and efter. Jpis 

st JaWbrother. article zette za y n Iacol:) / sa y n Ionnes broper. 

The fourth article $ e uer p e article / belongep to his passion, pet is to 

passilfn? 01118 Zi ^ e / J> et he f 0lede d y a f 0nder P 0UI1S P ilate / J> et WeS 

paen / and demere / ine po time / ine ierusalem. : by pe 

romayns. Onder po demere / wes Iesu crist y-demd / 

wyp wrong / to pe biddinge / of pri kueade ieus / and 

and was set by st J~&° a rode / and - d y ad / and y-do in-to berieles. jfia 

Andrew. article zette saynt andreu. 

The fifth arti- J^ e v ^ e article / zuo is / pet ha wente in-to helle / 

"Harrowin f ^f e ^ er ^ s < ty a, \ )G I uor to dra 3 e paraies / and to deliuri pe 

Hel1 •" zaules / of pe holi uaderes. and of alle pon / pet uram pe 

ginni[V]gge/of pe wordlestorue / inzop & guodebyleaue / 

and ine hope / pet hi ssolden by y-bo^e / be him / uor pe 

zenne / of pe uerste manne. hit behouede / pet alle 


wenten / into helle and bere abyde be guode / ine In hen abode the 

* * * ° ' good, in sure hope 

zikere nope. Jet iesu crist / godes zone / ssolde come / of deliverance. 

his to deliuri / be Jet he hedde behote / be his pro- 

phetis. And uor Jo scele / wolde he / efter his dyaje / 

wende in to helle. j)et is to onderstonde / ine Jo half / The wicked were 

Jet were Je hal 3 en. Xa 3 t ine Jo half: Jet were Je uor- JfJ^^ 

lorene. Jet weren dyade / ine hire zenne / and in hire 

misbileue. And Jo ne dro 3 he na 3 t. uor hi bye J uorlore / 

uor euremo. Jjis article / zetfce saynt philippe. This article set st 

J?e zixte article / is of his arizinge. Jet is to wytene. The sixth is of 
Jet Janne Jridde day / efter his dyaje. uor to uoluelle tion, 3 8 Temrrec " 
Je writinges : [he] aros uram dyaje / to Hue. and ssea- 
wede him / to his deciples. and ham prouede / his 
arizinge : ine uele maneres / be uourti dajes. bis and was set by st 

,. , , Thomas. 

article / zette saynt 1 thomas. 

' ** [l MS, sanyt) 

\>e zeuende article is. pet Jane uourta 3 te day / efter The seventh'arti- 

his arizinge / huanne he hedde y-yete / mid his deciples ?&£%££* 

to-uore ham/ al aperteliche / stea 3 into heuene / Jet is ^^atei^ 
aboue / alle ssepje / Jet ys ine heuene / al to godes ri 3 t 

half / be uader / huer he him made, bis article / zette This article ** st 

, , , ' Bartholomew. 

seynt bartholomeu. 

J?e e 3 tende article is. Jet he ssel come / ate daye of Th « eighth article 

dome / to deme Je dyade / and Je libbinde. Je guode / come at dooms- 

and Je kueade. and yelde to echen / be Jet he he J of- and dead ** qm ° k 
guo / ine Jise wordle. Jpise bye J Je artikles / Jet belongej/ 

to Je zone. Jpis article zette seynt Matheu Je godsspellere. st Matthew set 

J)e ne 3 ende article / and Je Jri laste : belongej / to The m^th^ticie 

Je holi gost. and is Jellich. « Ich beleue / ine Je holi ^ to *~^ 

gost." fris article aksej / Jet me leue / Jet Je holi gost / Gh08t ' 
is Je yefje / and Je loue / of Je uader / and of Je zone / 

huerof com J / al Je guod of grace, and Jet he is / The Holy Ghost is 

onlepi god / an onlepi Jing / mid Je uader / and Je I^S^Si 

zone / bote Je persone / Jet is Jer / Jaime Je persone of Son * 

Je uader / and /.of Je zone. J)is article sette / saynt This article set 

Tacob / zaynte Simones and saynte Iudes brober. st Jacob. 

' J r [Fol. 8. b.] 

J)e tende article is Jellich. " Ich y-leue holy cherch The tenth article 

14 st John's vision of the beast. 

treats of the fei- generalliche / and be mennesse of hahen" / Jet is to 

lowship of saints, inn / i * n 

zigge : Je uela^rede of alle Je ha^en / and 01 alle Je 

guode men Jet bye]? / and ssolle by. al to Je ende of Je 

wordle / and weren zejje Je ginni [w]gge to gidere / ine 

in this article are Je byleaue of Iesu crist. And ine Jise article / bye]> 

seven sacraments, onderstonde / Je zeue sacremens / Jet bye]? ine holy 

cherehe. Jet is to wytene. cristninge. conferminge. pe 

sacrement of Je wyefde. ordre. spousbod. Je holy ssriffce. 

This article set st and Je laste : anoylinge. ))is article zette sayn simoun. 

Thedeventharti- P e enleffce is. to leue : Je lesnesse of zenne. pet god 

ntl 8 oM? iVe " yet> be Je mVtue / of his holi sacmnens / Jet byej ine 

S rt^ de B6t thiS ^oh cnercne - $ IS article zette sayn Iude. 

Thetweiftharticie pe tuelfte article is. to leue / pe general arizinge of 

general rising of bodye. and Jet lif / wyj-oute ende. Jet is Je blisse of 

withoVend, * * paradis. Jet god ssel yeue to ham / Jet hit habbej of- 

guo / be guode beleaue : and be guode workes. ])is 

and everlasting article / yef J to onderstonde / his ccw[t]rarie. Jet is / Je 

punishment pre- . . 

pared for the for- pine / wyj-oute ende/ Jet god hej agrayjed / to Je 

uorlorene. J)is article / ssel by onderstonde / ine zuyche 

By it we under- manere : Jet ech / by he guod / by he kued / ssel by ate 

stand that both , „, ; -, -, , , . , / • i • 

good and bad shau daye of dome / arered uram dyaje / to lyue / me his 
wardT^theVody °3 ene bodye / huer he ssel habbe an. and onderuonge 
hlTse^dS hM mede / ine bodye / and ine zaule / be fet he he> 
this life. of-guo / ine Jise Hue. an Jeruore / ssolle Je guode / at 

Jo daye / in bodye / and ine zaule / by ine lif / wyj- 
oute ende. and Je kueade : uorlore euremo / ine bodye 
This article was and ine zaule. j)is article zette saynt Ma J bi. 

set by St Mat- 

OfThe vision of Op J?E SSEAWYNGE \)ET SEINT ION \)E 

St John. 


st John saw a Mi lhord sanyn Ton / ine Je boc / of his sseawynges. 

beast come out of , 

the sea, Jet is y-cleped / Je apocalipse : zuo zay J / Jet he yze^ a 

best / Jet com out of the ze. wonderliche ydi3t. and to 

having a leopard's moche dreduol. Vor Jet bodi of Je beste : wes ase 

body, a bear's feet, 

a lion's throat, lipard. Je uet / weren of bere. Je Jrote / of houn. and 

and it had seven -. . , , 1 -, # , , ■• , -i t 

heads and ten hit hedde / zeue heauedes. and ten homes, and ope 


be ten homes: ten eorounes. And yzes saint Ion. horns, surmount- 

* . ed by ten crowns. 

bet be ilke kneade best / hedde miste / of hira-zelue / The wicked beast 

I • * / 1.1. u 1 / I.' * t A 4. had might of him- 

to vi3te / wyp pe ha^en / an his to ouercome / and to self to fight with 
ouermaistri. p\s ilke best / zuo wonderuol / and zuo y- saints!** 00 " 16 
countrefeted / and dreduol : betocnej) / pane dyenel / This beast be- 
pet com out of pe ze / of helle / pet is uol / of alle W hocomethoutof 
zor^e / and of alle biternesse. J)et bodi of pe beste / ase SsgTaef a^L 
zayp saynt Ion. zuo wes ylich / to pe lipard. uor Jet not *? b y ^ lip- 
ase be lipard / hep diuers colurs : zuo hep pe dyeuel / strength by the 

,. , „ . , t P , / . bear's feet, 

diuerse maneres / of waytmges / and ol contac / uor to 
gily / an uor to uondi pe uolk. pe uet weren ilich / pe 
uet of bere. Vor alse pe bere / pet hep pe stre[n]gpe ine 
pe uet / and ine pe armes / halt strangliche. and bint / 
pet he hep / onder his uet / and pet he beclepp : alsuo 
deb be dyeuel ham / bet he heb beclept / and ouerprawe his cruelty by the 

„,. !. , ., , lion'sthroat, 

be zenne. pe prote wes of lion, uor his greate cruelete / for the devil win 

_ . for-swallow all. 

pet al wyle uorzue^e. 

bE TOKNEN OP bE HEAUEDEN OP ])E BESTE. The tokens of the 

' * heads of thebeast. 

[Fol. 4. a.J 

pe zeue heauedes / of pe beste of helle : byep pe The seven heads 
zeuen hauedliche zennes. be huichen / pe dyeuel dra3p deadly ginSi 
to him / ase al pe wordle. Vor onneape y-ualp / pet me £^5TSSSof 
ne ualp / in-to pe prote / of zome : of pe zeue heauedes. jjjjj» * the Mven 
And peruore/zayp wel saynt Ion: pet hit hedde imjte / 
a-ye pe ha^en. Vor in erpe / ne ys zuo holi man : pet None is so holy as 
mo^e / parfitliche be-uly / alle pe maneres of zenne. pet 

of pise zeue heuedes comep / wyp-oute special pnuilege 
of grace / alse hit wes / ine pe mayde Marie / oper ine 
zome obren / be special grace l bet he hedde of god. pe The 10 homs be- 

r ' x ° ' J token the guilts 

ten homes of pe beste / be-toknep / pe geltes of pe ten oftheio behests. 

hestes / of oure lhorde / pet pe dieuel purchacep / also 

moche ase may / by be zeuen / beuore yzed zennen. pe The 10 crowns are 

J I J r ' J . the 10 victories he 

ten eorounes aboue / betoknep / pe ouercommge / pet hath over sinners, 
hit hep aboue / alle zenuolle / uor pet / he dep his 
agelte / ine pe ten hestes. 


The first head of J)ET UERSTE HEAUED OF J?E BESTE. 

the Beast. 

The first head is pet uerste heaued / of pe beste of helle : ys prede. 

2nd Envy, J* 6 * J> er / is enuie. pe pridde / wrepe. pe uerpe / sleaupe / 

4th sioth^ f e ^ me c l e P e J> / i ne clergie : accidye. pe vifte / icinge. 

5thCovetousness, j n cle[r]gie / auarice. oper couaytise. pe zixte / glotounye. 

7th Lechery. pe zeuende lecherie / oper luxnrie. Of pise zeue heauedes / 

com]) ech manere zenne. and peruore / hi bye]) y-cleped / 

These are ail head- haued-zennes. uor bet hi byeb / heaued / of alle kueade / 

sins, and begin- 
ning of all wicked- and of alle zennes. and ginnmge / of alle kueade. be 


hy dyadliche / be hy uenial. Jeanne / ech of pe ilke 
And first we will zeuen him to-delp / ine uele halues. And uerst / we 

talk of pride, the ' 

first sin, wille]) zigge / of ])e zenne of prede / uor pet wes J)e 

uerste zenne / and pe aginnmge / of alle kueade. vor 

which was com- prede / brek uerst ue^rede / and ordre / huanne 

mitted by Lucifer, .. . . 

Ii3tbere pe angel / uor his greate uayrhede / an his 

greate wyt : wolde by aboue / J?e opre angeles / and him 

wolde emni / to god / pet hine zo uayr / an zuo guod : 

wherefore he and hedde y-mad. And beruore / he vil uram heuene : and 

his angels fell * ' 

from heaven. becom dyeueL and he / and al his uela3rede. Hym 
anliknej) / alle proude / pet ue^rede / and ordre of 
Like him are ail men / ondej) / and brekj) / huaraie hi wyllej) / by 
themselves above aboue ojjren. and more by alozed / and y-preyzed / 
01 mra * panne eni oper / pet betere byep worp. 

The Might of J?E MY2TE OF PREDE. 


Pride biindeth j)is zenne of prede / ys to dreduol. uor hi ablent 

men. zuo pet hi ham-zelue / ne knawep / ne ne zyep. 

so that they are pet is pe wel strang / and pe wel special aid / to pe 

devil whetherthey dyeule / huer-of he be-gylep / pe he3e men / and pe 

wise, hardy,' or ' uayre / and pe riche / and pe wyse / and pe hardi /and 

bT^eBpediiy f e worpuolle. And generalliche / ech manere of uolk. ac 

great lords, speciailiche / pe greate lhordes / zuo pet hy ham zelue / 

ne knawyp / ne yzep / hire misdedes / ne hire folies / ne 

p urytes f] n i re wyttes. l Jeanne is hit / pe meste periluse ziknesse / 

pet is of opren. Vor-zope / he is ine grat peril / to huam / 


alle tnacle / went in to uenym, Also deb techinge / and to wllora teaching 

. and chastisement 

chastisement / to J?e proude. Yor ]?e more / ]?et me profit not. 
him wy[]?]nimj? / and blame]) / and chaste]? : }>e more / 
he him wrej?e]?. and }>e more him were]?. 

Prede / is ])e dyeules 03c do3ter / ]?et he]? / grat Prideisthedevirs 
del / ine his kende. Prede / werre]? wyj? god /- of his ware aTalnstG^ 
guode. And god / frauj? doun prede /and werre]? wi]? ^L^p^ctices. 
him. Prede / is king / of wyekede ]?eawes. Hy is pe ^l^n™^ 
lioun / fet al uorznel]?. Prede astrn]? / alle J?e guodes / 
an alle ]?e graces / and alle J?e guode workes / ]?et bye]? [Foi. 4. b.] 
ine manne. Vor prede / make]? of emiesse / zenne. and 
of m'rtues / vices, and of guode workes / huer-of me 
ssolde begge heuene : make]? wynne helle. 

bis zenne / is be uerste / bet asayleb / bane knht / This sin is the 

' r ' r J r 1 r ? i first that assailed 

oure lhord / and huam l last let. Vor huanne he heb / our Lord, and was 

the last to abandon 

alle o]?re kuedes ouercome : ]?anne him asayle]? prede / him. 
]?e st[r]anglaker. 


? of Pride. 

j^is zenne him to-del}? / and spret / ine zuo uele 
deles / }?et onneafe / me may hise telle. Ac zeuen 
p?*mcipals doles / ]?er bye]?. )>et bye]? / ase zeue bo;cs / 
J?et guoj? out / and bye]? y-bore / of ane wyekede rote. 

Jeanne / J?e uerste D03 of prede : is / ontreube. be ober : 1. Untruth, 

t . , , . ,11. Despite, 

onworfnede. }?e J?ridde : ouerwenmge. j?et we 2 clepe]? / in. presumption, 
presumcion. J?e uer]?e folebayTie. }?et we 2 clepiej? / iv. Ambition, 
ambicion. ]?e vifte : ydele blisse. ]?e zixte : ypocrisie. vi. Hypocrisy, 
fe zeuende : wyekede drede. To ]?ise zeue di3tinges / J r I e T ad Wicked 
belongej? alle J?e zennes / J?et by}? y-bore of prede. Ac 
ech of }?ise zeue bo3es / he]? uele smale tuyegges. 

j)e uerste bo3 of prede / J?et is / ontreuJ?e. he him to- 
del J? / in }?ri little bo3es. huer-of ]?e uerste / is kuead. The three twigs of 

.... Untruth. 

J?o o]?er : worse. }?e J?ndde / alJ?erworst. ]?e on is voul- 1. Fouihood, 
hede. J?e oJ?er : wodhede. J?e }>ridde : renoyrye. Voul- m. Apostasy!* 
hede : generalliche / is ine eche zenne. vor no zenne / 1. Fouihood 
ne is / wy)?-oute uoulhede. and zuo beginne}? / alle 
1 huaw? 2 me? t 


zennes / be voulhede. Ac J?e uoulhede / pet we spekej? 

of liier specialiche / pet com]? of prede. and is a man- 

yere / of ontreupe : is a vice / pet is y-cleped / ine clergie : 
or ingratitude is ingratitude/ ]>et is uoryeti[V]ge / of god / and of his guodes. 
Ms "gifts. an f e * me ne fonkej? him na^t / ase me ssolde do. ne him 

ne yeldej? J?onkes / of his guodes / pet he ous hej) ydo. 
He is a great V or-zope he is wel vileyn / and ontrewe / auoreye his 

returns thanks for lhord / Jet alle guod / him he]) y-do. and him ne 

kindness received. , -i , , , -i ij_ i • / i i i 

J?onkeJ? / ac uoryet : and yelt him / kuead uor guod. 

such viiiany do and vileynye / uor corteysye. pe ilke vileynye / dej? 

thank God, n man to god / huanne he / ne bej?engj) him na3t / of pe 
guodes / pet god him he]? y-do / and him dej? alneway. 
and na^t him ponkep / ac rapre him / ofte werrep / ine 
pet / pet he use]? kueadliche / and aye godes wil. 

but use his gifts j fi e ^ ig WG \ grat yileynie / ase me pingp / pet grat guod- 
nesse / onderua[w]gp / and ne daynep na3t / to zigge : grat 
pank. And / yet hit is more grat : huanne / me him 
uorza3j> / oper huanne / me him uoryet. ac pe ilke / is 

and each day re- to grat : huanne echedaye / onderuangp pe guodnesses : 

turn evil for good. 

and echedaye / yelt kuead / uor guod. 
we have no gifts J)e ilke / pet panne wel pengp / and ofte lokede / to 

but what God has . . . _ 1 _ 

given us, he they pe guodes / pet god him hep ido / and dep alneway : and 
tune! or of grace. p e ^ no guod / he ne hep : pet god ne he]) / hit him 

y-yeue. ne guodes of kende : ase uayrhede. and helfe. 

an streng])e of bodye. an sle3])e. and naturel wyt / 

auoreye pe zaule. ne guodes of auenture. ase richesses. 

worssipe. and he3nesse. ne guodes of grace, ase by]? 
Let us thank God tuVtues. and guode workes. wel ssolde he ponki god : 
us. of alle his guode. Vor guodnesse : oper aksej). 

ii. Foiiy or mad- J)e oper / ontreupe. pet com]) of prede : is wodhede. 
The 'man is out of me na ^ ane man wod. ])et is out of his wytte / ine 
his wits, huam : skele is miswent. panne wext ari3t / pe ilke fol. 

[Foi. 5. a.] an( i miswent. and wel yzed / wod. pet wytindeliche / 

and hardiliche / pe guodes / bet ne byeb nait his. ake 

who misuses his ' J u ' J ° J J 

lord's goods byeb. his lhordes guodes. huer-of / him behouej? / 

whereof behoveth . . . 

him yield account, strait hche / yelde rekenmge / and scele. pet is to 


wytene / pe guodes / of suo grat pris / and pe timliche 

guodes / pet he hep / ine lokinge. pe luHues of pe bodie / 

and pe pontes / and pe consentemens / and pe willes of pe 

zaides / waste)? / and despendep / ine folyes / and ine 

outrages / to-uore pe e^en / of his lhorde. an him ne and tiiinketh not 

poruayp / of his rekeninge. and wel wot / pet rekeni / reckoning. 

him behouep. an ne wot / huanne. ne fane day. ne pe 

oure. Zuych folie /is wel y-cleped / onwythede. Of of such vices the 

zuiche vices / byep uolle / pe greate proude men / pet use]? ?rTfuh\° U meR 

kueadliche / J?e greate guodes / pet god ham hep ylend. 

j)e pridde ontreupe pet comp of prede : ys renayrie. in. Apostasy. 
He ys wel renay / pet / pet land pet he halt of his lhorde / He is an apostate 
dep in-to pe hond of his uyende. and dep him manhode. lord's lLd'tohis 
Zuych zewne makep ech pet zene3ep dyadliche. uor panne enemy ' 
alzo moche ase of him is he dep manhod to pe dyeule / as doth he who 
and becomp his prel. and him yelt al pet he halt of god / th^evT^ t0 
and bodi / and zaule. and opre guodes. pet he dep to 
pe seruice of pe dyeule. And albai he by be his such a one is only 

Christian in name 

ziggmge cristen ; he renayp be dede / and ssewep pet and not in deeds, 

he ne is najt. Ac specialliche ine pri maneres is man 

ycleped reney. and uals cristen. ober uor bet he ne False christians 

* J are those who sin 

belefp / pet he ssolde / ase dep pe bougre : and pe against their 

. belief, as the for- 

heretike / and pe apostate, pet reneyep hire bileaue. sworn, liars, and 

Oper uor pet he agelt pe byleaue pet he bylefp. Alsuo 

dop pe uorzuorene. and pe lowers of pe byleaue. Oper 

belefp more panne he ssolde. ase dop pe deuines 1 / and P*"****"**/] 

pe wichen / and pe charmeresses pet workep be pe 

dyeules creffce. and alle po pet ine zuyche pinges yleuep Such men sln 

and dop hire hope : zene^ep dyadliche. Yor alle zuiche for they sin 

pinges byep aye pe byleaue. and peruore his uorbyet aga,nBt beUef - 

holy cherche. pise byep pe manieres of on-treupe / pet 

is pe uerste bo^ of prede. 


be ober bo; / bet comb out / of be stocke / of prede : The second Bough 

. r 7,T r-..-i- 1 of Pride is Despite 

zuo is onworpnesse [despit] / pet is / wel grat zenne. (Contempt). 


And pa3 hit by zuo / pet no zenne dyadlich / by wip- 

oute onworjmesse / of god : alneway be pet /pet we spekep 

There are three of onworphede / byer speciallicbe / ine pri maneris / me 

sorts of this sin. . . . 

i. Not praising may zene3i / be pise zenne. Oper uor pet / me ne 
serve! aS ^ *~ pray ze ]> / opren ari3t / ine berte / ase me ssolde. Oper 
ii. Not to honour uor pet / me ne berp na3t worssipe / and reuerence : 
where one should. }> er p e ^ me ssolde. Oper uor pet / pet me ne bou3p na3t 
ZltlfZ* «ri?t : t° ^ am / H me ssolde / rijtuolliche boujje. 

TMnkhow often ^ 0U f encn r *3* We * / me )> me ner ^ e / noU °^> e / I> e 

thou hast dis- liest y-do / be ilke zenne / bet bou best / ine bine herte : 

praised others, . I r 

pe ilke / pet more bye]? worp / panne pou / onworpest. 
nor zome graces wypoute / pet god / pe be]? y-yeue. oper 
uor noblesse / oper uor prowesse. oper uor ricbesse. 
oper uor wyt. oper uor uayrbede. oper uor opre guodes / 
huet pet hi by : hueruore / pou pe prayzest / more panne 
pe ssoldest. and opren lesse. 
how thouhast fail- Efterward / pencb hou uelezipe pou best / litel 

ed in giving due . / 

honour to God, to ybore worpssipe / and reuerence / to ham / pet pou 

His mother, to -i-i- 

His saints, and ssoldest. Auerst / to god. and to his moder. and to his 

[Foi. 5.'b.i ba^en. and to pe angles of beuene. vor per ne is non / 

to-yans huam / pet pou ne hest agelt / ine onwor[p]nesse 

[despit]. oper be onworpnesse / pet pou hest / ofte- 

zipes / euele / and wrope / y-loked hire festes. 

and how many Efter pan pench / hou uele zipe / pou hest misserued / 

hadiy served our oure lbord Iesu crist. oper ine pet / pet pou ne hest 

ta^fh^ 18 ^ na 3 t Wepeliche /y-^yerd his seruise. ne y-zed his benes. 

sermons, ne y^ye^ sermons, and huanne pe ssoldest. yhere his 

and in jangling messe / oper his sermon / at cherche : pou iangledest / 

mass. and bourdedest / to-uor god. and ine pet / pu here him / 

litel worpssipe. 
Think too how Efterward / hou bou hest uelezibe / litel ybore worb- 

little honour thou . ' T . 

hast shown to the ssipe. to be bodye / of Iesu crist / barnie bou hit yzeae. 

body of Christ ,.,./,,.,.,. • , 

when thou sawest oper parcne / pou hit onderumge. me pet / pet pou nere 
or receivedst it, na ^ j digneliche y-di^t / be ssrifpe. and by vorpen- 
not having pre- chinge. O per be auenture / bet wors is: bet bou hit 

pared for it or i r Y Y 


onderuinge / ine dyadlich zewne / be fine wytinde / Jet ^f f ^™ h ^ d r J y ent . 

is grat onworpnesse. [despit.] ance - 

Efterward / to fine zuete uela3e / and to pine / guode 

lokere / pin angle. pet alneway / pe lokep. hou uele 

ssames / pou hest him y-do / ine pet / pou dedest / pine 

ze/mes / beuore hiin. 

Efterward bench / hou uelezibe / bou hest y-by / Think how often 
r ' r i r j j t thouha8tbeen 

onbo^sam to pine uader / and to pine moder. and to disobedient to thy 
pan /to huara pou ssoldest boi^e : and bere honur. Yef if thou M-ut thus ' 
pou wylt/ine pise manere / recordy pi lif: pou sselt Z^iTseelhat 
ysi / pet pou hest / more zipe y-zene3d / ine zuyche more^me^th-w 
manere / of prede / pet is yeleped / onworpnesse [despit] : thou canst num - 
pet pou / ne kanst na3t telle. 

Jje .iij. B03 OF PJRtfDE. 
j)e pridde bo3 of prede : is / arrogance, pet me clepep / The third Bough 

/ , . . , of Pride is Arro- 

opwenmge / oper opnimmge. pawne pe man / wenp gance,oru P ween- 
more / of him-zelue / pa^ne he ssolde. J)et ys to zigge : TLn is guilty of 
pet wenp by / more worp: }a*ne he by. oper more may : StoSStSnndi 
barane he mo*e. oper more conne : ba^ne he can. ober ofhiin8elf > a ^ 

J * r less of others. 

wenp by more worp. oper more mo3e. oper more conne: 

pa?me eny oper. J^is zerane / is pe strengpe / of pe 

dyeule. vor he lokep / and norissep / alle pe greate This sin nourish- 

gostliche zermes. Jjis zercne him sseawep / ine uele ^itaai riST* 

maneres. oper be dede / oper be speche. ac nameliche / ™mZ*\ZZ. 

ine zix maneres. pet is to wytene / ine onlepihede. uor T *Jf roudand'the 

pe proude / and pe ouerwenere / weneb more by worb / overweener win 

' ' l r J y i no t deign to do 

oper conne : more parcne enie opre. and ne daynep na3t as others. 
do / ase opre / pet more byep worp / parcne he by. ac 
rapre / wile by / onlepi ine his dedes. pet is pe uerste 
zeraie / be huam ouerweninge is ine dede. 

J?e oper is / fol niminge / of greate spendinge. pet n. Prodigality, 

me clepep prodigalite. huarcne he dep / to moche des- spending o°f° " 

pense. oper / of his o 3 en : oper / of opre maime : uor to ^* to 

ty / y-praysed. and peruore / pet me him hyalde / pe H^^^urt. 

more large / and pe more corteys. eous - 


in. False strife. be bridde kuead / bet comb of ouerweninge : ys fole 

This is to support . r ' * T 

a thing we know opniminge of uals strif. ase zay J / Salomon. Jet is to 
zigge. huo Jet nimj / a uals strif anhand / and wot 
wel / Jet hit is uals. and hit uo^ej. 
iv. Boasting fie uerje tuyg / of Je ilke 003c / huer-by / Je proude / 

The boaster is the sseawej prede / of his herte : is yelpingge. Jet is / wel 
only sing oVhhn- U01U zewne / an( i to god : an to Je wordle. pe yelpere is 
8elf '[Foi 6 ai f e coc kou. Jet ne kan / na^t zinge / bote of him-zelue : 
This sin is seen in p{ Q ze/me i s ybounde ine Jan / Jet be his o^ene mouje/ 
of their own wit, him yelp J. ojer of his wytte. ojer of his kemie. ojer 

descent, works, or * i -i • i i i 

prowess. of his workes. ojer of his prouesse. Ac he him doblej 

He sinneth ine ham / Jet Je yelpere / and Je lozeniour / zeche J / 

others to extol and rede J? / and yef J ham of his / uor ham to praysi. 

him, and to lie ■, , . « -, , , -, . / -, , 

and boast of his an( l uor to zigge of ham : Jet hi / ne dorre na3t zigge. 
nobleness. and uor j. Q \j e ^ G f ^g^ . an( j £ e g re de hare noblesse. 

v. scorn. This is J)e vifte out-kesthige / of Je ilke stocke / is scorn. 

proud, who scorn Vor Jet is Je wone / of Je proude : ouer-wen[er]e / Jet 

fhoseThTy^e n * m ne ^ s na 3^ y no 3 / ^° onworji / ine his herte / Je 

hvmg aright. j>Te. Jet ne habbej na3t / Je graces / Jet he wen J 

habbe. ac makej / his bisemers / and his scornes. and 

Jet wors is : bisemerej and scornej Je guode men. and 

of ham / Jet he yzi^J / wende to guode. Jet is wel grat 

By their evil zewne. and wel dreduol. Ac / uor hire euele tongen : 

tongues they pre- -,..,/ 

vent much folk hi miswendej / moche uolk / to done wel. 

from doin^ well. t . . , . , »-m i 

vi. opposition pe zixte kestmge out / of Je like bo^e : is wyj- 

The proud over- stondinge. fiet is / huaraie Je man wyjstant / to alle 

weener will not ham w d , j^ ld y or . pr0T1( l e / ouer . 

endure opposition, x o / r i / 

chastening, or wenere : yef me him wi JnimJ : he him defendej. yef 
me him chaste J : he is wroj. yef me him wel ret : he 
This sin is a peril- ne lefj nenne / bote his o^ene wyt. Hit is a perilous 
since ail medi- ziknesse / Jet ne may na3t Jolye : Jet me him take, and 
venom? 111 m ° ^° f an / t G ^ a ^ e medicines : went in to uenim. 

j)B .iiij. BO3 OF PREDE. 

The Fourth Bough 

of Pride is Foul fie uerje bo3 of prede / is fole wylninge. Jet me 

tion). clepej / ine clergie : ambicion. Jet is / kuead wilninge 


hese to cliue. bis zenne / is be dyeules panne I of helle. This sin is the 

. devil's pan of hell. 

huerinne / he niakej his friinges. J)es bo3 him spret / This bough 

ine uele manyeres / ari^thalf / and alefthalf. Yor Je and left. 

ilke / Jet wylnej / he3e to cliue : to zome / ha wyle o n the one side it 

, „ , . . appears in flattery 

queme. and Jeroi wexej / uele zennes : ase an^thali. and simulation, 

Jet is to wytene : loze?&gerie. simulacion. folliche yeue : 

uor Jet me ssel him hyealde / corteys / and large. To on the other in 

ojren / ha wyle harmy. and Jerof com]? pe zenne / a- 

leffchalf. ase to miszigge / to ham / Jet he wyle harmi : and evil win ; 

him uor to anh^i. and him arerej blanie / and wylnej / 

fane dyaj / of Jan / Jjet halt / Jet he wen]? come to / 

and bezuykynges. and euel red : eo^spiracions. strif. in deceit, treach- 

and uele ojre zennes / j?et wexej / of Jise queade bo3e. consph-acy^and 


be uifte boj of prede / is ydele blisse. bet is / fole / The Fifth Bou & h 

/ 7 1 l J r I 1 of Pride is Vanity 

likinge / of fole heryinge. Ja/me he uelj / ine his herte (idie-wiss). 

. . « ** e tnat loves to 

wytindeliche / of pet he is / ojer wenj by. yhered / of be praised, 

zome Jinge / Jet he hep ine him / ojer wenj habbe. 

and wyle by yhered. berof / huerof / he ssolde herie robbeth God and 

1/17,7 r l 1 stealeththat 

god. And beruore / ydeleblisse / benimb god / and which is His; f<.r 

& r ' J ' i ofall our goods He 

stelp / Jet his is. Vor of alle oure guodes : he ssel shall have the 

... , . worship and hon- 

habbe pe wor Jssipe / and pe heryinge. and we / pe onr> and we the 

r t use of them. 


Ydeleblisse: is pe grete wynd / fet JrauJ doun / "i^i throw- 
pe greate tours / and pe he$e steples / and pe greate f 1 ^ 1 ^ l ^ e t a e t m . 
beches / ine wodes / braub to grounde. an be greate P les > ancl s reat 

' 1 j j o j <~> beeches in woods. 

helles / make]) to resye. )>et bye]) / pe he$e men / and 

Jet bye]) / mest worj. pet is Je dyeules peni / huer- j^^*^ 

niide he bay)? / alle pe uayre pane-worjes / ine Je he buyeth good 

markatte / of Jise wordle / Jet bye]) / pe guode workes. 

And uor Jet / ])er bye]) / Jri manere of guodes / Jet [Foi. 6. b.] 

man he]? of god. and Jet Je dyeuel / wyle begge / mid 

his pans : Jeruore /him to-delj Jis bo3 / ine Jri manere/ J^ p e l ^J ,into 

smale bo3es / huer-of wexej / ech manere zenne / Jet no houghs. 

clerek / ne kan telle, pe ilke Jri manere guodes / Jet 


The goods tha*. wo ma n hef of god. byejj / ]?e guodes of kende. fe guodes 

1. goods of nature, of hap. be guodes of grace, be kendeliche guodes / 

2. goodsof fortune, r ° ° / 

3. goods of grace, bye]} J>o / ]>et me clepej? / by kende. ofer / aye J>et 
ar/those pertain- body : o]?er / aye pe zaule. Auorye Jet bodi : ase helfe. 
the soul 6 b ° dy ° r uayrhede. strengjje. prouesse. noblesse, guode tonge. 
Thebodiiy goods guode rearde. Auorye be zaule : ase clier wyt. wel uor 

are health, beauty, ° J T *J 

strength, prowess, to understonde. and sotil wyt / wel uor to vynde / 

nobility, good # J ' . 

tongue, and good guode onderstondinge : wel to ofhealde. And J>e mrtues 


The spiritual of kende / huerby / som ys kendeliche : more Jawne 

goods are clear , . 

and subtle wit and o]>er. ofer larger/ ofer milder / ojer graciouser. ojer 
standi^? QV ' atempres. and wel y-ordayned. Of alle J?ise yefjes : me 

W e r ouiht e to 9Sift3 ssel f 0Ilki S od / and serui / uor f et hi come J ? alle of 
thank God. him. basles be proude / hise zelb to be dyeule / uor 

Nevertheless the J ? r L ' Y r J ' 

proud sell them Jane ualsne peny / of ydele 1 blisse. and werreb ofte 

to the devil for 

the false penny of god / of alle his guodes. huer-of / he ssolde Jonki god. 

idle-bliss. . . 

And huo Jet nimj wel yeme / me alle Jise guodes oi 
kende / Jet ich habbe / ssortliche y-tald : by hit zeniie/ 
be ydele blisse / ine to uele maneres / pet / ech may 
betere y-zy / yne him-zelue / yef he wyle / wel studie : 
Jet ojre ne conne him zigge. 
The goods of for- h e guodes of hap : byeb hemesses. richesses. delices. 

tune (hap) are ' ° r J r ? 

highness, riches, and prosperites. huerof me JengJ / ine uele maneres. Yor 
ity.° ' huanne Je lheuedi of hap / he]? hire hue^el y-went. to 

of fortune tarL Je manne / and arered. and yzet to Je he^Je of hare 
Ihentiot to™"' hue 3 el / ase [>] 3 meUe to Je wynde. and Jere he 3 e y-cliue. 
windfifwiibSL? ^ ere blawe > / alle f e tuelf wy nd es : of ydele blisse. Vor 
huanne Je ilke / Jet is zuo h^e arise / ine prosperite / 
and in his pros- bengb in his herte / uerst / to be dignete. efterward / to 

penty he thinks of r D/ ' ' * ° ' 

his dignity, pros- his prosperite. efterban / to his richesses. efterward / 

perity, riches, 

lusts, fellowship, to his lostes / Jet his body hep. efterjan / to Je greate 

his fair household, . 

his manners, his ue^rede / Jet mm uo^ej. elterward / to Je uayre 
abundance of fair mayne / Jet him seruej. efterjan / to his uayre man- 
robes; eres. efterward / to his uaire ridinges. efte[r]ward / to 

to the decking of je plente / of uayre robes, efterjan / to Je di3tinge / of 
his ease ; ' his house / wyj eyse of loste / and o Jre manere har- 

1 MS. rjdclcle 2 J?e is incorrectly erased in MS. 


neys / Jet zuo moche is uayr / and noble, efterward / 

to Je greate presens. and to be greate festes / bet me to great feasts, 

him makej oueral. efterjan / to his guode los / and to fame. 

his prayzinges / bet oueral uleb. bus him ioisseb and Then he so rejoic- 

t . i -n !/• 1-1 i / eth and glorifieth 

mm glormej Je wreehe / me his herte. zuo Jet he not / that he knowetn 
huer he ys. j)ise byej Je yef Jes / J?et comej of ydele 
blisse. Jet is to wytene xij. maneres of uondinge of ydele 
blisse. Jet habbej Jo : ine he^ stat. ojer ine Je wgrdle / 
ojer ine religion, ojer clerk. ojer lewed. 

)}e guodes of grace, bye]? uirtues/and guode workes. The goods of grace 

And aye Jise guodes / ofte blau J Je stranglaker / ydele g0 od works : 
blisse. and ofte uel J / Je greatte traues / and Je he3este. 
Jet bye]? / }?e meste guode men. And []?ou] sselt y-wyte / 

Jet yne u/rtues / and ine guode workes : uonde]? Je these the devil 

dyeuel / be ydele blisse / ine J?ri maneres. j)e on / zuo ways, 

is / ine herte / wyjinne / huanne me yherj? / of Je £ Fo1 - 7 - a -J 
guodes / Jet me de J / prmeliehe. ase of benes. ojer / of lBt - *? e ™** es 

priue workes. and wenj Je man / by betere mid god : better wi . th God 

banne he by. be ober / zuo ys / huawne he heb / ane 2nd. He causes 

;, 11# , ' , ' ,\ ' _ . f , _ him to be pleased 

fole blisse me him / of Jet / he yherj / ojer y-zi3j / of at hearing himself 

his guode namecojhede. and Jet he is ypraysed. and man. 

y-hyealde uor guod man. fie Jridde zuo is / huaraie he ^ d - !*e makes 

wilneb / and zekb / and porchaceb los / and name- seek a good name, 

Y i r / r r I ^ not for God's 

coujhede. and in zuiche onderstondinge / dej his sake, but for the 
guodes / na3t uor god propreliche : ac uor Je wordle. 


pe zixte bo3 of prede : is ypomsye. Jet is a zenne / Th £ s * xth Bough 

Jet makej to ssewy / Je guod wyj-oute / Jet ne is crisy. 

,, . , i,«/ «i/,iit Those are hypo- 

na3t / wyj-inne. pa?ine bye J Jo / ypocmes / Jet makej crites who pretend 

ham guode men / and ne byej na3t. Jet makej more are not truly so. 
strengje / to habbe Jane name of guod man : Ja/me Je 

zobnesse : and be holinesse. And bis hire to-delb / ine kindsofhypocrisy, 

r r r T ' foul, foolish, and 

Jry. Yor Jer is / an ypocrosye / uoul. and anojre / subtle. 

fole. and Je Jridde / sotil. j}o bye J / uoule ypocntes / hypocriteVwho do 

Jet do J / hyre uoulhedes / ine halkes : And sseawej *<%£? deeds in 


and such men our ham guode / touore be uolke. Zuiche clepeb / oure 

Lord compares to 

painted and gilded lhord : berieles ypeynt. and y-gelt. J)o bye]? / fole 

sepulchres. , . . . 

Ttie foolish hypo- ypocntes / J?et yno^ nam lokejj klenhche / to ]?e bodye / 

crites keep the , , . , ., • • 1 1 • i 

body chaste, so as and do J? manie penonees / an guode. pnncipaliicne : 
men^Thusthey uor P G l° s / °f J> e wordle. uor pet / me halt ham / 

Tt k if ^odmS g U ° de m ™' J>° M* Wel f ° leS ' UOT / ° f g™ d metal : h 7 

The subtle hypo- ma ke]> / ualse moneye. J2o byej? ypocn'tes / sotyls. pet 

crites aspire to 

dignities, and hide sotilliche / wyllep he3e cliue. and stele]? / ]?e dingnetes / 

their evil disposi- tit tt-i/i t ii 

tion, and ]?e baylyes. Hy do]? / al ]?et guod man ssel do : 

gaintheh- poS- zuo p e t no man / ne may his knawe / al-huet pawne / 

Swc^r 6 ' J> et hi b yf uo1 wexe / and he 3 e J cliuo / ine dyngnetes. 

their true colours, ^nd pamie / ssewep hy ]?e kueades / ]?et were / y-hole / 

and yroted / ine ]?e herte. pet is to wytene : prede. 

and exhibit their auarice. malice, and o]?re kueade dedes. huer-by me 

pride, avarice, and 

malice. knauj? aperteliche : ]?et / ]?et trau / nes neure guod. and 

]?et hit wes / al fayntise / and ypocWsie : al ]?et he 
hedde beuore y-ssewed. }}eruore / hit is zoj? yzed. " N& 
sselt ]?ou neure y-wyte / huet man ys : alhuet he ys / 
per he wyle by." 


The Seventh ' Y> Q zeuende bo3 / of prede / ys / fol drede / and fole 

foul drefd^nd 6 * SSame / huane me let / Wel t0 doiiQ I UOr ^ Q WOrdle / 

shame, j,^ me ne ^y j yhyealde ypocrite / ne papelard / huer 

dreadeth the me dret more be wordle : pa?zne god. be ilke ssame / 

world more than J 

God. com]? of kueade kuemynge / pet me wyle kueme / J?e 

. kueade. And ]?eruore / is hy dorter of prede. and J?e 

daughter of pride, zeuende boa / he^liche. and make]? ofte / lete bet guod 

andmakethmen ? I 7 r 1 r <a 

to forsake God and to done : and do ]?et kuead / uor to kueme kueadliche 

please the world. 

to pe wordle. 

The Second Head 
of the Beast of 

The second head fi e ^> °J 7er beaued / of ]?e kueade beste : is enuie. 

En^aradder J>et is pe eddre / ]?et al / enuenyme]?. Enuie / is 

Enl/i^Xafh's 111 ' m ° der / t0 > e d 3 ra ] ,e - Y ° r b 7 J> e eiluie / ° f P° d J Q ^ G : 

tw^irT b ' Y ' com d ^ a J ? / ^° f e word l e / ]> e t i s ]> e zewne /' pet mest 
death came into ari}t / make]? man / ilich ]?e dyeule / his uader. Vor 



pe dyeuel / ne hatep / bote opres guod. and ne louep / 
bote opres harm, and zuo de> / J>e enuions. pe en- The envi0U8 man 
uious / ne may ysy / pet guod of oj>ren / nanmoie / p^^other 
paraie be oule / ober be calouwe mous / be brutnesse / men > 

* T i r r I r ? I j U8 tastheowland 

of pe zonne. Jpe ilke zenne / him to-delp / ine pri bat dislike the 

x / i t i T T . in , , brightness of the 

tx^es / ne^liclie. Vor pe like zenne / anuenymep / sun. 

I- . / , , _ . in i/ T b is sin is divided 

aiperuerst / pe nerte / of pe enuions. and efterward / into three boughs, 
pane moup and efterward / pe workes. fee herte of pe helrt'Tthe' the 
enuious / ys enuenymed / and suo miswent. pet he ne ^ork^'of 'ml. 
may / opre maraie guod / yzy/ pet hit him ne uorpingp/ ^^rto^k 
wypinne pe herte. and demb kueadliche. and bet he upon another 

* man's happiness. 

yzi^p / oper pet / he yherp : nimp hit to kueade wytte / 
and of al / makep his harm, zuo moche / pet to pe 
herte / of pe enuious / po3tes uenimouses / of uals 
dom / pet me ne hise may telle. Efterward paraie / pe when the envious 

1 , . . man heareth of 

enuious y-herp / oper yzyp / opremarcne kued / huet pet another's misfor- 

hit by / oper knead of bodye /' ase dyap / ojjer ziknesse. p^ert^ &0T' 

oper kuead of auenture [hap], ase pouerte / oper ad- 

uersite. oper kuead gostlich / ase huaraie he yherp / pet 

zome / pet me hyelde guode men : ys y-blamed / of 

zome vice. Of pelliehe pinges / him gledep ine his be rejoiceth in 

herte. Efterward / huawne he yzi^p / oper yherp / pe 

guod of opren. by hyt / guod of kende / oper guod of 

hap / ober guod of grace / huerof we habbeb / aboue y- So men ' s happi " 

' * ° ° ' r ' J ness or joy cause 

speke : ba?me him comb / a zone to be herte / bet he bim to be sorrow- 

/ . . r ' ill , fulinheart. 

ne may by me reste / ne maky glednesse / ne uayr 

se?^blant. Nou boumut ysy / bet be venimouse herte/ Thus the envious 

Y 7 J J ' r r ' heart sinneth in a 

of pe enuiouse / zene^ep generalliche : ine pri maneres. threefold manner, 
ine ualse demynges. ine awarzede glednesse. ine worse i. in false deem- 


zor^es. alsuo he zene^ep by pe moupe. Vor hit be- 2. in wicked giad- 
houep / pet zuich wyn / yerne by pe teppe : ase per 3 , in " worse sor . 
is / ine pe tonne. And uor pet / pe herte / wes uol of n^sinneth also 
uenym : hit behouep / pet hit llieape / out be pe moupe. Jy the ra <>uth 

ba?me of be mofulbe / of be enuious / comeb out / bri ing fun of venom, 
J r l ir/ r t r j r it leapeth out by 

manere wordes uenimouses. huerof spekp dauip / ine pe the mouth, in the 

, . ,, , jy . . ir. form of cursing, 

sautere. pet " pe moup / 01 pe enuious : is uol 01 cor- 


bitterness, and singe / and of biterhede / an of bezuykynge." Of 

treachery. . _ . / -, 

corsynge: nor pe gnodes of o]?ren / he missayj? / and 
hise lessejj / alsemoche / ase he may. Of byterhede : 
nor pe kneades / of oJ?ren / he hise more]) / and arerej? / 
be his mi^te. Of beznykyinge. vor al ]?et he jzi^p / ofer 
yherj? : he went hit'to kneade / and hit dem]? / nalslyche. 
The envious hath Efterward / be ennions / heb bri manures / of nenim 

three manners of ' * . 

venom in deeds, i n e dede : ase he he)? / ine monpe / and me nerte. 
nor kende / of J?e ennions : is to wij?dra3e / and nor to 
destrne / be his nn^te : alle gnod / by hit lite / by hit 

The envious man i egse / "by frit noldo. paraie is he / of J?e kende / of pe 

is like the basi- . _ 

lisk, no greenness baselycoc. nor no grenhede / ne may yieste / benore 

may last before , . . . , . . , t* „ ^ 

him. hym. ne in gerse / ne me busse / ne me tranwe. pawne 

com has three fry be godspelle : )?et corn he]? ]?ri stas. 1 nor hit is nerst 

in the grass, ase iwe gerse / efterward : ine yere. efterward / is nol 

aitTwardiUsfuii of frut / and al ripe. Alzno per bye]? zome / ]?et habbej? 

of fruit. gnodginninge / wel nor to libbe / and to profiti / and 

1. The envious byeb ase ine gerze. pe ilke / him payne]? / ]?e ennions / 

man tries to . 

quench the begin- nor te knenche / yef he may. pe oJ?re bye J? / ase me 
Shefee°s d in S . 8 yere / ]?et wel flonrej? / ine gnode / and iproMep. by hit 
^He'tries to to g° d : °J> er to J> e wordle. and Jo rebele]? / J?e ennyons / 
deTtro r those° uor to ssen(ie / and to destrue : be hys mi^te. pe opre 
flourishing in ^ygj, uol-mad / and ine grat stat / and do]? moehe gnod / 
[Foi. 8. a.] to god / and to ]?e wordle. Vor ]?et guode los / to 
row and bitterness abatye : and hyregnodes to lo3y / pe ennions agrayjej? / 
Te^lZin alle his gynnes. Yor >e more / J?et >e gnodes bye]? 
TMslsin is ver gr ea te : ]?e more zor^ej? / J?e ennions. pis zewne / is zno 
perilous, and pmlons : }?et onnea]?e / me may / come / to ri^te nor- 
Ghost. penchinge. Yor ]?et hi ys eow[t]mrions / to ]?e holy goste / 

He who sinneth bet is welle / of alle gnode. And god zay]? / ine his 

against the Holy . 

Ghost shall nei- spelle / J?et huo ]?et zene3ej? / a-ye fane holy gost : he ne 

therhavemercyin 1 / i -i i •/• i • n / • i 

this world nor in sse l neure / habbe merci / me J>ise wordle / ne me ]?e 

thL^cannXbe °J jre * uor ^ e zene 3 e J> / °f hi s o;ene kueadnesse. and me 

repented of. sse i i ne j,^ j bollyche onderstonde. Yor J?er ne is / 

no zewne / zno grat : pet god ne uoryefj? / ine )?ise 

1 stapes or states ? 


wordle / yef man him norbingb / and byt merci / nor There is no sin so 
1 J r&r i j i great that God 

pe zeraie. pet werrep / be his mi3te / pe grace / of pe does not forgive 
holy gost. ine Jet he werrej) / opremawne gnod gostlich / an™ seek for™ 1 * 11 
ase pe yewes / werrede Iesn crist / nor pe gnodes / pet mercy ' 
he dede. 


And pon sselt y wyte / pet per byep zix zewnes / pet The six sins 
bye)? specialliche / ayens pe holy gost. })et is to wy- Ghost, 
tene / ouerweninge. pet make)? to moche sprede / pe merci i. Overweening, 
of onre lhorde / and litel prayzep / his ri^tuolnesse. and 
pernore / zene^ep moche uolk / ine hope. pe oper is / n. Wanhope (de- 

-, i -t • . I • spair). 

wanhope. pet benimp god / his merci / ase onerwenmge : 

his ri3[t]nolnesse. pe J>ridde is / wy[p]stoftdinge. Jjet is / in. opposition 

hardnesse of herte. huawne man / is y-hert / ine his heart.) 

kneadnesse / J)et me ne may / him wende / and na^t ne 

wyle / hym amendi. pe nerpe is / onworphede / of iv. Despite of 

penonce. pet is huanne man / ordayne)) ine his herte / tence). 

bet he / him ne ssel nait norbenche / his ze?me. J)e v. striving 

, . //iii.- * against the Holy 

vifte is / to wern pe grace j oi pe holy gost : me opren. Ghost in others. 
be zixte is / to werri zobnesse / be his wytinde / and vi. Warring 

, . . A11 against truth, and 

specialliche / pe zopnesse / of pe cristme beleaue. Alle especially against 

/ i - - j n . i i .the Christian be- 

pise zeraies / bye)? aye pe gnodnesse : ot pe holy gost. i ie f. 

and byep / zuo greate / pet onneape / come)) to ri3te uor- ^^^"h^ 

Jenehinge. and pernore / byej) hy / onneape noryene. ^f^^S £ 

repented of. 

be bridde heaned / of be beste / is hate. Ac bou The third head of 

1 ' ' . the evil beast is 

sselt ywyte / pet J)er is an hate / Jet is nirtne. ))et pe hate, 
gnode man hep / aye )>et knead. An opre / J)et is zewne i s virtuous, but V 
wel grat. pet is felhede / of herte. hnerof come J? / uele nessTof he^rfis a 
bojes. and he^liche : nour. by pe uour werreres / pet ThTfuter has' 
befelonn heb. be nerste is / to him-zelne. norhnaraie four wars (strifes). 

* T * I The 1st is with 

man / him berb hate / to be torment / and be zanle / himself, as when 

' , ., , , , for fear of tor- 

and pet body / zno J?et man / ne may slepe ne none ment he kills 
reste habbe. Operhuyl / hi?n be-nim)) pane mete / and 
pane drinke. and makep hi?n nalle / ine ane feure / 


ojer ine zuiche zo^e : Jet lie nimj? / fane dyaj?. ]pet is 

a ver / ]?et waste]? / alle J?e guodes / of J?e house. j)e 

The 2nd is with o]?re werre / Jet J?e feloun he}> : Jet is to gode. Yor 

fome^cknTssor wrefe / and felonye / op-bere]? / and nim]? zuo / oJ?er- 

of Mef/s & c ath ^uyl / J> e nerte of J> e felle / uor zome aduersite timlich / 

o]?er uor ziknesse / oJ?er uor dyaj? / of urendes. o]?e[r] uor 

zome misual / Jet his wyl / ne is na^t y-do : ]?et ha 

grochej? / aye oure lhord. and euele ]?onke]? god / and 

[i ms. wre))uoiio] his ha^en / and zuerej? / and blasfemej? / a-ye god / and 

ul^fwho^ 11 his nal 3 en - y> Q fridde werre / ]?et ]?e wrejmolle 1 he]?, is 

under him,— his to J?an / J?et bye]? onder him. pet is / to his wyue / and 

household. to his mayne. Yor J?e man / is o]?erhuyl zuo out / of 

He heatetii his his wytte : J?et ha beat / and smit / and wyf / and chil- 

rndVreaketh pots dren / and mayne. and brek]? potes / and coppes / ase 

and cups as if he ^ re / |. f ^ W y^ e an( J zuo h e { g> U Q uerbe / 

were out of his / J >' Y I 

wits - is werre / wyb-oute / to his nesybores / and to his 

The 4th is war I J r I ?J I 

with his neigh- nixte / j?et bye]? alle / aboute him. And of J?ise bo3e / 

hours. ii-i tt i / 

[i ms. simaie] wexe]? zeue smale l bo3es. Yor huanne wre]?e arist / be- 

springeth 7 small tuene tuay men : Jer is uerst chidiwge / and J>a?ine 

^chiding. wrefe / }?et blef]? ine herte. effterward / wre]?e. efter- 

2. wrath. s.Hate. war d / CO ml? ofte strif. efter / wylninge of wreche. efter- 

4. Strife. 5. Desire I Y /jo 

of vengeance. ward / oberhuil manslaate. and efterward / oberhuil 

6. Manslaughter. ' T ' ' J 

7. Deadly war. werre dyadlich / be-tuene ]?e urendes / huerof com]? / 

ofte / to moche kuead / and perils / ]?et ne mo3e / na3t 
war produces by amended. Yor huanne J?er is werre / be-tuene tuaye 
the death of many men : hit yual]? ofte / ]?et ]?er bye]) moche uolk dyade / 

innocent tolk, the ,, i i t * u. i ^ j_ i n > 

destruction of f e ^ ne habbe]? newne gelt, cherchen tobroke. tounes 
burning S of towns, uorbemd. abbey es. priories, bernes destrud / and 
the ruin of bams, men / an( j W yf me n / and children deserited / and 

the disinheritance I <j I I 

and exile of men, y-exiled. and londes destrud. and to moche / of ol?re 

women, and ' J 

children, lands harmes / J?et bye]? y-do / be J?e encheyson / of ]?an / ]?et 
hi bye]? yhealde / uor te amendi / J?et / ]?is purchace]?. 
and ]?e lhord / and alle ]?o / Jet byej? to ham helpinde. 
an ine zuyche nyede. and }?eruore hy bye]? / ine greate 
balance / of hyre helj?e / of zaule. uor hi ne mo3e 


amendi / nc yelde : Je harmes / Jet hi habbej ydo. and 
hit behouej yelde: ojer hongy. 


J?et uer Je heaued / of Je wyckede beste / is onlust- The fourth head 
hede. ])et is onlosthede / andtyene to do wel. Jis zewne / beast Q f hen is 
his a to kuead rote / Jet kest / uele kueade bo3es. j)is a si g n ^ a ^° d n a to 
onlosthede / Jet is sleuje / make]? Jet man he J / kueade P™ neness to do 
aginnynge / and more kueade / amendi/^e / and to This sin fe a 

& J & . ' ' & ' wicked root, that 

wors endittge. Kueade anginnynge / he J Je sleuuolle : casteth many evil 


be zix zercnes. pe uerste is : Jonneliche. liuawne Je man siotu makes men 

loue J lite / and lheucliche oure lhord / Jet he ssolde ni ^ b a ad amTnd- 

louye / bernindeliche. and Jerof com]) / Jet he is / fyeble ™%™ a worse 

and lheuc / to alle guodes / to done, be ober is }• T l\ e 8lot hftii 

I ° ' ' r loveth our Lord 

ar3nesse / Jet is tyene / of herte / Jet is Jet bed / to Je little and luke- 
dyeule / hnerine / he him restej / and zayj to Je marcne / 2. He is timid in 
and to Je wyfmanne. ' J?u hest y-by / to zofte y-dra3e do pe'nane^ and 
uorj. Jou art to fiebble / of compleccioun. Jou ne mi^t i^tt of the flesh. 
na3t do / Je greate penonces. Jou art to tendre. Jou tf^onTosu.] 6 * : 
ssoldest by anhaste dyad.' and Jeruore / Je wrechche / 
him let ualle to done Je lostes / ofhisulesse. ])e Jridde s. The idle man is 
is ydelnesse. Jet is a zenne / Jet dej moche kuead / ase ^n first to think 
zayj / Je wrytmge. Vor hua?me Je dyeuel / uynt Jane e ^f ^ 
man ydel : he hine deb / to worke. and deb him uerst / villanies * ribald- 

J * 1 ' ' nes, lecheries, and 

Jenche kuead. and efterward / to wylni uileynies / so to waste his 

ribaudyes / lecheries / and his time lyese / and manye 

guodes / Jet he nu^te do. huerof / he mijte wynne 

■paradis. be uerbe is / heuinesse. hua7me be man / is 4 - The heavy man 

x * * 1 * ' loveth to lie, rest, 

zno heui / bet ne loueb / bote to ligge / and resti / and and sleep. 

1 r , , He had rather 

slepe. ojerhuil hy bye J / yu.03 awaked / to nyedes / lose four masses 

,.,,_, . n , than a sweat or a 

Jet hi nedden leuere / lyese vour messen : Ja/ine ane 8 ieep. 
zruot / ojer ane slep. ])q vifte is / wyckednesse. Jet is / ^ ^J 1 ^ 
huawne be man /lib ine zenne / and yvelb be uondinges / try to amend his 

r ' ' ' I evil ways, 

of Je dyeule / and of his ulesse / Jet him asaylej / and 
be ri3te kueadnesse : nele arere Jet heued / to gode / be 


[Foi. 9. a.] be satisfacioun. [dedbote.] ])e ilke anliknej) / fane 
He is like the ssrewe / bet heb leuere rotye / in a -prison. / uoul / and 

shrew, who would 

rather rot in stinkinde : fawne to nab be / pe pyne of stapes / to eliue 

thTtroubteto nor his ontguoinge. j)e zixte / is litel wyl [ar^nesse]. 

step S b ° Utby Ine pise zeraie / bye]) )>o J Jet habbe]) drede / of na3t / 

ntt^wiuTretd- f et ne dorre / na 3 t a gi nne / we ^ to dorie - uor n ^ babbej) 

good%or g fearth d at drede f et ^ od / nam W Y le %!y / J> et is J> e drede / ° f J 50 

God will fail meteres. bet habbeb drede / of hare metmges. \)o 


This is the dread anlikne]) fan / Jet ne dar na^t gno / ine pe pefe nor fane 
that are terrified snegge / Jet sseawej him his homes. And to pe ehilde / 
Het^ketoe' J> et ne dar na$t guo his way / nor pe guos pet blauj. 

^ouTfor fear of ^* Se ^^ f 6 Z * X V * CeS / ^ Denvme J J J e ma/me / 

a snail, or nke guod gimxynge. Vor ojre zix vices / ne may pe sleawolle/ 
a goose that blow- habbe gnod aginnynge / o Jer amendement. Jpet bye]) 
There are six vices techches / of knead seriont / Jet make]) / Jet non guod 

that prevent good / -, , . n / • j -i • • / 1 

beginning and man / ne ssel his onderuonge / in to his sernice / ima^ne 
amen ment. ^ - g 011 £ rewe> s l e tiuol. onssriuel. uoryetinde. slak. and 
Untruth. The failinde. be nerste vice is / ontreube. Yor huanne 

sinner believes the ^ ' ' 

devil rather than god / zet ine pe herte of man / guod wyl / wel to done : 
[pedyeuiesred: Jawne com]) pe dyenel / and him zayj) / 'Jou hit sselt 
wel / recouri / J)ou art yong / and Strang / J)ou sselt 
libbe longe.' and zno he him / onwone]) Je dyeuel / wel 
sioth. This is a uor to done. Efterward /comb sleube. uor he/ bet 

vice that all are i r I I r 

besmutted with, wel de]) / and def hit auerst : hit ne is no wonder / Ja3 

he hit do / sleuuolliche. j)et is a uice huerof al pe 

Few folk are as wordle is besmet. huo pet nim]) wel hede. Yor lite 

are hoiden to be. uolk per bye J / Jet by diligent / ine Jet hi bye]) / 

yhyealde to done / auorye god / and hire nixte. 
Forgetfuiness. Efter sleauje / is noryetinge. Ycr huo Jet ys 

loth to shrive, and sleauuol : ofte uoryet. Yor ])ise tuo zeraies / of uoryet- 
ws^insT e y n g e: bit ynalj? ofte / Jet he ne can him ssriue. Yor 
huaraae pe man / is sleuuol / him to ssriue : he uoryet 
True shrift is ne- his lackes / and his zewnes / bet is grat peril. Yor non 

cessary to forgive- ' . 

ness, ne may habbe / uoryeuenesse : wy])-oute / zojje ssrifte. 

])et ber]) / uorjenchinge / of herte. beknaulechinge / of 
zo^e / ne grede / harou be ssrifte. ne arere pe honden. 

to j>e ontrewe] . 


moupe / bo3samnesse / ine dede/ pet is amendi^ge : and and produces re- 
pentance, confes- 
dedbote. per ne ys non zuo guod man / pet yet lie sion, obedience, 

yzeye wel / his 030110 lackes / J?et he ne ssolde uynde / 8atiSuct£n? U< " 

yno3 uor to zigge eche daye / ine his ssrifpe. Ac sleupe. 

and uoryetiwge : blendep pe zene;eres. pet 111 ne zyep 

na3t ine pe boc / of hire inwy ute. 

J?E PERIL OP SLACNESSE. The peril of slack- 

Efterward / com]? slacnesse / pet com]? / of pe de- 

Slackness conieth 
of default of eour- 

faute / of herte / and of kueade wone. bet bint zuo age and of evil 

1 ' . f habits. 

pane man / pet onneape / he him yefp / to done wel. 

oberhuil hit comb / of onconnyndehede : and of fole Sometimes it 

' * ' comes of ignor- 

liete. hner-by pe man / op-let zuo his herte / and his ance and of foolish 

body / be uestinges. and be wakinges. and by opre 

dedes. zuo J?et he nalp / ine fyeblesse / and ine zuiehe 

ziknesse : pet he ne may m»3t trauayly / ine godes 

sernice. and to-ualp / ine pa slacnesse / pet he ne hep 

smak / ne deuocion / wel to done. Efterward / comb Afterwards com- 

' ' ^ eth weariness, 

werihede / pet makep pane man / weri / and worsi / that maketh man 

uram daye / to daye / al-huet he is / al recreyd / and 

defayled. And pis is / pe zixte vice / of pe kueade 

sergonte. pet he faylep / erpan he come / to pe ende / 

oper to his terme. And me kan zigge : huo pet seruep / 

and na3t uolseruep : his ssepe / he lyest. 

bE .6. POYNS OP SLEUbE : bET BRENGEb MAN TO HIS The six points of 
' ' J * sloth that bring a 

ENDE. man "- death. 

And yet eft / per byep / zix poyns / kueade. huer-by 
sleupe / brengp man / to his ende. Jpe uerste is / *• Disobedience, 

* * 'as seen in a reluct- 

onbo3samnesse. hmmne pe man / nele do / pet me him ance to do pen- 

. . , , ance. 

zayp / me penonce. oper me mm hat zompmg / pet 

\\\m pingp hard, he him excusep : pet he hit ne may 

do. oper yef he hit onderuangp : he hit dep / oper litel / L" Fo1 - 9 - b -] 

ober na^t. be ober poynt / is inpaeience. uor ase he ne 2 - impatience of 

r 7 f r l J I 1 control and cor- 

may / no ping here / be bo5samnesse. he ne may polye / rection. 
be paciense, zuo pet non / ne dar to him speke / of his 


3. Grudging or guode. j)e bridde / is grochynge. Vor hua?2ne me 


against good ad- spekj? to him / uor his guode : he him wrefej? / and 

visers ; this causes , , . . 

4. sorrow and grocliej). and him fmgj? : J?et me him onworfef. and 
whicMeadstothe f er °f n ^ uaty / in-to zo^e / Jet is / J?e uerfe vice. An zuo 

moche / him ouergef / J?e ilke zor3e / J?et al / J?et me 
hi?7i zayj? / al Jjet me hi?^ dej? / al Jet he yherj? / al Jet 
he zi3j? : al hit him tienej). and zuo he ualjj / in-to 
zoi^e / and in-to tyene to libbe / zuo ]>et him-zelf / him 

5. Desire of death, hastej? / and wylnef / his dyaf. and j?is is J?e vifte vice. 

6. Despair is the Efter alle J?ise zorjiiolle poyns of sleufe / him yef J? J?e 
stroke ; dyeuel / fane strok dyadlych / and de]> hi?/? / in-to wan- 
it causes a man to hope. feruore he porchacef /his dyaj? / and him-zelue/ 

sla3j>. ase despayred. and him yefj? / alle kueadnesses / 
to done / and hi?n ne dret na3t / to do ze?zne / huet J?et 
hit by. To zuich ende / let sleaufe ' fane man. Jpise 
bye]?, xviij. poyns. fet ]?e dyeuel / J?rauf / ope fane 
sleuuolle. hit ne is no wonder / J?a3 he lyese \ et geme. 

The fifth head of ^ ET VIFTE HEAUED OF J)E BESTE. 

the beast is the w v ift e heaued / of be beste / beuore v-zed. is be 

sin of avarice and ' * ' d * 

covetousness, the ze?zne / of auarice / and of couaytyse / J?et is rote / of 

root of all evil. 

This is the great alle kueacle. ase zayj? zaynte paul. J?et is J?e maystresse / 
and teacher of ail, j>et he]? / zuo greate scole / Jet alle guof frin / uor to 
theBchS m lyemi. ase zayf / J?e wrytinge. Yor alle manere of 
smaifkSJ^pre^ uo ^ / stu(1 ieJ? ine auarice / and greate/ and smale. kinges. 
lates, clerks, lewd p re l a tes. clerkes. an lewede. and religious. Auarice / 

and religious. x ° ' 

Avarice is disor- is disordene loue. zuo disordene / hi?^ ssewef / in Jri 

showeth itself in maneres generalliche. ine wynnynge: boldeliche. ine of- 

i. winning. healdinge : streytliche. ine spendinge : scarsliche. J?ise 

8.' slingi 1 ness? g ' ^yej? P e f ri ^°3 es p™cipales : Jet of Jise rote wexej. 
oftherootof Ac specialliche / and propreliche / of be rote of 

avarice come # ' J 

many small roots auarice / guoj out / manye smale roten. bet byeb / wel 

that are great / i n • i 

deadly sins : greate / dyadliche zeraies. pe uerste / is gauelinge. pe 
s! Robbery. & *' °P er / j>Y G ty Q - P Q Jridde / roberye. J?e uerje / chal- 
t. sacrilege 1 ™ 1, en o e * ^ e v ^ te I sac ^ e g e - fo zixte / symonye. ])q 
c. simony. zeuende / kuedhedes. ])e e3tende is / ine chapfare. j)e 

1 MS. sseauj?e 


ne^ende is / wycked creft. J)e tende is / ine kuade 7. Wickedness, 

uolke. And ech of pise smale roten / him to-delp / ine 9. wicked craft, 

uele manyeres. 10. wicked games. 

])am\e pe uerste rote / Jet is gauelinge. him to-dclp / 1. Usury has 7 

, , . _ r . outcastings, for 

me zenen / outkestmges. Vot per bye]) / zeue manere there are 7 kinds 

gaueleres : lenynde. pet lenep zeluer : nor opren. And ° usmeis * 

aboue ])e catel : nimep pe lieges. oper ine pans, oper some lenders 

-1, , , n . (mortgagees*) lend 

me nors. oper me corn. oper me wyn. oper me frut 01 B iiver in return for 

)>e grounde / pet hi nimep / ine wedde dyade. wyp-oute S'oTth;^ 

rekenynge / Jjet frut ine paynge. And pet wors ys : hi 8 round - 

wyllep rekeny tuyes. oper pries pet yer. uor to do arise 

pet gauel. and wyllep / yet habbe yefpes aboue / nor 

eehe termo. and niakep / ofte / of pe gauel : pmicipale They falsely in- 

i/i crease the rate of 

dette. pise byep gaueleres kueade / and uoule. Ac per interest. 

is an oper lenere corteys. pet lenep / wyp-outo chapfare The courteous 

, . . , , , . . lender lendeth 

makimde. alneway in he^mge. oper me pans, oper me without chaffer, 
hors. oper ine coupes of gold, oper of zeluer. oper robes, 
oper tonnen mid wyn / oper ine uette zuyn. seruices 

ulessliche. of hors. of carten. oper prauendres to ham / CFoi. 10. a.] 
oper to hare children, oper ine opre pinges. and oueral 
to gauel / huanne me hit nimp / by pe skele / of pe 
lone. j)m is pe uerste manere / of gauelynge / pet is 

ine leninge kueadliche. J^e opre manere / of gaue- 2. The second 

lynge / is ine fan / fet no lencj, najt / to hare ™Z^ZZ S 

persone. ac pet hire uaderes / and pe uaderes of hare of P lirchase - 
wyues / oper hare eldringes / habbep yporchaced / be 
gauelinge. hit ofdiyealdep and uollep / hit na^t yelde. 

J?e pridde manere of gauelinge / is ine ham / pet habbep 3. The third 

onworp to lene / of hire hand : ac hi dop lone / hare master money- 

sergons. oper opre men / of hire pans. j)'me byep pe outi^sin the 

mayster gaueleres. Of pe ilke zewne / ne byep na^t pe f^^™™^ 

he$e men quit / pet hyealdep and sostenep iewes and pe the Jews - 
caorsins. pet lenep / and destruip / pe contraye / and 
hy nymep pe medes / and pe greate yefpes / and oper- 
huil / be ronsounes / bet byeb of be guodes / of be 

' r I r J r r / r 4> The fourth kind 

poure. J2e uerpe nianyere / is ine ham / pet lenep / of is in those that 
3 * 


lend other men's opremanne zelure / oper bo^ep / to litel cost: uor to 

silver obtained at . , . , , 

small cost, so as lene / to g?'«tter cost, pise bye]? / litle gaueleres / pet 
interLt redtei lyernep / zuycli uoul creft. ])q vifte manere is / ine 

usurer that teach- 

it is the little ^ c heapfare / huarcne me zelp /pet ping / huet J>et hit 

eth such foul ^y . more j, a7me hit by worp / nor fane time, an pet 

5. chaffer is to sell wors is / be time-zettere ontrewe. hua?^ne he yzi3p pet 

a thing for more , , 

than it is worth at uolk / mest nyecluol. pa?zne wyle he zelie / pe derrer 
tnyes / oper fries zuo moche / pane pet ping / by worp. 

1. The chafferers Zuych uolk / dop to moche kuead. Vor hire time- 
bring knights and , - 1 / , 

high men to zettiiige / hi destruep / and makep beggeres / pe 
poverty. kny^tes : and pe Icemen / pet no^ep pe tornemens. 

2. They lend an( i *, e t hy betakep / hyre londes / and hare eritage / 

money on land , u 

which they know ine wed. and dead wed / pet na3t him ne aquyttep. pe 
deemed. ° ^ opre zei^ep / to begge pe pinges / ase corn, oper wyn. 

3. They buy things oper operping / lesse be pe halnedele / pa^ne hit his 
aiuTseii them* Ue worp. nor pe pans / pet he payp beuore. and paraie / 

S^r? thricethe nit zelle ]> I liam a J Qn I tu y es zuo moclie / °t eT > ries : f° 

derrer. ])e opre beggep pe pinges / hnaraie hi byep lest 

4. They buy com worp to greate cheape / ine herneste / pet corn, ine uen- 

cheap, and sell it , n , . -,-, / 

when it is scarce; donginge : pet wyn. opre cheaplares / nor to zelie ayen / 

tt'dtTttlTo al-lmet hi byep / mest diere. and wilnep / pane dyere 

deader! 11 the time / uor to zell ° J> e Ferrer. ])q opre / pet corn agerse. 

s. They buy com ij e v i nes i n flouringe / huarcne pet hi byep / of naire 

and vines in a ■» ° ' * J ' 

nourishing con- ssewynge. he zuiche norwerde : pet hi habbe /huet cas 

dition. . t • n i 

6. They use fraud yualle : hire catel sanf. J?e zixte manere / is of pan / 
dise. an * pet takep hire pans to marchons / be zuo pet hi by 

uela3e / to pe wynnynge. and na3t to pe lere. oper pet 
hi betakep / hire bestes / to pe haluedele / be zuo pet hi 
by / of fer pris. pet is to zigge / pet yef hi steruep / 
ine mene time : do opre ine hare stede / asemoche 

7. They take ad- worp. ])o zeuende manere / is ine pan / pet plop / hare 

•vantage of the ne- , / • i i t * i. t • 

cessities of their poure ne^eboures / ine hare nyecies. and uor pet In 

poor neighbours, habbe j, J ham y _ lend j ft lyte ^^ Q j, er com# j, er ydo 

zome cortaysye. And huamie hy hise yzep poure / an 
nyeduol : paraie makep hy / mid ham / marcat / to do 
hire niedes. and pe pans / pet hi token be-uore / to pe 


poure mawne. ober hi?^ lende / a lite corn. / hi habbeb / »"d take three- 

' ' r ' penny worth of 

J?n pane worses of worke : nor ane pen y. work for a penny 

j)E 0])ER BO3 OF COUAYTISE. tFoL 10, b ' ] 

])e o]?er bo3 of anarice : ys J?yef J?e. pet is nyme / ober Th e eecond bough 

- , , , . of covetousness is 

oi-healde / o]?remamie ]?mges / wyj? wrong / and onw} T - theft, that is, to 
tinde / and wyJ?-oute wylle / of J?e lhorde. And J?et me oilmen's goods 
may do / ine uour manures be J?e manire of ]?yeues. Yor F ou%nds'of 
J?erys: a J?yef open, and a [?yef ywre^e. a fief pr/ue. lltpeT 2. covert. 
and a byef uelase. s - Priv y- 4 - Ac_ 

1 d J cessory. 

pe J?yef cownnun / and open / bye]? J?o / J?et be 1. The open thief 

zuiehe erefte / libbej). of hua?7i me de]? dom / huarcne w £ e n caught." 1 
me liise nym]?. Of znichen J?er byej? / nele maneres. 

ine londe / an ine ze. pe ]?yef y-wre3e / is Jjet stele]? 2.Thesiy thief 

-, n , , ,. ," . , . stealeth in corners 

me halites / and ywry^eliche greate purges / oper great or small 
little / be hire vi3tinge. o)?er be traysonn. o]?er be tr"a£X orwait! 

pe p?~me J?yeues bye]? J?o / Jjet ne stele]? na3t / of 3. The privy thief 
onconJ?e. ac of prmes. And of znichen : per bye]? /of 
greate / and of smale. pe greate / bye]? of J?e kueade/and Thegreat ones are 
be ontrewe reuen. pronos. and bedeles. and sernons. vosts, beadles, and 


J?et stele]? / J?e amendes. and wy]?dra3ej? pe rentes / of that steal fines and 

.... _. ,. .. , , . hold back the rents 

hire lhordes. and rekene}? more / me dedes. and me f their lords. 
spendinge. an lesse / ine ondernonginge. and ine 
rentes. Znyche bye]? / J?e greate officials / J?et bye]? / J x hey n ^^ the 
ine pe house / of riche men. J?et make]? / J?e greate spend- aud the income 
inges. and yeuej? largeliche / pe gnodes of hare lhordes / and are liberal 

. 1T with their mas- ' 

wy]?-oute hare wytende / and wy]?-oute hare wylle. ter's goods. 

To bise zewne belongeb / be ze?znes of be wyue. bet To this sin belong 

* ° r ' r T J Y the sins of the wife 

deb zuo moche / be hare zemie / bet be children / bet hi who wrongeth her 

' ' 1 t t it kind by spouse- 

WOt wel / J?et hi he]? / be spousbreche : berj? away pe breach, 
kende. Znych is pe zemie / of pe wyue. }?et pe guodes / and who steaieth 
of hire lhorde ste]J?. uor to yene / hare kenne. o]?er nor give to her kin. 
to done / in-to kuead us. And of ham / of religion / 
pet bye}? 03eneres. nor hi behotej? to libbe / wy[j?]-oute 


The little thieves j) G Jre byeb / be little Jyeues. Jet stele]? / ine Je 

steal bread, . , . 

wine, their neigh- house : bread, wyn. an ojre Jmges / nuycne pet hi 

hens^anTgavden "by. ojer of hire r^ebores. hire capons, hemien. frut 

fruit * of hire gardins. ojer ojre Jinges / huet Jet hit by. 

such are those Zuyche bye]? J)o / Jet of hyealde J / Je Jinges / Jet hi 

tlieyfinci!knowing vindej. and wytej wel /huas Jet hi bye J. and nolle]) hise 

to whom it be- na ^ yeld& y or yef ^ vingt ^ and na?t ne yelgt . j ?ou 

SJ2S; hit stelst - And f a 3 hi ne w y te / huas P et M ^ : hi 

not the owner, we ne sso u e / na: >t Wuore / hit of healde. ae hi ssollen do 

must take the ad- i j j i 

vice of Holy "b e be rede / of holy cherche / ober be hire ssrifte- 

Church. r i j i r 

4. The thief ])e Jyeues be ueh^rede / bye]? J>o / Jet parte J / of Je 

t^ketiTof thTtheft Jyefje I ojer uor uela^rede / ojer by yef Je / ojer be 
"sefhecon- begginge. ojer ine ojre many ere. Efterward / Jo Jet 
SidlnttI consentej / ojer redej / ojer hotij / hit do. And Jo 
theft. j, et defended j, e Jyeues / ojer sostenej his / ine hare 

queade / ojer his onderuongej / in to hare house / ojer 

in to his londe / mid hare Jyef Je. Efterward / Je 
The corrupt judge kueade domesmen / Jet hise soffrej. ojer be yefjes. 
sory. UG aCCeb " ojer be biddynges. ojer be ojre kueade skele. and 

nollej. ojer ne dorre / ri^t do. 


in. The third ])q Jridde bo^ of auarice : is roberye. Jet hej 

hough of avarice n -. , , j. • / • i i • j. / 

is robbery, that uele smale roten. Je uerste is / me kueade exequitours / 
roots^^ 11 ofbekuydes. \)e ojer is / ine kueade lordes / by he 

of be^uests ^ 01 " 8 ^ny^t / °P GV °J ?er I ^ "ke-lllajej / P e V 0UYG men : J? et 

hi ssolden loki. be tayles. be eornees. be lones. be 
2 unfaithful kueade wones. be amendes. be Jreapnynges. ojer be 
guardianship. Q *p TG woneg j j> e t hy zechej. ojer bejenchej / hou hi 

mo^e habbe / of hiren. Ine Jise zeraie byej / Je greate 
unlawful posses- Ponces, ojer barouns. Jet be hare strercgje / nimej Je 
ca°s«es°?and me iid c ^ es * P e casteles. Je londes. Je baronyes. and Je ojre 
baronies. riche men / Jet hare poure ne3eboures / benimej mid 

strengje / londes / vines / ojer ojre Jinges. and nimej 

ary3thalf / and alefthalf / Jet no Jing / ne may ham 



ascapie. be bridde is / ine robberes / and kueade her- 3. wicked har- 

1 ' ' bouring of rob- 

ber^eres / pet berobbep / pe pilgrimes / an pe marchons / bers. 

and opre wayuerindemen. ])d uerpe / is ine ham / pet 4. Unpaid debts. 

nolle]? paye / pet hi ssolle. and pet hi ofhea[l]dcp / mid 

wrong / pe ssepes / of hare sergons. oper of ham / pet 

do]? hare niedes. ])e vifte is / ine pise greate prelas/pet 5. Robbery of 

benimep / and robbep / hire owderlinges / be to moche prelates, 

p?'ocuringe. oper be zome onmtuolle nimiwges Jet hi dop 

in to nele manures. bo bycb be wolues : bet ureteb be who, like wolves, 

' J r r r r r devour the sheep. 

ssep. J?e zixte is / ine zuyche reuen. prouost. bedeles. 6. oppression of 

the poor by reeves* 

opre mesteres men / hmche pet hy byep. pet makep pe provosts, and 
greate robbynges / and pe wronges / ope pe poure. and 
beggep / pe greate eritages. J?er byep zno nele opre 
manures / of roberies : pet long ping / hit were to zigge. 
ac zome byep y-contined / ope pan / pet byep y-zed. 


])e nerpe bo3 of anarice / is acsynge. pet is to yerne ^ ^| le f fou ^ 
opo 1 opre / mid wrong, to pise ze/me belongep / al pet is false claim, 
barat. alle nalshedes. and alle gyles : bet comep / ine name Avarice 

hath many 

plait. Ine pis clergie / hep dame anarice / nele scolers. scholars in this 

and of elerkes : and of leawede. and specialliche / zeue 7 kin(ls of folk 

manyeres of nolke. pet alle / pus studiep. ])e nerste f pj^p^^ 

byep / pe ualse playneres / pet makep / pe ualsebezech- that .seek corrupt 

inges. and zechep / pe ualse demeres. and lang time, and justice, 

pe ualse wytnesses. pe ualse playteres. pe ualse lettres *"tnesses. 
uor to greui opren. and trauaylep pet uolk / myd wrong, 

ober be cWstene cort. ober be leawede cort. pe opre 2 - The pretended 

* > J exiles. 

byep / pe ualse yulemde / pet vlyep. and na3t pet / 

pet ri3t is. and zechep wypsetti[n]gges and respit. uor 

to bynime opren / hare 03en. \)e priddebyep / pe ualse 3. False witnesses. 

wytnesses. pise makep / pe ualse manages. pise 

benimep / pe heritages, pos dop / zuo moche kuead / 

and harmes / pet non / ne may his amendi. and al pis 

hi dob / be hare greate couaytise. \)e uerpe byep / pe 4. False accusers, 

r 1 ° d * sustainers of false 

ualse plaiteres / pet onderuougep / an sostinet / pe causes, 



masters of guile, 
dispute, and of 

5. False notaries. 

6. False judges, 
whoare influenced 
by love or by hate, 

[Fol. 11. b.] 

who sell their 
dooms (verdicts), 
and wrongfully 
use the poor. 

7. False coun- 

All the aforesaid 
persons are bound 
to restore what 
they have wrong- 
fully withheld. 

V. The fifth bough 
of avarice is sacri- 
lege, that is, to 
break or steal the 
things of Holy 

1. Abuse of the 
Lord's body. 

2. Abuse of the 
other sacraments. 

3. Destruction or 
theft of holy 

ualse causes / be hare wytinde / and hise beclepiep nor 
ssepe / and uor yefpes. pet hi nymep ai^thalf / and 
alefthalf. and ofte lyese / pe guode playntes / be hare 
kueadnesse / oper uor onconynghede / oper be sleawp / 
miswendep pe ^tes / and do3 l alle pe wronges / "vor 
hare couaytise / ase po pet bye]) maystres of gyle / and 
of contak / and of be-uelynge. ])e vifte. byep / pa 
ualse notaryes / pet makep pe ualse lettres. and ualsep 
pe celes. make J? pe kueade libelles. and to uele op re / 
ualshedes. ])e opre byep / pe ualse demeres. pet 
ham zelue hongep / more of one half / panne of anopre / 
be yefpes / oper be behotinges / oper be byddinges / 
oper uor lone, oper uor wrepe / oper uor drede. and 
onbyndep pe playntes / mid wrong. And dop maki pe 
greate costes / and nimep /pe greate yefpes / operhuyl / 
of pe on : operhuil / of pe opren. operhuyl / of on / 
and of opre. and zellep / hare domes, oper ham / letep 
yworpe. And dop / to pe poure men / greate harmes / 
pet hi ne 111030 amendi. pe opre byep / pe kueade 
bezide-zitteres / pet yeuep pe kueade redes / to pe de- 
meres / and makep lyese pe playntes : uor pe seruices / 
pet hy habbep. Alle pe persones / beuore yzed / byep 
y-hyealde to yelde / pet hi habbep y-het kueadliche / of 
opren. and hare harmes / pet pe opre habbep y-het / 
be ham. 


p)e vifte bo3 of auarice / is sacrilege. Sam'lege is : 
hua??ne me brecp. oper blechep. oper dra3p uoulliche / 
pe holy pinges. oper pe men / of holy cherche. oper 
pe y-haLjede stedes / pet byep apropred / to guodes 
semise. and pet dep do / ofte / couaytise ine uele manures. 
Yerst / huawne me dra3p uoulliche / pet bodi of oure 
lhorde / aze dop pe ereges. and \>e wychen. and pe 
kueade prestes / uor to wynne. Alsuo ich zigge / of 
pe opre sacmnens. Eftenvard / huarcne me brecp / 
oper stelp / oper dra3p uoulliche / pe ha^ede pinges. 


j)Q crouchen. Je calices. Je creyme. Je co[r]poreaus. 
Je yhlissede uesteraens. and ojre j yhlissede Jinges. 

Efterward / hua?zne me bernb. ober brekb cherches. 4 - Burning and 

7 r r r breaking of 

ojerholi stedes. cherchto amis. ojer hous of relygioun. churches, reiigi- 

, -, , , . ous houses, and 

oper nuamie me drajj? Jo / out / Jet vie]? to holy drawing out those 

cherche. ojer in-to cherchtounes. nor to by y-bor$e. ranctuwytherein. 

Efterward / lma/me me makeb medics / ine cherche / \ Di ? ut t es j" 

' iff church, shedding 

zuo bet ber ys / blod yssed. ober huawne me deb / of blood, and sin 

. T ' of lechery. 

ze?ine of leeherie. Efterward / huawne me layb band / 6 - La > rin g violent 

* ' hands on clerk or 

me kueade / ine clerk, ojer ine man / ober ine wyf- man or woman of 

man / of religion. Efterward huanne me steljj. ojer 7. string of 

ber]?/ be kueade skele / out of holy stede / yblissede from holy pieces. 

Jinges / ojer on-blissede / buet >et hit by. Of Jise SZS^' 

ze/mes / ne bye]? na?t kuytte Jo / J et Je guodes of holy TZ/^X* 

clierche. be patremoyne of Iesu er/st / despendeb whohidthe 

' x ' property of the 

ine kuead us. 2s"e ]?o najjemo / Jet benimej / ober church, or who 

P1 , -, . , r i / • t withhold rents, 

otnyaldej mid wro|nJg / ojer mid strengje. o]?er offerings, and 

hede]? })e Jinges '/ Jet bye}? a-propred / to holy cherche. 

o]?er hise payej? kueadlrche. ase ]?e rentes. ]?o of- 

frendes. ]?e tendes. and J?e ojre ri3tcs / of holy 

cherche. Of Jise zelue zewne / ne bye}? nait kuytte / They are not quit 

i i j i i i ■, i /i« / who break Sun- 

Jo Jet breke]? J?e zondayes / and J?e festes / ]?et bye]? to days and festivals 
loki. Vor J?e holy day / he]? his vridom / , ase habbe]? 
]?e holy stedes. })ise bye]? ]?e smale bo3es ]?et wexe]? of 
Je bo^e of sacrilege. 


j)Q zixte bo3 of auarice / is symonye. J?et is zuo vi. The sixth 

bough of a 1 
is simony. 

ycleped/uor ane wy cliche / Jet hette symoun / Jet bou ^ hofavarice 

wolde begge / of saynte peter }?e apostel / J?e grace / 

nor to do miracles / and byad grat guod. and Jeruore / 

hi bye}? y-cleped / symoniaks : alle Jo / Jet wyllej simoniacsare 

zelie / ojer begge / Je gostliche Jinges. Jet is amang / ^^ ° r 

alle Je dyadliche zemies : on of Je grateste. And Jes f^' hath 

1)03 / hej manie tuygges. })e uerste is in ham/ Jet many twigs; 

zellej / ojer beggej / Je holy ordres / o Jer Jet body of / buying of holy 


orders, or the sa- ure lhorde / ober be obre sacremens / of holy eherche. 


2. Preaching for fie ojjer is ine ham / J)et zelle}) / godes word, and pre- 
pen f ^ 1 12 - che]? prmcipalliche / uor pans, fie fridde is ine ham/ 

3. Purchasing and Jet be yeffes / o])er be behotinges / oJ?er be biddingges 
iy the dignities of dreduolle / ofer nlessliche / make J? zuo moche / J?et hy / 

y urc ' o]?er ofre : bye]) ichose / to dyngnetes / of holi eherche. 
ase bye]) bissopriches. abbayes. opeT denyes. ofer 

4. Giving away ofre dingnetes / }>et me makef / be chyezinge. fie uerje 
benefices of Holy is ine ham / J)et be yef j?es / oj?er be behotinges. opeT be 

biddinges dreduolle / o]?er be seruise na3t clene / yeuej? 
pe prouendres. and pe parosses. oJ»er ofre benefices 

5. Letting and of holy eherche. fie vifte is ine ham / Jet be markat 

changing of bene- , . .. in / 

fices. makmde : letep hare benences / oJ?er chonge]?. fie 

6. causing men to zixte is ine ham I bet be markat makinde ; guob in-to 

go into religion by # ' J ° T 

market. religion, and ine ham / pet ine zuiche manere / his 


Vele J?er byej> ofre zeraies / and of diuers cas / ine 
symonye. Ac hi belongej? more / to klerekes : Jmwne 
to leawede. And pis bok is more ymad / nor pe 

Lewd (lay) men leawede : bafzne uor be clerkes. bet habbeb be bokes. 

should keep them # * * T 

from this sin, Ac alneway hit is nyed / to leawede men / bet hi hara 

which they may . . . 

commit in 3 ways: loki / uram pise ze?me : me J>ri cas. fie on is / huawne 
thei^kinto obtain ni wyllef helpe hare ken / ofer hare uryendes / an-he3y 
cSch. S ° fthe ine dingnetes / of holi cherch. fie ofre huamie hi 
awa b bentfi C n ef y eue ]> P Q prouendres / ojjer benences / Jet bye]) of hare 
3rd, by causing yefbe. fie bridde / huamie hi yeldeb hare children / 

their kin to go . * Y ' . 

into religion. into relig[i]on. Ine Jjise }>ri poyns / yef hi yeue}? / ofer 
onderuongej) yeffes / oper kueade* biddingges / o]?er 
kueade semises : hi nn^ten zone ualle in to J?ise zernie 

Three kinds of of symonie. Vor ase ziggeb be holi writes. ber byeb 

gifts make si- r r 

mony. Jmjnaneres ol yefj?es. pet make]) symonie. yeipe of 

2.' Gifto°fmouth. nand " y ef f e of mou ]> Q I ase hiddinges. yef]?e of 
3. Gift of unclean seruise na^t clenlich. Ich clepie onclenlich : hua?^ne 


pe semises bye}) y-do / uor onclenliche cause, ojer 
prmcipalliche : uor Jiing gostlich. 



fie zeuend bo3 / of auarice : ys wyckedhede. Ichclepie vii. The seventh 

wychkedhede : huamie ]?e man / is zuo wykhed / and i 8 °wfckednes™e. 

zuo moclie dyeuel : J?et hira no dret na3t / to done / ane ^I^d"^ he 

create ze?zne / dyadlicli / and orrible. ober grat harm / fears not t0 do a 

. . great and horr ibIe 

to obren / uor a lite wayn / ober nor ureme / to him. deadly sin or harm 

\ ' r . to others for to 

pes D03 / he J) manye tnygges. J)e nerste is. huaraie / benefit himself, 
eny uor drede / of pouerte. oj>er uor couaytise / uor to manifold* &re 
wynne : uorz^Jj [renay]?] god / and J?e c-Wstene bileaue. 1^S"|^ 
and becomj? bougre. o]?er ieu. ofer sarasin. To Jew ' or Saracen - 
Jnse ze?zne / belongej? / J>e zemie : of ham / J?et uor To this sin be- 
pans / make)? to clepie / fane dyeuel. and make)) J?e [^e who make° f 
enchauntemens. and makeb to loky ine be zuord. enchantments, 

* *j * who look in the 

ober ine be nayle / of be bourne. uor to of-take / be nail of the thumb 

r r J I r r I r for to take thieves, 

byeues. ober uor obre binges. And of ham alsuo / and of them also 

rJ T Y r ' that by witchcraft 

J?et make)? / o]?er porchacej? / be charmes / o)?er be cause those in 
wychecreft. per be kueadnesse / huet pet hit by. pet hate one another, 
uolk / pet byep ine spoushod / togydere / ham hatiep. 
oper ne mo3e habbe uek^rede / pe on wyp pe opre / be 
spoushod. Oper J>et uolk / Jet ne byep na3t ine spous- 
hod : louiep ham togidere / folliche : and be ze/me. j)e 
ober is / be ze?me / of grochinge / and of traysoun 2. Grudging and 

r I r I & o 1 J treason, when a 

[bezuykinge]. huarane pe man / uor wynnynge. oper man for profit 

. brings others to 

uor mede / dep ping / huer by hi dra3ep opre / to pe death by sword 

., .. , . . t or poison. 

dyape. oper be zuorde. oper be uenym. oper me opre [Fo i, 12 . b.] 
manere / huet bet hit by. ])e bridde / is be zemie of 3. Burning of 

7 J towns or houses ; 

ham / bet uor wynnynge / heme}) hous. tounes. casteles. destruction of 

vines or corn ; 

cites. oper chcrchen. oper destruep pe vines, oper cornes. harm to others 

, , , , • , for reward. 

oper do)? o)?re harmes uor mede. pe uer]?e is J?e ze/me 4 Sowing discord) 

of ham Jet zawep discord, and p^chacej? >e stryfs / S^™ 

and J?e werres in cites /o]?er ine capiteles / o)?er be-tuene be gainers there- 
]?e Icemen / uor fan )?et hi wene]? J?e more to wynne 

mid strif ine be werre : barcne ine pays. \)e vifte is J?e s Accusing poor 

* J folk falsely. 

zenne of reuen. of prouostes. of bedeles. of sergons. 
pet accuse)? / and c[h]alengep pet poure uolc / and haw 



[i rayuni ?] doj raymi l J and kueadlicbe lede uor a lite wynnynge 
Jet lii babbej be-zide. to Jise zewne belongej Je ze??ne 
To this sin belong- of ualse domesmen / and of ualse play teres / and of ualse 
wytnesses. of Imam we babbej a-boue y-speke. Ine 
manye ojre maneres is ydo Je zerane of wyckednesse. 
Ac lang Jing bit were to zigge. and betere may ecb 
man rede Je ilke ze?2ne / and Je ojre / ine Je boc of 
bis inwyt : Janne ine ane ssepes scinne. 

false judges, 
false plaintiffSj 
and false wit- 

VIII. The eighth 
bough of pride is 
chaffer, i.e. a sin- 
ning for speedy- 

It is seen in 7 
modes : 

1. To sell as dear 
as possible, but to 
buy at the cheap- 

2. To lie, swear, 
and perjure, in 
orderto sell goods. 

3. To defraud in 
weights and mea- 

a. buying by the 
greatest weight 
and selling by the 
least ; 

6. selling by short 
weight, as the 
taverners do who 
fill the measure 
with scum; 
c. increasing 
fraudulently the 
weight of goods. 

4. To sell to time. 

5. To sell a differ- 
ent article than 
was at first bar- 
gained for. 

6. To hide the 
faults of a thing, 
as horse-dealers 

7. To make a thing 
look better than it 


fie e3tende bo3 of anarice / is cbapfare / buerinne 
me zene3ej> / ine uele maneres / uor timlicb wynnynge. 
and namelicbe / ine zeue maneres. fie uerste is / to 
zelle Je Jinges / ase dyere / ase me may. And to begge / 
ase guodcbeap / ase me may. fie ojer is : lye3e. zuerie. 
and uorzuerie / Je be3ere to zelle / bare cbapnare. fie 
Jridde manere is / Jet me dej ine wy3tes. and ine 
mesures. and Jet may by / ine Jri maneres. fie uerste : 
huawne me be]? / diuerse wy3tes / ojer diuerse mesures. 
and begge]? / be Je gratteste wy3tes / o]?er be ]?e 
gratteste mesures : and zelle]? by Je leste. fie o]?re 
manere is / bua^ne me be]? / l^tuolle wy3tes / and ri3t- 
uolle mesures / and zelle]? ontrewelicbe / ase do]? J?ise 
tauernyers / J?et uelle]? ]?e mesure / myd scome. fie J?ridde 
manere zuo is buaraie J?o / Jet zelle]? be wy3te / purcba- 
ce}? / and make]? zuo moche Jet / Jet Jing / Jet me ssel 
we3e / ssewej more beuy. fie uerje manere / to zene3i 
in cbapfare : is to zelle / to tyme. of Jisen / we babbej 
yspeke aboue. fie vifte manere is : ojer Jing zelle : 
panne me bej / y-sseawed beuore. Ase doj Jise 
scriueyns / Jet ssewej guode lettre / ate ginnynge. and 
efterward / makej wycked. fie zixte is : bede / Je 
zojnesse / of Je Jinge / Jet me wyle zelle / ase doj / 
Je romongours of bors. fie zeuende is / maki / por- 
cbaci / Jet / Jet Jing / Jet me zelj / makej uor to ssewy 


"betere / pa?me hit by. ase do])/ pise zelleres of clop, pet is, as do cloth seii- 

/ i/i i-n/i erS » Wh ° clloose 

chiesep / pe pyestre stedes / huer in zellep / hare clop, dim places to sen 

x t , • / • i n their cloth in. 

Ine uele of re maneres / me may zeiu^i / me chaptares. 
Ac long ping / hit were to zigge. 


])q ne^ende I103 of auarice : is ine kueade creftes. rx. The ninth 

t , - 1 , i n i bough of pride is 

Ine pise / zene^ep moche uolk : ine uele maneres. ase i n wicked crafts, 

pise fole wyfmen. J)et uor a lite wynnynge : hy yuep Thus sin foui 

... women, 

ham to zewne. Alzuo pise hysians / and pise kempen / and champions 

and vele opre / pat uor pans / oper uor timlich profit / g l^ e themkT 

yuep ham / to crefte / m^t oneste. pet ne may na 3 [t] / clishonest craft - 
by do : wyf-oute zenne. an of pan pet hit dop : and of 
ham / pet hise sostyenep. 


])q tende 003 /of auarice: byep kueade gemenes. x. The tenth 

bough of avarice 

ase byep pe gemenes / of des. and of tables, and of opre is wicked games, 

huyche huet pet hy by / huer me playp uor pans, oper ^dof tables, as 

uor oper/ timelich wynnynge. Zuyche kuade gemenes/ fo r e ^ paje 
specialliche of des / and of tables : byep uorbode / be lFo1, 13 ' a,] 

ri3te / uor manye zercnes / pet uol^ep zuyche gemenes. it causeth many 

])g uerste is / couaytise uor to wynne / and uor to 1. covetousness 

-,. i / 1 • i t • / i i. j to win ai,d despoil 

dispoyly / his uela3e. pe oper is / gauelynge to grat. one's feiiow. 

/,!/», , j. 2. Great usury, as 

ase nejen / uor tueif. na3t uor ane monpe. ne to nine for twelve, 

e3te da3es : ac ine one zelue day. j)e pridde is / to for a single day - 

mori lyeasynges / and ydele wordes. and pet wors is : 3. Lies, idle 

words, and great 

greate blasfemies of god / and of his ha^en. hueruore / blasphemies of 

/i-i, /jtj God and of His 

god him wrepep. ase offcezipes / he hep ynome / to lite saiuts> 
wreche. Yor operhuyl / ham mis went pe uisage / pet 
beuore : behinde. 

.A TALE. A tale of a knight 

who swore by 

A kny3t wes / pet zuor / be godes e3en. an haste / God's eyes, 

his on e?e / lhip ope bet cheker. An archer / uor pet upon the checker. 

? . An archer who 

he hedde y-lore ate geme : nom his bo^e / and ssat an shot at God 


found his arrow he} / a-ye god. bane morion / huanne lie zet / ate 

on the checker 7 ' J ° J ^ ' ' 

< an bloody/ gemene : his arowe / vil ope Jjet cheker / al blody. 

4. Bad example. ])e verjje is / Jje kueade uorbysne. pet he Jjet play]) : 

5. Loss of time, yefjj to ojjren : J>et y-zye]? Jjet geme. ])e vifte / in lere 

of time / Jjet me ssolde be-zette / ine guode workes. 

And manye ojjre zennes : Jjet long Jjing / hit were to 

He that winneth z icm e< bing / ich ne ssel nast nor-yete. bet / be ilke / 

should give liber- °° r t> / ? J r I r i 

ally for God's jet wynjj : he ne may na3t / ine guode manere of- 

healde / Jjet he wynj? / ac ssel hit y[e]ue / uor godes 

if it be got by l oue . bote yef bet hit by / ine zuyche manere : bet he 

strife or strength < J r c ' J r 

it should be re- hit hedde / mid barat / ojjer be stvengpe. ase Jje ilke / 

stored to the loser. . r _. . 

Jet dejj Jje ojjren playe / he strejnjgjje. Ine Jjet cas / 
he ssolde hit yelde to him / Jjet hit hejj ylore. Alsuo 
ich zigge : of Jjet me wynjj / ine tornemewt. 

These other j^ se byejj Jje bo3es /of auarice / yno3 Jjer byejj ojjre. 

belong more to Ac hy byejj / more to clerekes : Jja^ne to be leawede. 

clerks than lewd 

men. And Jjis hoc / is more ymad / uor Jje leawede : panne 

uor J?e clerkes / Jjet eonnejj Jje writinges. 


\)e zixte heaued / of Jje kueade beste : is lecherie / 

The sixth head of 
the beast is 

lechery, i.e. too j?et is to moche loue / and desordene / ine lost of lenden : 

much unlawful 

love and lust. ober / ine ulesslich lost. Of bise zenne uondeb be 

The devil inciteth . J r Y 

to this sin in 5 dyeuel / m vil maneres. Ase zayjj saynt gregorie. 

modes, in — 

i. Foul sight. Auerst / in fole zi^Jje. efterward / ine fole wordes. 

I'. Foul handling, efterward / in fole takinges. efterward in fole kess- 

t Fouldeef g '° in S es - efterward / me comjj to Jje dede. Vor of fole 

zi3fe : me comjj to Jje speche. and uram Jje speche / to 

Jje handlinge. uram Jje han[d]linge : to Jje kesinge. uram Jje 

kessinge : to Jje dede. And Jjous sotilliche / makejj Jje 

mto tto pa™ d y enel / g™ ^ram on to ojjer. j)is zeraie / him to- 

heit Chery ° f ^ e ty I uerst * ne tuo manerGS - uor Jer is lecherie / of 

2. Lechery of herte : and lecherie of bodie. be lecherie / of herte • 

body. / 

The lechery of zuo hejj / vour stapes. Vor Jje gost / of fornicacion / 

heart hath four ' ' 

steps ■ Jjet seruejj / of Jje uere / of lecherie / becleppe ] Jje herten : 

i. Foul thoughts. make jj uergt i como £ e j, , tes> and j, e iiti nges< anc [ p Q 

1 to has been erased in the MS. before hecleppe. 


ymaginacions / of zercne / to hcrte : and make]? Jjenche. 

Efterward / be lierte blefb / ine be bostes. an suo 2. Delight in foul 

' s J ' . thoughts without 

delite)?. yet ne dej? he na^t / )?e dede uor no J?ing. And actual commis- 

ine J?ise bleuinge / and ine ]?e ilke lost : is J>o oj?er 

stape / J?et may by / dyadlich zerme. j)Q greate zenne 

may by / J?e lost. ])g J?ridde / stape / is )?e graunti[n]gge s. Consenting of 

of herte / and of J?e scele / and of J?e wylle. And zuyche an ^ ^JJ/ iea30n ' 

grant mges : bye)) alneway / deadlich zenne. Efter J?e 

grantiftge : comf J?e wylnynge. and Jje greate hete pet 4. Desire and 

hy habbe)) nor to zene^y. and do)? more Jwme tnenti gre [Foi! a i3.°h!] n 

zennes / yne J?e daye / ine zi^pe of leuedys / and of caused hy the 

maydynes / )?et ssewe]? ham / nayre ydi3t. }?et ofte hy quaintly adorned, 

sseawe)? / and di3tej? ham / J?e more q/iaynteliche / and 

J?e more honesteliche / nor to maki mnsi / j?e foles to 

ham. and ne wenej? na3t / gratliche zene3y : nor J?et hi 

ne habbe)? no wyl / to do )?e dede. Ac nor-zofe : hy 

zene^ej? / wel greuousliche. Yor be )?e ancheysoun / of 

ham : byeb uorlore / manye zaules. And ber byeb / wh0 thus brin & 

J r ' J r J r / many folk to sin. 

moche uolk / y-do to dyaj?e / and to zenne. Yor ase 

zayb / be norbisne. i lenedi / of naire dhtinge : is arblast / Lady of fair adom- 

J r ' r ' 70 / ing is < arbalest > to 

to ]?e tonr.' Yor hi ne hej? leme / ine hire bodye : )?et the tower, 
ne is / a gryn / of J?e dyeule. ase zayj? Salomon. J3a?me 
behoue)? hit / yelde scele / ate daye of dome / of )?e Ladies, who wit- 
zanies / J?et be )?e ancheaysoun / of ham / bye)? uorlore. to sin, shall be 

.../. i^ii ^ • 1 i / called to account 

pet is / to onderstonde : nuanne hi yeuej? encneysoun / at doomsday, 
uor to zene3y / be hare wytinde. 

Lecherie of bodie. him to-del)?: ine lecherie of e3en. Lechery of body is 
of yearen. of moupe. of honden. an of alle }?e wyttes / ery of eyes, ears, 
of }>e bodye. And specialliche : of j?e uoule dede. And and W it' 8 (senses). 
hue 1 is hit uoul dede ze]?J?e hit is kendelich? uor )?et x ^*.?=how.] 
god / hit uorbyet / ine his spelle. and his apostel pauel : 
j?et J?us zay)?. i ech man habbe his 03ene : uor fornicacion.' 
bet ys to zigge : his 03ene wyf. To J?o ze^ne /belonge)?/ To this sin be- 

. longeth drunken- 

alle )?e J?inges / huer-by / J»et uless him arist /and ness and gluttony, 
wylnej? / zuiche dede. ase byej? )?e mochele drinkeres. bed-ciothes^nd 
and eteres. J?e zofte bed. clo)?es likerouses. and alle easeofbod y- 



The sin of the 
deed of lechery is 
divided into many 
1. The 1st is of 
those who live to- 
gether out of the 
bonds of wedlock. 

2. Adultery with 
common women. 

3. Single men 
living with 
widows or the 

4. Adultery with 
single women. 

5. Adultery with 
married women 
(or spouse- 

This sin is doubled 
when both parties 
are married, 

6. Unnatural sin, 

for which God 
smote to death 
Onan, Jacob's 
nephew. t 

[Fol. 14. a.] 

7. Adultery of a 
man with his god- 
mother or his 

manyere eyse / of bodye / out of nyede. and special- 
liclie : ydelnesse. 

fie zenne of dede / of lecherie : him to-delj? / ine uele 
bo3es / be j?e stat of pe persones / J?et bit do]?, and gej? an 
Iie3 / uram kuede / to worse, fie uerste is of man / o)?er 
of wyfman / J>et ne habbej? / nenne bend, ne of wodewe- 
bod. ne of spoushod. ne of ordre. ne of religioun. ne of 
ojre man ere. fiet is J?e uerste ze?me dyadlich : in dede / 
of lecherie. fie ofer is / to wyfmaraie commune, fiis 
zenne / is more bard : uor bi is / more aid. and uor 
Jet / zuycbe wyfmen / byej? ojerhuyl wyues. ojjer of 
relig[i]on. and ne uorzakej) ne?ine. ne uader. ne broker, 
ne zone / ne ken. fie Jmdde is / of man sengle / mid 
wodewe. ojer ayeward. fie uerfe is / wij) sengle wif- 
man. fie vifte is / mid wyfman ymarissed. j?et is Je 
zenne / of spousbrecbe. Jjet is wel kuead. uor Jjer is / 
brekinge of treujje / Jet J?e on ssel bere / to jje ojjre. 
efterward Jjer is / a sacrilege / huawne me brecj? / J?e 
sacrement / of spousbod. hit yualj? ojjerhuyl / deserte- 
soun / of eyr / and ualse manages, fiis zenne / him 
dobblej? ojjerhuil / huamie bi is / of man y-spoused : 
wyj? wymman Jjet he]? housebounde. fie zixte is / 
bua^ne Jje man / hejj bis 03c wyf / dejj Jjing / Jjet is 
uorbode / and disordene / aye kende of man. and ordre. 
and of spoushod. And mid 03ene zuorde : man may / 
him-zelue sle. Alsuo may he / mid his 03ene wyue / 
zene3i dyadliche. jperuore smot god / to euele dyajje 
onam / iacobis neuu. And Jje dyeuel / Jjet hette asmo- 
deus / astranglede / Jje zeue houseboundes / of Jje holy 
mayde / sare. Jjet zejjjje wes / yonge thobyes wyf. Vor 
alle Jje sacremens / of holi chercbe / me ssel vsi / 
clenliche / and mid / greate worjjssipe. fie zeuende is 
of man / to his godmoder / ojjer to his goddo3ter. ojjer 
of godsone / to Jje children of his godzyb / ojjer of his 
godzybbe / uor Jjo children / ne mo3e na3t come / to- 
gydere : wyjj-oute dyadlich zenne / ne be spoushod. 


\)e e 3 tende is of man / to his kenne. and Jeilke zenne / 8. Adultery of a 

arist : and lo 3 eJ. be Jet Je kenrede / is nye 3 / ojer uer. kin" Wlt 

j)e nejewde is / of Je mamie / mid Je kenne / of his 

wyue. ojer ayeward / of Je wyue / mid Je \enne / of 9. Adultery of a 

hare housebounde. J?e ilke ze/me / is wel dreduoL S^S^'Si 

Vor huanne Je man / hej uela 3 rede / myd enye wyf- Snd"' *™' 

mane : he ne may nawmore / be spoushod l / habbe 

none / of liire kemie. and yef he / enye nimj : Je 

spoushod / ne is na 3 t. And yef he / nimj wyf: and 

efterward / of Je half / of hire kenne : ha lyest / Je ri 3 t / 

Jet he hedde / to his wyue / ine zuo moche / Jet he ne 

may / efterward / wonye mid him / bote hy / hit ne 

bidde beuore. j)e tende is of wyfmen to clerkes y- 10. Adultery of 

hoded. ))is zenne / anhe 3 ej : and lo 3 eJ. by Je hodes. LTdSSs. 

and pe worjssiphede. ])e enlefte is / of man / of pe n. Adultery of a 

wordle / to wyfman / of religioun. ojer ayeanward / of ^H^L^ 

wyfman of Je wordle / to man / of religioun. ])e .xij. is ^*££. or the 

of man / of religioun. and of wyfman / of religion, and 12, Adultei r of a 

" ' ° man of religion 

pis zenne : an-he 3 ej / and lo 3 eJ. be pe stat / of pe per- with a woman of 
sones / Jet hit doj. j)e .xiij. is of prelas / Jet ssolden is!' Adultery of 

bi licnesse / and uorbysne / of holynesse / and of Prelat * 8 ' 
klercnesse / to al pe wordle. J)e laste / is mest uoul / u. The last sin u 
an lodlakest / Jet ne is na 3 t / to nemny. ]>e ilke Te^nT 
zenne j is aye kende / Jet Je dyeuel tekj to man. ojer 
to wyfman / ine uele maneres / Jet ne byej na 3 t / to 
nemni / uor Je materie / Jet is to moche / abomynable. 
Ac ine ssrifje / hit ssel nemni / Je ilke / to huam / hit 
is be-ualle. Vor asemoche / ase Je zenne / is more Those guilty of 
uoul /and more gnslich : Je more is worj / Je ssrifte. ntVofBhrift. m 
Vor Je ssame / Jet me hej / of Je zigginge : is grat del/ 
of Je penonce. J)is ze/me / is zuo onworj to gode : Jet This sin is so hate- 
he dede rine / uer berninde / and bemston stinkinde / did mourning 6 
ope Je cite of sodome / and of gomorre. and azenkte / vif brLTtLf ^ 
cites / in-to helle. ])e dyuel him-zelf / Jet hit por- ^i^ 00 " 

1 MS. spuoshod 


chacep : hep ssame / ^uanne man hit dep. and pe eyr / 
is anuenymed / of pe dede. 


The seventh head j)e zeuende heaued / of pe kueade beste : zuo is / 

l^thetoutt J>e zenne of pe moupe. and peruore / pet pe moup / hep 

wo e o m ffi cton a :to tuo offices, huerof / >e on belongep / to pe zuel 3 / ase 

t^ w ' the ° ther to pe mete / an to pe drinke. Jpe oper / zuo is in 

speche. peruore / him to-delp / pe ilke zenne : in tuo 

deles / prmcipalliche. ])et is to wytene : in zenne of 

hence we, have sin glotounye / pet is ine mete / and in drinke. and ine 

l^f e«ch. zenne / of kueade tonge. pet is / ine fole spekinge. 

i. sin of gluttony. And uerst / zigge we / of pe zenne /of glotounye. pet is 

grtt d powe h r a by a vice / pet pe dyeuel / is moche myde ypayd. and 

this sin. m oche / onpayp god. Be zuych zenne / hep pe dyeuel / 

wel grat nu^te / in manne. Huer-of / we redep ine pe 

[Foi. 14. b.] godspelle / pet god / yaf yleaue pe dyeulen / to guo in 

to pe zuyn. and po hi weren / ine ham : hise adreynten / 

Gluttons lead the i ne pe ze. ine tokninge : pet pe glotouns / ledep lif / of 

the devil hath zuyn. and pe dyeuel hep yleaue / to guo in ham : and 

them, t0 g ° mt ° hise adrenche / ine pe ze / of helle. and ham / to do. ete 

tuuhtybuLt^nd mo moche : pet hi to-cleue. an zuo moche drinke : pet 


Hua?me pe kempe / hep his uela3e / yueld / and 

him halt / be pe prote / wel onneape / he arist. Alsuo 

hit is of pan / pet pe dyeuel halt / be pa zenne. and 

The devil by this peruore blepeliche / he yernp / to pe prote : ase pe wolf / 

by the throa* Tnd to pe ssepe / him uor to astrangli / ase he dede to euen / 

strangled him. and to Adam j {n paradyg te restre. ])et is pe vissere / 

of helle / pet nymp pane viss / bi pe prote / and by pe 
chinne. pis zenne / moche mis-payp god. Yor pe 
The glutton glotoun / makep to grat ssame / huanne he makep / 

nac^o^dlg' his god : of ane zeche / uol of dong / pet is of his 
i.e. his beiiy. WO mbe / pet he louep more / panne god. and ine him 
God bids him fast, ylefth / and him seruep. God him hat ueste : pe 
eiu b ong^ b nd S iat m womhe zayp / < pou ne sselt / ac et longe / and a-tmyt.' 


God him hat be pe moreen arise : pe wombe zayp / ' po 
ne sselt / ich am to uol / me behouep to slepe / pe 
cherche nys non hare / hy abyt me wel.' And huarane 
he arist : he becrynb his matyns / and his benes / and his After risin? he 

nJ * J l i thinks of what he 

oreysones. and zayp. ' a / god / huet ssolle we / ete to day. shall eat. 

huader me ssolle / eny ping uynde / pet by worp?' 

Efter pise matynes : eomep pe laudes. and [he] zayp. ' A, 

god / huet we hedde / guod wyn yesteneuen / and 

guode metes.' And efterban / he bewepp his zercnes : Then he thinks 

° r ' ' of yesterday's 

and zayp. ' Alias he zayp / ich habbe y-by nye3 dyad to good wine, but 

. liij/ bemoans his 

nijt. to Strang / wes pet wyn / teue. pet heaued / me a^ng a ea d. 

akp. ich ne ssel by an eyse : al-huet ich habbe / 

ydronke.' ftous to pe kueade zayp. J)is zewne /let man 

to ssame. Yor alpenierst / he becomp tauernyer. 

barcne he playb ate des. barcne he zelb his o*en. paraie The glutton often 

* l J ' r > ' * conies to the gal- 

he becomp ribaud. holyer. and pyef. and parcne me lows. 

hine anhongep. J>is is pet scot : pet me ofte payp. ^2^t 

bis zeraie him to-delb / ase be saynt gregorye. ine This sin spreadptn 

* r ' ° ° out into a boughs. 

vif bo3es. Yor ine vif manures / me zene}ep / be mete / 
and be drinke. Oper uor pet / pet me eth / and dryngp : 
to-uore time, oper / to lostuolliche. oper / out of 
mesure. oper / to ardontliche. Oper / to plentyuous- 
liche. ])e uerste bo3 pa^ne / of pise ze^ne : is to ete / 1. Eating before 

... . . time, and yielding 

beuore time, and to uoul ping hit is / of man / pet hep to lechery of 

age : huanne he / ne may abyde / time / to etene. and ro,i ' 

of grat lecherie / of prote / hit comp. pet man / pet is 

Strang / and hoi of bodye. wyp-oute ancheysoun 

sceluoL to-uore ri3te houre / yernp to pe mete / ase as doth a dumb 

dep a best doumb. And uele zercnes comep / of po 

ilke wone. Jpawne hit comp / pet zuych a man zayp. a man guilty of 

, _ . - Tr , , - . , this sin cannot 

pet he ne may ueste. ne do penonce. Vor he nep pet f a8 t, because ws 

yzed. ' ich habbe / a to kuead heaued.' And he zayp J^t ^ ^rseThia 

zop. uor he hep hit zuych ymad. and kuead herte 

alzuo / pet hep ymad pet kuead. and him hep y-do 

breke l / pe uestinges / pet is grat zenne. and yef he \ [ms. broke.] 

him damnede / be him zelue : per-of no strengpe. Ac 

4 * 

heart becomes 


He will have fel- 
lows like himself, 

[Fol. 15. a.] 

whom he causes 
to sin. 

He loves the idle 
bliss of the world 
more than the 
true j oy of heaven. 

He is as the child 
who will always 
have bread in his 

Some sin by sup- 
ping late, and 
rising late. 

They waste their 
time, and turn 
night into day. 

Such folk are ac- 
cursed of God. 

They play at evil 
games, as dice : 

So they wrath 
God, and harm- 
their bodies and 

2, Immoderate 
eating and drink- 

he wyle habbe ue^es / pet do]? ase be dep. huicbe be 
dra3j? / uram wel to done and let bis mid him j in-to 
helle. Vor be dep bam / breke hare uestinges. and do 
hare glotounyes. buer-of hi ham / wolden loki : yef per 
nere / kueade uela^es. Vor pe drinkere / and pe hor- 
ling / amang pe opre kueades / pet hi dop : p?*opreliche 
one zemie / pet is pe dyeules / huanne hi wyp-dra3ep to 
do wel. Hy ziggep / pet hi ne mo3e na^t ueste. ac hy 
lye3ep. Vor litel loue of god : bam hep pet / y do 
zigge. Vor yef hi loueden zuo moche / pe zope ioye of 
heuene. ase hy dop / pe ydele blisse / of pis wordle : ase 
hy uestep / uor pe timliche nyedes / al-huet ni3t : ase 
wel / hi listen ueste / huet non / nor god : yef hi him / 
zuo moche louede. Ac hy byep / ase is pet child, pet 
wyle alneway / habbe pet bread / ine his hand. And pe 
sselt conne / pet ase me zene3ep / ine to rape arizinge / 
uor to ethene : and alsuo me zene3ep : late to soupi. 
j)&rme pet uolk / pet late louiep to soupi / and to waki 
be ni3te. and wastep pane time / ine ydelnesse. and 
late guop to bedde / and arisep late : zene3ep / ine 
uele manures. Verst : ine pet hi wastep / pane time, 
and hine miswendep / huaraie hi makep / of pe ny|j]t : 
day. and of pe daye / ni3t. Zuych uolk / god acorsep / 
be pe prephete. Vor me ssel be daye : wel / do. and be 
ni3te / herie god / and bidde. ac huo pet lyp a bedde / 
huarcne he ssolde arise, slepe he mot : huawne he ssolde 
bidde. and his seruise yhere / and god herie. and pos 
he / lyest al his time / and pe ni3t : and pane day. 
Efterward / ine zuyche wakinges : me dep manye 
kueades. ase playe ate ches. oper ate tables, and me 
zayp / manye bisemers. and folyes. and pus wastep / 
pe wreche his time / and his wyttes / and his guodes. 
and wrepep god. and harmep his bodi / and more pe zaule. 
j)e oper bo3 : is of mete / and of drinke / be to 
moche / and wip-oute mesure. })e ilke byep / propre- 
liche glotounes / pet al uorzue^ep / ase dep pe kete of 


his sperringe. Hit is grat wyt / to loki mesure / ine Gluttons are like 
mete / and ine drinke / and grathelfe. uor moeheuolk low^the^p^." 
steruej). and ofte per come]) / greate ziknesses. Ac huo 
J?et wyle Jjise mesure lyerny : he ssel ywyte / and onder- one man lives by 
stonde / Jet J?er byej) / uele maneres to libbe / ine j?e ^ f^l* r 
wordle. j)e uerste libbeb / be be ulesse. be ober be / third by his p 11 ^ 

-,..., ' sic » a fourth by 

his loliuete. j)e bridde / be his fisike. be uerbe / be his hon esty, a 

,. / ' r/ fifth by his sins, 

ms onestete. pe vifte / be fan J?et hare zeranes acsej). and a sixth by the 
j)e zixte be J>e goste / and be J>e loue of god. spmt and love of 

j2o bet libbeb be be ulesse / ase zayb zaynte paul / Those that live by 
,. , ' . , _ . ' * r j r / thefle8hBlaytheir 

ni sla^ep hire zaulen. uor hi makej) / of hare wombe : souls and make 

hare god. \)e ilke / ne hyealdej? scele / ne mesure. and gX y 

jjeruore / hi ssolle habbe / ine pe ofre wordle / pine 

wyjj-oute mesure. 

j)e ilke pet libbejj be hare iolyuete : wylle J) hyealde / J^JJ 6 .^ 11 ^ 
hire fole uela^redes : zuo J?et hi ne conne / ne hi ne no moderation. 
mo3e / healde mesure. 

J?o j?et libbe)) be ypocmye / J?et bye)) / pe dyeules Those that live by 
martires. hi habbe]) / tuo mesures. uor pe tuaye devil's martyrs, 
dyeulen / ]?et tormerctej) J>ane ypocr/te: bye]) moche 
ayder / ay ens ofren. \)e on him zayj). 'eth yno3 / al-huet / 
foil art uayr / and uet.' pe o]>er him zayj) : ' ]?ou ne sselt. 
ac fou sselt ueste / al huet Jjou art / bleche and lhene.' 
JSTou behoueb / to habbe / tuo mesures / ane little / and They live temper- 

r ' ' ' ' ately before the 

ane scarse. bet he useb / touore be uolke. And anobre world > but immo- 

/ , deratelywhen 

guode and large. J)et he use]) / pet non ne y-zy^J). pes ne none sees them, 
halt na3t / pe ri3te mesure. \)e ilke / J)et couaytyse lede]) / [Foi. 15. b.] 
habbe]) zuyche mesure : ase pe pors wyle. J)et is lheuedi / 

and hotestre / of pe house, panne ssolle we betuene pe Oftentimes there 

porse / and pe wombe / of pe glotoune : habbe a uayr the purse and 

strif. j)e wombe zayj). 'ich wylle byuoL' j)e purs zayj? / g m ™ on ° 

< ich wylle by uol.' j)e wombe zayj, / < ich wylle J)et J)OU ^J^ 1 

ete. and drinke / and bet bou despendi/ And be purs *f, ys the pur8e * 

I * * * r r rphg one gayg j 

zayb : ' bou ne sselt na^t. ich wille bet bou loki / and win eat and spend, 

^ r T ? ' * 'the other says 

wybdra^e.' Alias / huet ssel he do / bes wreche/ bet is thou shait not, i 

Y , ' rrr 1 will that thou 

J)rel / to zuyche tuaye kueade lhordes. Tuo mesures / »ave and retrench. 


make)? be wy3te ymad. pe mesure of wombe / in opre- 

mawne bouse guode / and large. And pe niesure of the 

purse / of his. pet is zo^uol and scarse. 

Those that live by \)o pet libbep be fisike : by healdep pe niesure / of 

by physic. " * ypocras / Jet is lite / an strait, and bit iualp ofte. pet pe 

ilke / pet be fisike leuep : be fizike sterfp. 
Tiiose living by j)o pet libbep be hyre onestete : pe ilke hyealdep / 

their honesty eat . . 

at proper times, pe mesure of scele. and libbep worssipliche / to pe wordle / 
pet etep ine time / and ine oure. and nimep mid guode 
wylle : pet bi babbep / and cortayslicbe / an gledliche; 

Those living by ])o pet libbep be pan / pet bare zeraies oksep. 

their sins are , , , . . , , -, / ^ 

dieted by penance, nyealdep zuiche manure / and mesure / ase me nam 

chargep / ine penonce. 
Those living by jp j, e t libbep / be pe goste. byep po / pet ine pe 

tfitj spirit nv& 

those that use ail ioue of god wonyep. to buam pe holy gost tekp / to 

things aright, in J 

reason and moder- hyealde ordre / an sekele / and mesure. J}o pethabbep 

pe lhordssip / ope pe bodyes / pet is zuo y-ta^t / pet be 

ne acsep / none outtrage. and dep / pet pe gost hat / 

wy[p]-oute groebinge / and wip-oute wipzigginge. 

Thus we see that ]^ ou mi^t pou ysi / uor pet we habbep hyer yzed / 

many tricks by pet uele ginnes / hep pe dyeuel / uor to nime pet uolk / 

which to take man . . 

by the throat. be pe prote. uor lierst / he sseawep ham / pe wynes / 
First, he showeth an( l h Q metes / bet byep uayre / and likerouses / ase he 

himwineand r I r J r J I / 

meats, dede / to euen pane eppel. And pet / yef hit him ne is 

na3t worp : he him zayp. ' eth / an drink ase pe ilke / 

teiis him to do as and pe ilke. ueh^rede pe behouep hyea[l]de. yef pe 

others do, 

wylt / pet me ne storue pe na3t. and pet nle pe / ne 

hyalde uor papelard.' oper he him zayp. 'pe helpe of pine 

and to keep his bodye / bou sselt loki. uor huo bet ne heb helbe : he 

body in health ' r , 

and strength by ne hep na3t. Ne by na^t mansla3pe / of pe selue. pou 

proper susten- . . 

ance. sselt to pine bodye : pe sostmonce. Oper he him* zayp. 

The d ® v ^ say ^ da ' Mm yeme / of pe guodes / pet pou dest / oper mijt do. 

and so serve God. jj 0ll lie es t j j^t UO r pe lost / of pyne bodye : ac to 
serui god. pou sselt / pine strengpe loki to god. ase 
zayp damp.* pise sceles / byep zuo cleuiinde / pet pe 
wyseste / and pe holyistje] man : byep operhuyl / becajt. 


fee bridde bo} of pise ze/me is / to uerliche yeme / ?• The third 

* r > * ' u i bough 18 a etrong 

to pe mete / ase dep pe liond : to pe lies, and pe more / yearning for meat. 

pet is / pe ilke uerliclihede : pe more / is pe ze^ne. Yor 

ase hit ne is / no zenne / uor to habbe richesses. Ac 

his / to moche louye. Alsuo / hit ne is no ze/me / uor 

to ethe / pe guode metes : ak ethe hi3 / to uerliche / 

ober disordeneliche. Ethe metes / byep guode / to To eat meats is 

* / i • ^°°^' provided 

guode. and to ham : pet be scele / and be mesure / his they are eaten 

. . « with the sauce of 

vsep. and liise nimep / mid pe sause / of pe drede / 01 the dread of our 
oure lhorde. Yor me ssel / eurenio habbe drede : pet 
me / ne mys-nyme / be ouerdede. and me ssel herye C FoL l8 * a >3 
god. and yelde hym ponkes / of his yefpes. And be ™*^*™"^* 
be zuetnesse / of be mete / bet wyb-oute / ne may by : me should think ou 

Y ' Y I r JV J J J God's sweetness. 

ssel penche / godes zuetnesse. and to pe ilke mete : pet 
uelp pe herte. })eruore me ret / ine hous of religion / 
ate mete : uor pet / huamie pet bodi / nynip his mete / 
of one half : pet pe herte / nyme his of oper half. 

j)e uerpe bo3 / of pise ze/me / of pan pet / to noble- 4 - The fourth 
liche wyllep libbe. pet despendep / and wastep / uor to spending and 
uelle hare glotonye / hwer-of an hondred poure / n^ten in order to live 
libbe / and yno3liche by ueld. Zuich uolk zenejep ine sue/foik sin id 
uele maneres. Yerst : in greate despenses / pet hi "^ JJ^* «- 
niakep. efterward / ine pan / pet hi / hit vsep / ine to ^" n e * intenl p er . 
grat hete / and ine to grat lost. And efterward / ine ance - 

° ' m ° ' . 8. In vanity j they 

be ydele blisse / bet hi habbe b. Yor hit ne is naat / like to boast of 

. ' ;,p their rich meats. 

onlepiliche lecherie / of zuel^ : ac hit is / wel ofte uor 
bost / pet hi zechep / zuo riche metes / and makep / zuo 
uele mes. huer-of / ofte / comep / uele kueades. 

fie vifte bo^ is / pe bysihede / of glotuns / pet ne ? • The fifth ^ugh 
zechep / bote to pe delit / of hare zueH. pise byep pro- gluttons, who seek 

only the delight of 

preliche / lechurs / pet ne zechep / bote pet lost / of the swallow, 
hare zue^. Ine pri pinges / nameliche / lip pe ze/me / these folk sin : 
of zuyche uolke. Yerst / ine pe greate bysihede / pet hy p^JS"? and 
habbep / to porchaci / and to agraipi. Efterward / mid J^J^* J^j 11 
grat lost / pet hy habbep / ine pe us. Efterward / ine property, 
pe blisse / pet hi habbep / ine pe recordinge. And huo recording and en- 


deavours-to make jjet mijte telle / huyche bysinesse hi do]? / to Jan / Jet 

disguised messes, hare metes / by wel agmyfed. and ech to his 03ene 

smac. and hou hy mo3e maki / of one mete / uele mes 

And when the desgysed / uor hare uoule lost. And huanne be mes / 

mess comes on, 

one after the bye]? y-come / on / efter J>e oJ?er : ]?a?me bye]? ]?e burdes / 

other, in/ • / 

and J?e trufies / uor entremes. and me J?ise manere / gej? 
jests and jokes h Q tyme. be wreche him uoryet. be seeleslepb. be mate 

form the entries. r J * J * ry r > 

[apiaynte] gret / and zay}?. 'Dame Zuel3 / }?o me ssast. ich am 

The glutton says, _ 

"though my beiiy zuo uol: ]?et ich to-cleue. Ac J>e tonge J?e lyckestre / 
let this dish nmi ansuere]? : and zay]?. ' paj }?ou ssoldest to-cleue : ich 
^AfSr'the nelle na3t lete askapie / ]?is mes.' Efter ]?e lecherie/ J?et 

oTeaUn^omes 88 * s me etm S e : com J> J> e "blisse / J> et * s me J e recorder, 
the wish of the Efter ward / hi wesseb bet hi hedden / nykken of crane. 

gluttons,thatthey ' y r ' J 

had the neck of a and wombe of cou. uor bet be mosseles / blefte lenger / 

crane and the 

beiiy of a cow. ine ]>e J?rote. and more mi3 ten uorzue^e. 

The sins of glut- Nou J?ou hest y-hyerd / ]?e zemies / ]?et come]? of 

tony and lechery . . 

arise commonly glotounye / and l of lecherie. and ]?eruore / J?et zuyche 

in the tavern, that i - - t -i / • j *_ i. • n 

well of sin, ze?mes / arize]? co^munliche / me tauerne : pet is welle 

of zeraie. Jperuore / ich wylle a lite take / of }>e ze?mes / 

Jet byej) y-do / ine J?e tauerne. j)e tauerne / ys J?e 

wyTSTftha «*>]« of J>e dyeule / huere / his deciples studief. and 

deviL his 03ene chapele / J?er / huer me de]? / his seruese. and 

J?er huer he make]? / his miracles / zuiche ase behoue]? 2 

to ]>e dyeule. At cherche / kan god / his uirtues sseawy. 

and do his miracles. J?e blynde: to li^te. ]?e crokede : to 

ri3te. yelde J?e wyttes of J?e wode. ]?e speche : to }?e 

when the glutton dombe. J?e hier]?e : to J?e dyaue. Ac J?e dyeuel de]? al 

g ° e [FoT i°6. b 6 ] ayenward / ine ]?e tauerne. Yor huaraie }?e glotoun ge]? 

upright* wheThe in to ]?e tauerne / ha ge]? op^t. huawne he comj? a-yen : 

caMotsupport ne ne ne J> uot f et nim mo 3 e sostyeni ne bere. Hua?^ne 

Whenh'e enters he J> erin £ e J> : he Y^ty I aild T^f I aild S P eC J> Wel / 

he can see, hear, an( ^ on derstant. huaw he comb ayen : he heb al bis 

and speak well ; J J - 1 

when he departs uorlore / ase be ilke bet ne heb wyt / ne scele / ne onder- 

he has lost all I r r . 

these, and has no storcdinge. Zuyche bye]? J?e miracles J?et ]?e dyeuel 
standing. make]?. And huet lessouns J?er he ret. alle uelfe he 

devu^miracie*. tek]? ]?er. glotounye. lecherie. zuerie. uorzuerie. Iye3e, 
1 MS. adn 2 MS. bohom\> 


miszigge. reneye god. euele telle, contacky. and to uele 

opre manyeres of zercnes. j)ev arise)? pe cheastes. pe 

strifs. pe mansla3pes. per me tekp to stele : and to 

hongi. J)e tauerne is a dieh to pieues. and pe dyeules The tavern is a 

castel uor to werri god / an his hal^en. and J>o pet pe a nd\hedeviiT' 

tauernes sustyenep : byep uela3es of alle pe zeraien f>et a^nst°GodInd 

bye]? y-do ine hare tauernes. and uor zope yef me ham Hl8 saint8, 

zede / oper dede / asemoche ssame to hire uader / oper to 

hare moder. oper to hare gromes. as me dep to hire Sustained of 

,, , , 11 taverns are aeces- 

uader of heuene. and to oure lheuedy. and to pe hal^en series to ail the 
of paradis, mochel hi wolden ham- wrepi. and oper red tavum. 
hi wolden do per to pa7^ne hi do]). 

\)R ZENNES OF J)E TONGE. The sins of the 

Huo pet wyle conne and we3e pe zezmes of pe tonge : 

hit behouep l pet he conne we3e / and ayenw^e / pet it behoveth each 

n iij man *° we *g n an< i 

word huych pet nit by. and huer-of hit comp : and nuet re-weigh each 
kuead hit dep. Vor hit y-ualp pet / pet word is zercne CO meth anYwhat 
ine hym. uor pet hit is kuead. And yef hit by-ualp pet evil il doeth * 
hit by zewne uor pet hyt gep out of kueade herte. And 
of heauede hit biualp / pet pe speche is grat zewne / uor 
pet hi dep grat kuead / pa3 hy by uayre and ysmoped. 
Nou sselt pou ywyte / pet pe kueade tonge / is pet trau The evil tongue is 
pet god acorsede in his spelle / uor pet he ne uand na3t ^^^^ 
bote leaues. pet ine holy writ byep onde[r]stonde {Staves, "thafis 
wordes. And alsuo ase hit is Strang ping to telle / alle t0 sa y» words - 
pe lyeaues of pe trauwe : alsuo hit is Strang ping uor to 
telle pe zermes pet of pe tonge comep. An pise ten bo3es we may, amongst 
we mo3e alsuo nemni : ydelnesse. yelpinge. blondinge. ^me ten boughs: 
todra 3 inge. lyesynges. vorzueriinges. stryfinge. gro- J^■^ n|p • 
chinge. wypstondinge. blasfemye. tion, lying, per- 

be ilke bat ham yeuep / to moche to ydele worddes. grudging, oppo- 

' r J r I J sition, blasphemy. 

hi zechep grat harm / pet hi ne aparceyuep na3t. Vor 
hy lyesep pane time p?'ecious. huer-of hi ssolden habbe 
eftsone disete. and uorlyesep pe guodes pet hi pencbep 
to done / and ssolden do. and nimep pe tresor of pe herte. 
1 MS. bohoue\> 


Those who give and hise uelb a-yen mid ydelenesse. hi onwrib bane pot. 

themselves up to 

idle words un- and J?e ul^en vlyej? J?erin. hi hise elepiej? / ydele wordes/ 

cover the pot so . . /-ii / 

that the flies ac hi ne bye]?, ac hi bye]? of grat cost / and Jiarmuolie / 

one calls them and perilous, ase J?o J»et emtej ]?e herte of hire guode. 

they are not so, an d ue ^ h* 8 ayen / mid ydelnesse / as ]?o / huer-of 

harmful.^* 1 behouej? yelde rekeninge of echen beuor god / ate daye 
of dome, ase god zayj? ine his spelle. Hit ne is na3t 
lite )?ing / ne ydelenesse / huer-of hit behoue]? rekeni. 

And in the high and yelde scele ine ]?e b^e cort / ase beuore god / and 

rro f uX mU8t al J>e baronage of heuene. 

given of them. j ne j> ydele wordes me zeneaeb ine vif maneres. Yor 

In idle words one J ° J ' 

sinnethin five jer byeb zome wordes ydele / huer of be tonges byeb zuo 


i. The tongue is uolle / ]?et speke]? beuore / and behynde. ]?et bye]? ase 

sometimes full, 

[Foi. 17. a. j ]?e cleper of ]?e melle / ]?et ne may him na3t hyealde 

ciappeTof a mm! stille. And yef hi spek]? bisye wordes of ham J>et zuo 

blejeliche telle]? tidyinges. J?et zette]? ofte hare herte to 

The after-teiiers mesayse of ham J?et his yhere}?. and make]? }>e efter 

fools and liars. telleres ofte by yhyea[l]de foles and uor lye3eres. Efter- 

2. idle tales and ward bye]? ]?e tales / and J?e uayre zigginges. huer-of hi 

habbej? moche of ydele blisse / ]?o ]?et hise conne sotil- 

liche zigge / uor Je herkneres do wel lhe33e. Efter- 

s. Jests ana jokes ward bye J? ]?e bourdes / and J?e trufles uol of uelje / and 

lies, ° of leazinges. J?et me clepe]? ydele wordes. Ac uorzoje 

stinking and foul hit ne bye]?, ac hy bye]? wel stinkinde / and wel uoule. 


4. Mocking and EtVrward bye]? J?e bisemeres and Je scornes / J?et hi 
men? ° g °° z igS' e ]> °P e P G guode men. and ope alle ham ]?et wylle]? 

do wel / J?eruore : ]?et hi my3ten his dra3e to hare corde; 

and uram ]?e guode ]?et hi habej? y-cowceyued wyjdraje. 

J9et ne bye]? na3t ydele wordes. Yor ]?ou art ase man- 
Thouartasaman- sla3]?e / yef ]?ou be ]?ine tonge / wy]?dra3st ane man / 
causestany o]?er a child wel to done, and god J?e can asemoche 

one to do wrong, 

by thy tongue. Jank : ase wolde ]?e kyng / yef J?e heddest ysla^e his 
zone / ojer his tresox ystole. 

boosting!* ° f ° P $ E ZE ^ NE 0F YELPINGE. 

Efterward com]? ]?e ze/zne of yelpynge / Jet is wel 


grat / and wel uoul / wel uals / and wel vileyn. Hi is wel 

grat : Vor huo pet yelp]? : he is aperteliche godes pyef. He that boasteth 

and him wyle benyme his blisse / ase we zede hyer- 

beuore. pet is a wel uals ze?ine. Vor pe guodes huerof For a mtie wind 

i . . ,, ,. . . . ,he loseth heaven. 

he mi^te Wynne pe heuene : hi yeuep uor a litel wynd. 

And zuo hit is a wel uoul ze?me. Yor pe wordle zelf / T he world itself 

■1 , , nit •! t • holdeth him to be 

iiani halt uor lol. and uor vilayn and uor nice. a tool. 

Ine pise bose byeb vif leaues. bet byeb vif manere in this bough are 

* i • ^ • • r -, • • n . five leaves: 

oi yelpmges. On is preterit. pe[tj is to zigge : of pmge i. p a8 t-boasting 
ypased. j)et is J>e zenne of pan / pet zuo blepeliche pVowess.&c!' 
recordep hare dedes / and hare prowesses, and pet hi 
wenep habbe / oper wel ydo : oper wel yzed. ])e oper 2. Present-boast- 

' t ing of present 

is of present pet is to zigge : of nou. pet is pe zenne of riches, nobleness, 

po : pet na3t ne dop gledliche. ne ham ne payep wel to or prowess ' 

done / ne wel zigge. bote ase me his jzj^p / oper yherp. 

Jjise / ine dede / oper ine speche / and ine zinginge : hi 

yelpep / and zellej) uor na3t : al pet hi dop. To pan 

belongep pe zenne of zuichen pet yelpep of pe guodes 

pet hi habbep j oper pet hi wenep habbe / of hare 

noblesse, of hare richesse / of hare prouesse. Hy byep 

ase pe coceou /pet ne can zinge / bote of him zelue. pe These boasters are 

pridde is pe zenne of pise ouerweneres pet ziggep. ich 3. overweening— 

wille do pet / and pet. ich wylle awreke forre. ich wille one Vm do.™ ^ 

maki pe helles and pe danes. pe uerpe is more sotil 4 « Blaming what 

is right in others. 

pet is of pan pet ne mo3e uor ssame ham-zelue praysi. 
ac al pet opre dop / and ziggep : altogidere uayrliche 
blamyep ase ri3t na3t ne him praysep. to pet hi conne 
do and zigge. pe vifte is yet more sotil / of ham pet a.. Affected 

huanne hi willep pet? me hise praysi / and hi nollep Many folk say 

t • i that they are 

zigge aperteliche : hi hit makep a na3t / and makep zuo wicked and sinful, 

inoche ham milde / and ziggep / pet hi byep zuo kueade / 

and zuo zenuol / and zuo onconnynde : prisipe more / [Foi. 17. bj 

pamie hi by. vor pet me ham herep / and hyealde : uor 5^^^^™^ 

wel bo3sam. ' Alias' zayp saynt bernard 'huet per is hier esteem. 

zoi^uolle yelpings. ' Hy makep ham dyeulen : uor pet ^8™^ so™* 

me halt ham uor angles. Hy makep ham kueade : uor ^^^1 


pet me ssolde his hyealde nor good, ne more me ne 

may ham wrepi : paraie nor to zigge / uor zope pou 

zayst zop. To pan belongep pe zercne of ham Jet zechip 

others seek spekemen ham uor to praysi. and uor to grede hare 

spokesmen to x ^ ° 

praise and extol noblesse / be huas moupe hi spekep / and be more 

their virtues. " 


Of flattery. Q p BLONDINGE. 

Flatterers are the jp e blonderes / byeb be dyeules noriches. bet his 

devilsnurseSjWho ' ° f J ° ' 

give suck to his children yeueb zouke / and dob ham slepe ine hare 

children and sing * ' J 

them to sleep. ze?me be hare uayre zang. Hy smeriep pane way of 

They smear the ,,,.-,, / -, -. , 

way of heii with helle mid hony / ase me dep to pe bere / uor pet pe 

zene3ere hine ssolde guo pe hardy laker. Jpis ze?2ne him 

There are five to-delb : ine vif deles, bet byeb ase vif leaues : ine bise 

boughs of this sin ' I J I > 

i. Praising hastily \> ™ h e uerste zenne is of byse blonderes. bet huarcne 

what is well said J * " ' 

or done. hi yzep pet he / oper hy / pet hi wyllep beuly / habbep 

wel yzed. oper J?et he he]? wel ydo : an-haste him zigge]? 

to him-zelue / uor J?et ha he]? ydele blisse. Ac his kuead 
2. Exaggeration no u e p hi him na3t telle. ))e o]?er zenne is / huawne }?e 

litle guodes Jet hire children pet hi do]? zouke / ydo / 
morTonf 6 ^ °f er yze( * : ky leue ) ? / anc * Gobble]? / and more]? hit of 
truth. hiren / al-huet ]?er is more of lyeasinge / pawne of zo]?. 

And peruore hi bye]? ycleped ualse wytnesses ine holy 
s. Assumption of ^^ fo e p r idde zenne is / huaraie hi dob onderstonde 

goods and graces. ' * ' * 

The folk who as-j h e marane / ober be wyfmaraie / bet he heb ine him 

sumesomuch * I r r J I r Y 

and so deceive manie guodes / and graces / huer-of he ne he]? none 

many are called . 

charmers. and peruore his clepe]? holy writ : charmeres. uor hy 

becharme]? zuomoche pane man : }?et heylef[]?] hammore/ 
paraie him zelue. ]?et he ylefj? bet J?et he yher]? : paraie 
J?et he yzi3t. and J?et hy zigge]? of him : paraie pet hi use]?. 

4. singing placebo ft e uerbe zeraie is. bet huaraie hi alle zingeb/ 'Placebo.' bet 

to every word or * ' . 

deed, be it good or is to zigge : { mi lhord zay]? zo]?. mi lhord de]? wel.' and 

bad ; or echoing . 

aii that is said by wendej? to guode / al pet ]?e guodeman de]? / o]?er zay]?. 

or bad. * g °° by hit guod by hit kuead. And J?eruore hy bye]? ycleped 
ine ]?e writinge : ecko. pet is J?e rearde pet ine J?e he^e 
helles com]? ayen / and acordep to al pet me him zayp. 
by hit guod / by hit kuead. by hit zop / by hi uals. 


J)e vifte zerme is / hua?me Je blondere defendej / and 5. Defending 
excuse}) / and wryej Je kueades / and Je zennes / of ham hiding faults of 
Jet he wyle ulateri. and Jeruore zuyche byej ycleped ine ThosTguiity of 
writinge : tayles. Vor hi wrej Je ueljes of ze/ine of iJ l ^JJ?. arocalled 
riche men / nor zom tiinlich guod. hueruore hi byej 
anlicned^to Je tayle of Je uoxe / be hare barat / and 
uor hare beznykinge of tedra3ynge. 

Blondere / and misziggere : byeb of one scole. bise f 1 * 446 ™" and 

/ oo «/ i » mis-sayers are 

bye J) Je tuo nykeren Jet we uynde J ine bokes of kende i* k e Nykers or 

of bestes. Vor hy bye]) a ssewynge of Je ze / Jet me 

klepej) nykeren. Jet habbej bodyes of wyfman / and 

tayl of uisssse. and clanen of arn. and zuo zuetelich 

zinge J / Jet hi make J slepe Je ssipmen / and efterward who sin & 8ailors 

to sleep, and then 

his uorzne^Jj. J)et byef) Je blonderes. Jet be hare nayre swaiiowthem. 
zang / makeb slepe bet uolk. and ine hare ze?2ne. hi They are like the 

° t y- i adder Serayn, 

resemblej an eddre / Jet hatte serayn. Jet yernj more [Foi. is. a.] 

zuyjere / Ja?ine hors. and ojerhuyl vie J. and habbej that runneth 

Jet uenym zuo Strang : Jet no triacle ne is Jer to na3t horse, 

worj. Yor rajre comj Je dyaj : Jarane me uelj Jane 

byte. J^et byej Je missiggeres. of huawv Salomon zayj / 

Jet hi by te J / ase eddren ine bezuykinge. an Jet uenim 

sla3j Jri / in one stroke. Jane Jet zayj. Jane Jet lhest. 

and bane / of huam he missayb. bet is be felliste best ortnebeast 

r ' <j r ' r Hyane, who un- 

bet me clepeb hyane. bet ondelfb be bodies of dyade graves dead 

r ; / J r r / J men's bodies and 

men / and hise etej. J5et byej Jo / Jet bytej and etej eats them. 
Je guode men of religion / Jet byej dyade to Je wordle. 
Hi byej more feller / Jarane helle. Jet ne uorzuylj / 
bote kueade. Ac hi yernej op to Je guode. hueruore hy They are like the 
byej anlicned to Je zo3e. huarcne hi he J yua^ed / wel whUwtt^Ikin 
blejeliche byt men : yclojed mid huyt. Hy byej ase ^^^3 
Je lhapwynche / Jet ine uelje of man / make J his nest / that love dung - 
and zuo restej. J?et byej Je ssarnboddes Jet beulej Je boughs of evil 

a it- 1 4i speaking : 

iioures. and louiej Jet dong. And Jes bo3 he J vif 1. Finding of lies 

, . , • / t_ -ii' it, in order to Wame 

leaues. pe uerste is / hua^ne me vint lea3inges. 1 and Je others, 
kueades uor ojren to arere blame. J?e ojer is / huawne ' Telimgr and 

1 leazinges ? 



increasing the 
report of another' s 
3. Turning good 
into evil. 

4. Speaking evil 
of others, 

for when one 
speaketh good of 
another, some one 
will find some- 
thing amiss. 

They are like the 
scorpion, fair as 
to its head, but 
whose tail is 
5. False and un- 
true grudging of 
others' deeds. 

pet kuead pet he yherp of opren / he hit telp uorp / and 
hit more)) of his o^en. pe pridde is huaraie he kuencp / 
and dep to na3te / alle pe guodes pet pe man dep / and 
hise dep hyea[l]de to ane kneade. pes eth fane man al 
yhol. pe opre ne etep hine na^t al / ac byt / and nimp 
a stech. and j?is is pet uerpe lyeaf of pise bo3e / pet is 
propreliche ycleped todra3ynge. Yor he to-dra^J? / and 
toheaup eche daye zom stech of guode / pet he yhyerp 
of opren. Yor huanne me zayp guod of opren touore 
him : alneway he vint / and zet ames. Yor zope he 
zayp : pet is zop. he is wel guod man / and ich hine 
louie moche / ak he hep zuich a lac ine him / and pet 
me uorpingp. pes is pe scorpioun pet makep uayr mid 
pe heanede. and enueymep mid pe tayle. pe viffce is 
huawne he miswent / and went to pe worse half, al pet 
he yherp / oper yzi^p / pat me may wende to guode / 
and to kueade. and peruore is he uals demere / and 


Lying makes a 
man false. 

The liar is among 
men as chaff 
among corn. 

The liar is like 
the devil. 

The liar, like the 
devil, change th in 
many ways the 
folk to beguile. 

He is like the 
chameleon, that 
liveth by air, who 
with all sorts of 
colours has none 
of his own. 

[Fol. 18. b.] 
In this bough are 
three small twigs. 


Leazinge ualsep pane man / alse me ualsep pe kinges 
sel / oper pe popes bulle. and peruore pet me makep 
ualse monaye and berp ualse lettres : ha ssel by demd 
ase ualsere / ate daye of dome, pe lye3ere is amang pe 
men : ase pe ualse peny amang pe guode. ase pet chef : 
amang pe corn, pe lye3ere is ylich pe dyeule. pet is 
his uader. ase god zayp ine his spelle. Yor he is 
lye3ere / and uader of leazinges / ase he pet made pe 
uerste leazinge. and yet he hise makep / and tekp eche- 
daye. pe dyeuel him ssewep ine uele ssefpes. and him 
chongep in uele wysen / pet uolk uor to gyly. Alsuo 
dep pe lye3ere. hueruore he is ase pe gamelos pet leuep 
by pe eyr and na3t ne hep ine his roppes bote wynd. 
and hep ech manere colour / pet ne hep non his 03en. 

Ine pise bo3e byep pri smale tuygges : Yor per byep 
leazinges helpiwde and leazinges likynde. and leazinges 


deriynde. and in echen is zenne. Vor ase zayj saynt 1 - Lies wiping. 

, . , ' 2. Lies pleasing, 

austm. asemoche ase he Jet Ije^p / be his leazmge / dej 3. Lies hurtful, 

guod to ojren : alneway he dej his 03ene harm / Jawne 1. The first sin 

Je leazinges helpincie bye]) zenne. Ac Je leazinges ^J^X 

likinde. byef more grot zenne / ase byej) })e hyejinges ° f £ he second 8in 

of Je. lozemour. and of be gememen / and of be scorneres i8seenintta "erer 8 

J ' -» and scorners who 

J>et ziggej Je bysemeres. and Je lezinges. and fe lhe3- lie t0 please folk * 
inges uor to solaci Jet uolk / ine ziggynge / and ham to 

harkin : is zercne. hit ne is non drede. Ac Je lyazinges s - The third sink 

deriynde; bye J dyadlich zerane. huanne me his zayj itbe bought 

wytindeliehe / and be Jojte 1 / uor to do harm to ojren. ° r ^ ^ to] 

To Jise bo^e belongej aUe ualshedes / and Je gyles / To this bough be- 

and Je contackes. Jet me dej in al Je wordle nor ojren Sf^ot' 
to gyly and harmy. ojer ine zaule / ojer in bodye. ojer 
ine guodes. ojer ine los / huych Jet hit by. 

tests, made to 
harm others. 

0? J?E ZENNE OP LYE3INGE. Of the sin of 

IT A 1.' x.' ' lyinH ' 

iivead Jmg hit is to lye3e / ac more zenne hit is him Per J ur y ia worse 

^ , than lying. 

zelne norzuene. and Jeruore onre lhord hit zuo moche 
uorbyet. Perilous Jing hit is to zuerie. ac na3t uor 
Jan / Jet ine no poynt me ne may zuerie : wyj-oute 
zenne. ase zayj Je bougre. Ac uor Jan Jet of te zuerie : Swearin & ^ads to 

, „ . *J * forswearing. 

make J otte uorzuene / and ofte zene3i. Vor ine zeue There are seven 

« -r-r . t modes of swear- 

maneres me zuerej. Verst huanne me zuerej boldliche/ in g: 

Jet is [in] onworjnesse/ and blejeliche. Jet hit JingJ/ Jet ** B ° ld 8wearing " 

him hit likej to zuerie. Jeruore hit uorbyet saint Iacob. 

*ne zuerie J na3t : bote huawie hit is nyed.' ac Jet wyl : ?• Needful swear. 

is Je lecherie 2 uor to zuerie. Efterward huan me zuerej s. Light swear- 

li3tliche / Jet is uor na3t / and wyj-oute scele. Jet is 'pms. uiecherie} 

uorbode ine Je ojre heste of Je laje / Jet god wrot ine 

Je tables of ston / mid his vmgre. Efterward huaraie *• Habitual swear- 

1 ing. 

me zuerej be wone : ase at eche worde. Vor Jer byej 
zome zuo euele yta3t : Jet hi ne conne no Jing / zygge 
wyj-oute zueriynge. Jpise habbej god in to grot on- Habitual swearers 

* ° hold God in cou- 

worjhede. huawne al day / and uor na3t / him clepiej to tempt. 
wytnesse / of al Jet hi ziggej. Vor zueriinge ne is non 


ofer J?ing : J?awne to clepie god to wytnesse. and his 
5. Foolish swear- moder / and his ha^en. Efterward huamie me zuerej? 
pafn, a8 m SU 6n folliche. and }?et yualj? ine uele maneres. Oj?er hua?me 

me zuerej? he tyene / and sodaynlyche / huer-of hira 
in rash promises, U orJ>ingJ? efterward. Oj?er hua?me me zuerej? uor J)ing 

J?et me ne may na3t healde wyJ?-oute ze?me : zuich oj? 
in bold assertions nie ssel hreke : and do penonce nor bane fole oj?. Ober 

without being 

certain of the huawne me zuerej? zikerliche / of J?inge J?et me nis na^t 

ziker / yet fa^ hit by zoj?. 0}?er huaraie me hehat 

in promising what zikerliche J?et me na3t not / yef me hit may nolnelle. 

one cannot fulfil j . 

and swearing by 0}?er huawne me zuerej} be J?e sseppinges / ase me zayp. 

one's U head,°&c. be p e zonne J?et ssinj?. by J>et ner J?et bernj?. oJ?er by 
myn heued. oJ?er by myne uader zanle. oJ?er oJ?re J?ane 
ylych. Zuyche oJ?es god uorbyet in his spelle. Yor 
J?et ich ssel maky ziker : ich ne ssel na3t dra3e to 
[Foi. 19. a.] W ytnesse / bote j>ane he3e zoj?. J?et is god pet al wot. 
na3t pe clene ssepj?es / J?et ne bye]? bote ydelnesse. And 

This is worship- huawne ich his zuerye be boste : ich here ham ane 

ping the creature ° * ■> 

instead of the wor}>ssippe / J)et ich ssolde here to god onlepi. Ac 
huawne me zuerej? be pe l godspelle : me zuerej? be him / 
J?et J?e wordes byej? / and byej? ywryte. And huaraie me 
zuerej? be J?e holy relikes / and be J?e ha^en of paradis : 
me zuerej? be ham / and be god J?et ine ham wonej?. 

Godlndhls by Efterward huaraie me zuerej? vileynliche by god / and 

saints. ^y ^g hai^en. ine J?ise ze?^ne / byej? J?e cristene worse / 

J?anne J?e sarasyn. J?et nolden zuerie ine none manure / 
ne nolden J?olye / J?et me zuore beuore ham / zuo vileyn- 

Those guilty of ly C he / be Iesu crist : ase do I? be cristene. Hi byej? 

this sin are worse " ' * ' " ' 

than the Jews who more worse l?araie be gyewes : bet hine dede a-rode. Hy 

crucified Christ. J \ . \ r . . 

ne breken non ot his buones. Ac J?ise him tobrekep 
smaller : J?araie me dej? J?et zuyn ine bocherie. Jjise ne 
uorberej? na3t oure lheuedi. and J?ise his tobrekej? more 
vileynlaker : and hire / and J?e oJ?re ha^en / J?et hit is 
it is a wonder wonder : hou be cnstendom hit boleb. Efterward 

how Christendom ' * * 

beareth them. huaraie me zuerej? ualsliche. o]?er huarcne me berj? ualse 

1 It may be read \>o 


wytnesse. ober me zuereb uals / wytindelyche. me 7. False swearing 

J r r l J J and falge witn e88- 

huyche manyere / Jet me zuerej ojer openliche / ojer ing. 

stilleliche "be art / ojer be sophistWe. Vor ase ))e ri3te 

wrytes ziggej / god Jet loue J Mneknesse / and zoj- God loves meek- 

i -. *, ness and truth. 

nesse / yne zuyche wytte onderuang]) Jane o J / and onder- 
stant Jet word : ase he hit onderstant / Jet ne JengJ 
na^t bote guod. and Jet muekliche / and wyj-oute stryf 
hit onderstant. 

Mochel is grat godes myldenesse. huanne zuyche Great is God's 

mildness, when 

men Jet zueriej of Jinge Jet hi wytej wel : Jet ne is me n swear 
najt zoj. ojer behotej Jing : Jet hi nele * na3t healde. tl ^j, ;] 
bet be dyeuel him ne astrangleb hastelyche. Vor For when one 

Y Y J , i i says, "So God me 

hua?ine he zayj : zuo god me helpe. ojer zuo god me help," and if he lie 
loky. and he lye3e : he de J him out of Je helpe / ut P of the pafe of 
and of lokynge of god. nou ssolde he be ri3te / lyese God ' 8 raercy ' 
wyt / and onderstondmge / and body, and guodes. and 
zaule / and al Jet he halt of gode. 

])e laste bo3 of Jise zeraie is : huaraie man agelt his The last bough of 

, this sin is when a 

treuje / and Jet he he J behote 2 / and y-granted. ojer ma nsinneth 

. . . ttjii/1 against his truth 

be his treuje. ojer be his oje. Vor traije ylo3e / and and against his 
oj y broke : is ase hit were al on. pMs.bohote] 

Cheastb. strlfe - 

Saynt august in zayb. bet no Jing zuo moche ne ys strife is like the 

J * ' devil's deeds, 

ylych to Je dyeules dedes : ase cheaste. \)es d meyster B aith Augustine, 
huer-of ne is non drede : pay J moche Je dyeule / and 
na3t ne payj god. Jet ne louej bote pays / and onynge. 

Pes bo 3 him to-delj ine .vij. ojre bo 3 es. Huer-of Je ^"^ 
uerste is : strif. ])Q ojer / chidinge. j)e Jridde / £ etri^ 
missiseinge. be uerbe / godelinge. })e uifte / atwyt- 3. Evil speaking. 

ot5 ° ' * ' ° 4. Slandering. 

in^e. be zixte / Jreapninge. pe zeuerade / vnonynge 5. Reproaching. 

' , • i / i 6 - Threatening. 

arere. Huanne Je dyeuel yz^J loue / and onynge 7. Discord. 

,,.,,. , • t j v^^. The devil does not 

amang uolke : moche hit him uorjmgj. and uor ham like t0 8ee love 
maki vnonynge : he makej blejeliche his mi3te ham ^^ 
uor to do striui. And Je dyeuel beginj Jet uer of heWes to raise 

3 It is not clear whether \>es or \>is is the MS. reading. 


which is followed tyene / and euel wyl uor to becleppe. bawne efter bet 

by noise, as when . 

one says to the strif / and be cheaste : comb be noyse / and be cheaste. 

other, "So it is," k .' Y -, L 

"it is not so," Al / alsuo huamie me aly3t pet uer : map J? J>et smech 
"it was not so." efter pe layt. Stryf / and cheaste / and hua?me pe 

on zayj) to J?e opren : ' zuo hit is.' 'zuo hifc ne is.' 'zuo 

hit wes ' / 'zuo hit nes.' 
2. chiding is Chidinge is : huarcne eyder lyexne]? o]?ren / o]?er 

lying one against . 

another. greate wordes. Mter pan come]) pe myssiggmges. pet 

[Foi. 19. b.j is hua/me J?e on peynep J?a?mo]?ren / and zigge]? pe 
s. An evil speaker greate felonyes. Yor per is a feloun pet he]? pe tonge 
sharper r than a uiore keruinde : pawne rasour. 'more zuyfter / pawne 
razor. arwe u iyi n( j e# an d more boryinde : pawne zouteres eles. 

He is like the zuyche men bye]? anlykned to pe porn-hog. pet ys al 
hog), with its y wry^e myd prikyinde eles. and hit is to moche fel / 
ouTSt^idiTft! an( i zone n *t i s wrop. And pawne hit is of-tyened : he 
He is like a fierce -^ es ^ ou ^ ^is e ^ es °^ ^is bodye : ari^thalf / and a lefthalf. 
do f * h + at b f ks Alsuo he is anlikned to be felle dogge. bet by t / and 

and bites at every -» °° * u ' 

body. beberkp alle po pet he may. 

4. slandering. Efterward come]) pe godelinges. pet is huawne pe 

on godelep pamie o}>rene. And pet is zuo grat zenne j pet 

pe wrytynge zayp : pet huo pet godelep his emensten : 

slanderers are he ys acorsed of god. And saynte paul zayp. pet zuych 


uolk ne nu^e habbe godes ryche. And Salomon zayp. 
Their mouth is as pet hare moup is : ase pe wy3te pet ualp ine hot weter. 
faUeThhito hot J 3 ^ kest hyer / and per : and scoldep alle po pet byep 
a7„™r ldinSal >™We. 

5. Reproaching a Ef terpan comep pe wypnymynges / pet byet yet 

man for his sins, . . i , , / , 

follies, poverty, more gutter ze/me. nuawne me atwyt ane man / oper 

poor km, &c. j^ s ze?mes j p ei . ^g f lies / oper his pouerte / oper his 

poure ken / oper opre lac l pet is ine him. 

6. Threatening is Efterward zuo comep pe preapnynges / and beginnep 
wars# ° pe medles / and pe werres. Ac aboue alle pise ze?mes 

pet we habbe]? hyer ynemned : pasej? J?e zewne [of] 
Above an the sins ^ / i?et be hare kueade tonge / sostyeneb / and 

already named, is ' ' 01031 

the sin of those arerej? pe strifs / and pe euele wylles / betuene ham 

who by their evil 

1 defaute has been erased in the MS. 


Jet byef ury endes togidere. and Jo Jet miswendej Jet ton ^ e arear Mld 

sustain strife and 

pays, and Je onynges. God hate J moche zuych uolk evil will, 
and zuo zayj Je writinge, 


Ofte we hit yzej come / Jet Je ilke Jet ne dar an- ^u^reminded 
suerye / ne chide, bet he begin J to grochi betuene his of their faults 

without grudging 

tej. and grunny. Vor efter Je chyaste : we zettej Je and grunting. 

ze^ne of grochinge. Hon grat is Je zenne : ons ssewej 

wel Je wreche Jet god kan nyme. ase recordej holi 

wryt. Vor bise zemie / onleak be erbe / and uorzuah For this sin un- 

1 . locked the earth 

datan and abyron. and villen doun al kuic in-to helle. and swallowed 

* / / -iT-i Dathan and 

An nor Jo ze^ne / zente god a tier / Jet tiorbernde kore : Abiram. 

and alle his ueh^es. CC.L. of Je gretteste of godes ost 

ine desert. Yor Je ilke zerme norlore Je yewes bet land For this sin the 

Jews lost the land 

of beheste / Jet god ham hedde behote. zuo Jet of zix of Promise, 
.C. Jousond / Jet god hedde ykest/ out of Je Jreldome the six hundred 
of Je kinges of egipte. and Jet he hedde yloked : uourti cam e out of 10 
year ine desert / myd Je manne of heuene. ne yede in- gypt * 
to Je holy londe / oote tuo / wyjoute mo. Jet hetten onl y tw ° < Caleb 

* i*i- . • an( * Joshua) lived 

calef : and Iosue. ac alle hi storuen in zoi^e : ine Je to enter Canaan, 

#is zewne he J tuaye bo^es. Vor Je on : is grouch- j^™: ijmu* 
inge aye god. and Je ojre aye man regnej. J)is zercne murin s gainst ^ 
is ine uele maneres / ase ine sergons aye hire lhordinges. *«g against man. 

This sin is seen 

ine wyfmen : aye hare leuedis. and ine children / aye in many ways, 

, . , , n in servants 

hare uaderes / and hare modren. Ine poure : aye Je against their 

• -i ji^n * i i. ti i masters, women 

ricne. and Je Jrelles : aye Je kir^tes. Ine leawede : gainst their 
aye Je clerkes / and aye Je prelas. and Je cloystrers : ^nsuilei? 11 
aye Je abbottes. and Je pWours : and hire officials / ase P arents » &c - 
subpnor. and Je ojre. And wext Je groc hinges ine alle £ Fo1, 20 - a - ] 
zuyche persones : ober of onbossamnesse uor ban bet me This is the result 

* ? * * of disobedience, 

is to hard ine hestes. o Jer ine sleauje / uor Jet me is to sloth, or impa- 
sleuuol. ojer of inpacience / uor Jet me ne dej na3t 
alle Je wylles. ojer of enuie. ojer of feionie. uor Jet 
5 * 

68 the devil's songs of hell. 

me auoncej more Je on : Jamie Je ojre. and manye 

ojre kueade roten. 
Man desires to be Grochinge aye god he]) yet nou yno 3 mo enchey- 
God's master and souns y or man w heb uorlore grace / and Jolemod- 

if he has not his Y X i 

win, he murmurs nesse . ^ ^—fa by mayster ope god. zuo / bet / al god 

against Him, J J J r ° ' . 

and singeth the d e j i ne erje : bote yef he hit ne do al to his wylle : an 

song. . Y&&\& he grochej aye god. and zyng J Jet pater noster. 

The Holy Ghost to tokne. Yorzoje ac Je dyeules zang. Vor ase Je holi 

SngV the sweet gost tekj. and make]? his ychosene zinge ine hare herten 

songs of heaven. ^ ^^ ^^ q£ heuene> j^ ig of j, e gmceg Q f ^ J, et 

The devil maketh he dej. and of al Jet he us zent. Alsuo Je kueade gost 

his disciples sing i . -i . i • - j> -u n r. 4- '« 

the song of heii, make J his deciples zmge Jamie zang ot nelle. pet is 

i.e., grudging. g^^g^ j, e t eure sse i yleste ine helle. in al Jet god 
dej / bote hit by al to hire wylle. Yorzoje mochel is 
zuych a man fol / ant out of his wyte / Jet wyle Jet me 
him yelde scele / of al Jet he hej ydo / yef me him zent / 

They murmur aduersete. pouerte. ziknesse. dyere time. rayn. dnr$Je. 

eve^ryldvereity yef me yef J him / and benym J hit ojren. bote yef hit 

that befalls them. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ . ^ ^ ^^ anhaste to 

what wonder is grochi aye god / and him euele Jonke J. huet wonder is 
vengeance upon hit / Ja$ god him awrekj of zuyche uolke / Jet wyllej 
him benyme his lhordssip / and his wyshede. 

such folk ! 

Of opposition Of wy)?stondynge. 

(rebellious con- 
duct). Kvead bins is grochinge : ac more is wors / wyb- 

Withstanding is r & & o I Jr 

worse than grudg- stondinge. wyjstondynge is a zeraie / Jet com J of Je 


herte Jet is rebel / and hard / and rebours / and dyuers. 
This sin is seen in Jet alneway wyle Jet his wyl by do / and his zyggmge 

those who will . 

bow to none, by yhyalde. Jet wyle / Jet alle Je ojre / bou3e to him. 
and he ne boi^e to nonen. Jpis is Je harde herte : 
huer-of Salomon zayj. Jet he ne may na^t fayly : of 

whose hearts are kued ende. And ase Jer is grochinge aye god. and aye 

rebellious to God t . i i ± -i i i i / i i 

and man. man : alsuo is zuych herte rebel to god / and to man. 

This sin hath J)is ze^ne he J vour bo3es. Yor zuyche herten byej 

that appear in the rebours / and rebels / red / to leue. to done godes heste. 
chastinge Jolye. and techinge onderuonge. Yef enye 


of hare uryendes ham wylleb rede, and hare ureme 1. They rebel 

against the advice 

ssewy. na3t ham nollej) yhere. rajre uor Jet hi habbej) of frionds. 
yspeke. hi doj Je more blejelaker Je contrarye. To Je 2. They are rebei- 

/J? , lious against 

Tede of oure lhorde : ofte hi byej rebel / yei me nam Christ. 

ret Jing: Jet by to helje to hire zaules. ne nojyng 

nolleb do / erban me gabbeb of ham. And bos hy 3. They are rebels 

r I r b r -, . against the be- 

byej rebels / to Je heste of oure lhorde / to huam hi bests of our Lord. 

bye]? yhyealde. and zuo moche ham zet beuore Je dyeuel 

of toknen. ojer of fyeblesse. ojerof elde. Jer of ye3eje. 

ojer of ojre kueade sceles. Jet alast : hi ne doj na3t. 

Efterward ha&nne me his chastej / and wyjnymj. hi ^ e e ^ 8 se when . 

ham defende J ase Je bor / zuo Jet hare folyes ne be- ever corrected. 

knawej. and Je more Jet hi ham excuse J : Je more wext 

Je zerane. And zuo hit is huanne god his beat / and when God chast . 

chastej. and maugre hy wytej. and zyggej ofte. onjank ^£££* 

Jan : and Je ojren / ' huet wyle god me do. huet habe evil against Him. 

ich him misdo 1 ' j)os dej Je fol. and Jet him ssolde 

by triacle : to him went in to uenym. and Je medecine : go 

him yef J Jane dyaj. Efterward Jer bye J zome of zuo 4. They listen to 

. i,i- i t no 8 O0 & teaching, 

dmers wyt / Jet none guode tecnmge ne onderuongej. but follow their 
ak alneway weryej hare sentense huet Jet hit by. zuo ^i £&£!?* 8 ° 
Jet ofte hi uallej ine errour. and ine ualse opinions, and 
ine eresye. and ine euele byleaue. 

OF BLASFEMYES. Of blasphemy. 

Blasfemyes is ase zayj saynt austin. ojer huarcne "J^^J^^ 
me ylef J and zayj of god Jing : Jet me ne ssel yleue / ^^^^^ 
ne healde. ojer me ne leff na^t Jet me ssolde yleue. Ac believe, 
speciallyche we clepieb hyer blasfemye : huanne me specially is this 

r J r r sin in those who 

missayj of god / ami of his ha^en. ojer of the sacre- speak evil of God, 

n , , , , , . t 1 His saints, or His 

mens of holy cherche. pis zercne ys ydo me uele 8acrarae nt8, 
maneres. Ojer huarcne me hit zayj be J(>3te. ase doj Je ^^Jve^ 8 an 
bougres / and Je mysbyleuinde. Ojjer me hit zayj uor 
couaytise to wynne. ase doj Jise charmeres / and Jise 
wycherc. Ojer huaraie me hit zayj be tyene / and be andintho8e 
despit ase doj Jise playeres / Jet zuo uyleynliche who wickedly 


break Christ's tobrekep Iesu cristes body, and zuo uileynliche mis- 

siggep of god an cf his blissede moder / pet hit is 

These folk are like dreduol and zorse to hyere / and lheste. bise byeb ase 

mad hounds, that , 

bite and know not wode houndes / pet bite]) and ne knawep na3t hare 
lhord. Jpis ze/me is zuo grat : Jet god his awrekp oper- 
huyl aperteliche ase we habbep yzed beuore / po we 

This sin God has speke of wyckede uolke. Of bise zenne zayb god ine 

declared shall not r J # r Jr & 

be forgiven. his spelle / fet hit ne ssel by uoryeue : ne ine pise 

wordle ne ine pe opre. 
of the 10 sins of ]Sf 0U WG habbeb ytald ten manere ze/mes of be tonge. 

the tongue, r J r & 

the ist is idleness Jeanne is pe uerste : ydelnesse. and pe laste : blasfemie 
phemyj and be cas hit is pet Salomon zayp. pet pe beginnynge 

foiiy, the end of pe kueade tonge : is folie. and pe ende : to kuead 


Here end the Hyer endep pe zeue dyadliche zeraies /and alle hire 

seven deadly sins. -1/-11. . 

bo^es. and huo pet wel him stude dep l me pise boc : he 
No man can keep myste moche profiti / and lyerny / and knawe eche 

himself quit of J ? r ' J J / 

them unless he manyere of zeraie / and him-zelue wel ssryue. Yor non 

know them. . 

ne may him wel ssriue / ne him ioki uram zenne : bote 

he his ne knawe. Nou ssel pa^ne pe ilke / pet ine pise 

boc ret. yzy diligentliche to by yssriue. and him loky 

of those sins that be his myate. Of obre ze?^nes bet he ne is nast gelti : 

he hath not com- ' r T 7 ° 

mitted, let him he ssel herye god and him bo3samiiche ponky. pet him 

thank God for pre- -1,-11 i 
serving him from hep ylOKed. 

For to learn to Yqr TO LYERNY STERUE. 


toTeVbie^toiTve 8 Onneape sterf / pet ylyerned ne hep. Lyerne to 
tNote wei )> erne sterue : panne sselt bou conne libbe. Yor now wel 

capitele.] t * ' 

He is a wretch libbe ne ssel conne : pet to sterue ylyerned ne heb. 

who cannot live , m T 

nor dare die. And pe ilke ary^t is ycleped wrechche : pet ne can 

lybbe / ne ne dar sterue. 

Yef pou wylt libbe vriliche. lyerne to sterue gled- 

liche. Yef pou me zayst / hou me hit ssel lyerny : ich 

This life is but nit w y le f e zi £g Q an haste. J)ou sselt ywyte pet pis 

f 8 tpt f :L d r tM8 W' ne is bote *Y*t> Yor d J a )> is a wendinge. and pet 

1 MS. studedej? 



ech wot. and peruore me zayj) of ane manne huawne he 
sterfp : he went. And huarme he is dyad : he is ywent. 
j)is lyf alsuo ne is bote a wendynge. nor zope / uor zope : 

a wendinge wel ssort. Yor al pet lyf of ane manne / pa3 ah the life of a 

he leuede a pousond year : pet ne ssolde by / bote lived a thousand 

onlepy prikke : to pe zy3pe / of pe opre lyue / pet enre ^'Jm^Sto 

wypoute ende ssel yleste. oper ine zoqe : oper ine * u ° life without 

blisse / wypoute endynge. ^ ol 21 a -, 

pis ous wytnesset wel pe kyng. pe erl. pe prince. pe This bear us 


emperonr. pet pe blysse of pe wordle : hedden zomtyme. earis, princes, &c, 
non ine helle : wepep / and grede}>. yellep/ and zor^ejj. bliss in the world, 
' A. alias : hnet is ous worp onre pouer. worpssippe. and^n^eu^' 
noblesse, richesse. blisse. and bost. al hit ys ywent / Jj ^j^f q^/uiu.^ 
wel rapre pawne ssed : oper uojel ulyinde. oper quarel »y, "our Missis 
of arblaste. And pous gep al onre lyf. Nou we were shadow, 

we were born, and 

ybore : and an haste dyad, ne al oure lyf: nes na^t bote died in haste; 

a lyte prikke. nou we bye]? ine zor^e wyp-oute ende. 

Oure blisse / is ywent in-to wop. oure karoles : into our bliss is tum- 

, t t t . , , , ed into weeping, 

zor3e. gerlowdes. robes, playmges. messmges. and alle and our carols 
guodes byep ous yfayled.' Zuyche byep po zonges of s^cVa^the 
helle. ase pe writinge ous telp. ous uor to ssewy : pet 8on s sofhe11 - 
pis lyf / ne is bote a wendynge : wel ssort. and pis 
wordle : ne is bote wendynge. and libbe ne is bote l a [> ms. boto] 
wendynge. J)a??ne ne is libbe : bote sterue. and bet is To live is but to 


zop / ase pater noster. Yor huarane pou begonne libbe : when we begin 

anhaste pou begonne to sterue. And al pin elde. and al to die.' 

pine time / pet ys yguo : pe dyap pe hep ywonne : and 

halt, bou zayst bet bou best zixti year, be dyab hise We say we have 
_ * j r r j r j r 8ixty yeara> but 

hep. and neuremo his nele pe yelde. J^eruore is pet death has and 

will yiGVGF Yield 

wyt of pe wordle folye. And pe clerk zyinde : ne them. 
yzy^p na3t. Day and ni3t / makep o ping, and pe more pet 
hit makep : pe lesse zuo knawep. alneway steruep : and 
hi ne conne sterue. Yor day / and ny^t : pou sterfst / 
as ich pe habbe yzed. 

Yet eft ine opre manere / ich pe teche pise clergie. 


Death is a separ- p e t pou conne wel libbe : and wel sterue. Nou yhyer : 

ation of the soul 

and body. and onderstand. pe dyap ne is bot a todelinge of pe 

zaule : and of pe bodye. and Jet ech wel wot. Nou ous 

Caton the wise tekp be wyse eatonn. 'Lyerne we' zayp lie 6 to sterue. 

tells us to separate 

the ghost from todele we fane gost of pe bodie ofte. pet deden pe meste 
often°so y did the wyse of pise philosophes pet pis lif zuo moche hateden / 
w^afnTgrace and f e wordle : zuo moche onworpede. and zuo moche 
chri£ Ief ° f wylnede lyf na3t dyeadlich. pet hi westen be hare 
wylle. ac hit nes ham na^t worp. Yor hi ne hedden 
non grace / ne pe beleaue of iesu crist. Ac pe holy men 

^c a pe"two aVe f et louie f g° d / and y leue > / J> et of J> ri d y ea f es / ^M* 
deaths. p e ^ ua y yp ase( j # y or jj er j s dyap to ze/me : and dyad 

dya\>es.] to be wordle. Nou abydeb bane bridde dyeab. bet is be 

There is a death r J r r r J r r r 

to sin and a death todi3tinge of pe zaule : and of pe bodie. Betuene ham 

to the world. , 

The third death is and paradys ne is bote a lyte W03 / pet hy ageltep be 
thrsouifronTthe penchinge / and be wylnynge. and yef pet bodi is of pis 
AHttie wall na ^ : f e ner ^ e / and P e g os ^ : i s o£ operhalf. J)er hy 
toSr habbep hyre bleuinge / as zayp saynte paul. hire solas. 
Their thoughts hi re blisse. and hire confort. and alle hire lostes. and 

are in heaven, 

and they hate this peruore : hy hatyep pis lyf: pet ne is bote dyap. and 
death. wylnep pane dyap bodylich. Yor pet is damezele bere- 

blisse / pet pe dyap / pet alle pe ha^en corounep / and 

dop [zettep] in to blisse. 
{Huet is dya\>.] Dyab is to guodemen : ende of alle kueade. and 

Death to good J r G 

men is end of ail gate / and inguoynge : of alle guode. Dyap is pe 

evils and com- 

mencement of stream : pet todelp / dyap / and lyf. Dyap / is of pis 
every easing. fo^if ^ j ^ ^^ half. Ac pe wyse of pise wordle pet 

of pis half pe streme yzyep zuo bri3te : of operhalf hi 
The wise of this r^t ne yzep. an peruore his clepep pe writinge : foles / 
and wind, and yblent. Yor perne dyap : hi clepiep lyf. And 

pane dyap / pet is to pe guoden / beginnynge of Hue : 

for they can death hi hit clepiep / pan ende. And peruore hy hatyep zuo 

i^SfL. ™ che J> ane W Yor hi ay** huet hit is. ne of 

[Poi. 21. b] operhalf pe streame ne habbep na3t ybleued. and na3t 

ne wot : pet out ne gep. 
if thou wilt know ])mme yef pou wylt ywyte huet is guod / and huet is 


kuead : guo out of pi zelue. guo out of be wordle. Heme wft at ^ good and 

what is evil, go 

to sterue. todel pine zaule uram be bodye be boite. zend out of thyself, 

, . , . __ . . divide thy soul 

fine herte m-to pe o)>re wordle : })et is to heuene. into from the body,and 
helle / in-to purgatorie. per pou sselt 1 yzy : huet isguod ^foj£^ h * 
and huet is kuead. Ine helle pou ssel[t] yzi mo zor 3 es: ^toiCm^ 
pa/me me mo3e deuisy. Ine purgatorie / mo tormens gator ^- 
pa?zne me mo3e polye. Ine paradys / more bhsse panne 
me mo^e wylny. Helle be ssel teche / hou god awrekb Hell shall teach 

i n i -n • , / i theehowGod 

dyadlyeh zewne. Purgatorie : pe ssel seawy / hou avenges deadly 
god clenzep veniel zenne. Ine heuene pou sselt yzy Purgatory shall 
openliche / hou mVtues / and guode dedes : bye]) ^T^toiT 
hcgliche yolde. Ine pis pri pinges : is al pet is nyed St thou 
wel to wytene hou me ssel co?zne libbe / and wel * halt «* how g0 od 

^ ' deeds are re- 

Steme. warded. 

Nou loke eftzone a lyte / and ne tyene pe na3t / to Forget thy body 

pise pri pinges. uorpet pou lyernest to hatye zewne. to hdi in^hyHfe- 

Voryet fi body / ones a day. guo in-to helle ine fine ISj***^ 

libbinde : pet pou ne guo / ine pine steruinge. Jpis dep j^ ath ; 

ofte pe holi man / and pe wyse. ]2er pou sselt yzy : al There shait thou 

pet herte hatep. and bevly3p. and defaute of alle guode. a ii that is good, 

yno3 of alle kueade. ver bernynde. brenston stinkinde. evil f burning fTre, 

tempeste brayinde. voule dyeulen. honger. and porst : Bfon^oui^iis, 

bet me ne may nast stonchi. dyuerse pines / and hun & er ' thir . st > 

» t/ 7 o r i pains, weeping, 

wepinges. and zoi^es : mo pawne herte mo3e penche / and 80rrow - 
ne tonge telle, and eure ssel yleste wyp-oute ende. And Wherefore this 
peruore is pe ilke zo^e wel ycleped : dyap wyp-oute death without end. 
ende. And huarcne pou yzixt pet hit behouep zuo dyere 
abegge onlepy dyadlich ze?me : pe woldest pe rapre lete 
be vla3e quik. parcne pou dors test / to onelepi dyadliehe 
ze^ne c<msenti. 

Efterward guo in-to pwrgatoriie. per bou sselt yzi be io/ Purgatorw.] 

° jt o r j «/ t Afterwards go m- 

pines of pe zaules / pet hyer hedden uorpenchinge / ak t0 purgatory, 

and see the pains 

nere na3t uolliche yclenzed. nou hi dop per / pe leuinge of those who were 

. . not here fully 

of hare penonce / al-huet pet hi byep / br^te / and cleansed of their 
clene. ase hi weren ate poynt / and ate time / hua/me hi 
i MS. sselelt 


Their penance is yeden out l of pe welle of cristninge. Ac pe ilke pen once 

ys wel grislich and hard. Vor al pet eure poleden pe 

ah that martyrs holy martires. oper wyfmen pet trauaylep of childe / of 

women with child, zo^e : ne ys bote a bep ine chald weter : to pe reward 

coWwa^erlncom- of pe fornayse : huerinne berne]} pe zaules. al-huet hi 

Clcewherein 6 hyep yclenzed. ase gold al yclienzed* ine pe vere / me 

they burn. ne y - nt 2 esse j, awne ydenzed. Vor pet uer is of zuyche 

kende / al pet hit vint ine pe zaule of gelte of dede. of 

speche. of p03te / pet yernep to zeraie : oper lite / oper 

moche : al uorbernp/and clenzep. and per bye]? ypunyssed, 

venial sins are and awreke : alle uenyal ze?mes. pet we clepiep : litle 

do oft# * zeraies. pet we dop ofte / and smale fole J^tes. wordes 

ydele. triuies. scornes. and alle opre ydelnesses. al-huet 

hi by worpe : to guo in-to heuene. huer ne gep in na3t / 

The fire of purga- ^ote hit by rht brht. bet ilke uer dredep bo. bet by 

tory is dreaded by d ' ? * J * 

those who keep hare myste ham lokeb uram dyadlich zewne. and lokep 

holy their souls 

and bodies. holyliche hare herten. and hare bodyes. and hare moupes. 

[Foi. 22. a.] an( j ^ e v ^ wyttes uram alle zeraie. and zuo libbep / ase hi 

ssolden echedaye to dome come to-uore god. And peruore 

None may live w non ne mav libbe wyb-oute zewne. Yor ase zay b Salo- 

without sin, y J ° Y J r 

for good men mon : zeuezipe a day / ualp pe guode man. and peruore 

sin seven times tit -i • i * 

a day, be holy ssrifte / and be tyeares / and be benes : hi dop 

te" rs^and^rayers hare mi^te ham zelue to arere / and to amendi. and ham 
iiZ^Tarfnot zelue zuo deme : f et ni onderstonde to uoty pane laste 
lost at the day of d om> y or ] m0 Lj er ;hi m demp zopliche : him ne worp non 

hede to by uorlore : ate daye of dome. And pus me lyernep 

kuead to knawe / an to beuly / and alle ze^nes to hatye / 

and grat and smal. and onderstonde pe holy drede of 

Holy dreadof God god / pet is beginnynge of guod lif : and of alle guode. 

ofgoodfife. 11 n ° A c hit ne is na3t yno3 to lete pe kueades : bote me 

we must learn lyerny pet guod to done, and bote yef me zeche pe mr- 

evii, but learn to tues / uor wyp-oute ham : non ari3t wel ne leuep. psaine 

o goo . ^£ ^^ wylt lyerny wel to libbe be utrtue : lyerne zuo 

ase ich pe habbe yzed / to sterue. Todel pine gost uram 

frlmCLdyby J^ ^dye / be Jwjte / and be wylnmge. guo out of 

thoaght - i MS. ouot 2 MS. ychenzed 


pise wordle steminde. guo in-to pe londe of pe libbynde / Go out of this 

r .. . . world dying, and 

per no?E ne sterfLpJ/ ne yealdep. pet is me paradys. per go into the land of 

me lyernep wel to libbe / and wyt / an corteysye. uor e " ms ' 

per ne may guo in: no nyleynye. per is blisfolle ^J^Jf^^ 

ue^rede of god. and of angles, and of hahen. per where is the bliss- 
ful communion of 
opwexep alle guodcs. uayrhede. richesse. worpssipe. God, of angels, 

it • j i • 1 • and °f saints, 

blisse. mrtue. loue. wyt. loye wypoute ende. pev ne is where is neither 
nora ypocnsye. ne barat. ne blondinge. ne discord, ne str^flattery, 
enuye. ne honger. ne porst. ne hete. ne chele. ne kuead. hunger,'^ 
ne zor3e. ne drede of vyendes. ac alneway festes and 
kinges bredales. zonges. and blisse wypoute ende. pe 

ilke blisse is zuo grat : bet huo bet hedde vtake per of The bliss is so 

... /r », . "iii ^ reat that one 

ennelepi drope / of pe leste pmge pet per ys : he ssolde drop would in- 

by of pe loue of god zuo dronke : pet al pe blisse of pise 

wordle / him ssolde by / drede : and wo. Ey chesses : B0 that riches and 

' ° ' ** honour would be 

dong. worpssipes : uoulhede. and pe ilke to greate loue accounted woe and 

pet he ssolde habbe to come per : hi m ssolde by an 

hondred pouzen zipe pe more hardiliche hatye ze?me. 

and louie m'rtues. pet is al pe drede of helle. huer-of 

ich habbe beuore ispeke. Vor loue is more stranger : Love is stronger 

than fear, 

pa^ne drede. And pa??ne is pet lyf uayr / and oneste : 

pawne me beuly3t / pet kuead / and me dep pet guod. 

na3t uor drede / uor to by yspild : ac uor pe wylnynge an <* the love of 

of heuene. and uor pe loue of god. and uor pe greate from sin. 

clennesse : pet u/rtue hep. and guod lyf. And pe ilke 

pet loue ledep : he zekp rapre / and lesse him costnep / 

pa?zne him pet seruep god : be drede. pe hare yernp. The hare run- 

pe gryhond hym uo^ep. pe on be drede : pe oper be hound foiioweth. 

wylnynge. pe on vly3p : pe oper hyne dryfp. pe holy ^nnrthT Jhe 

man yernp ase grihond. pet habbep alday hare e3e / to in day™*' eye is 

heuene : huer hi yzyep pe praye : pet hi driuep. And ^3^^ 

peruore hy uoryetep alle opre guodes. ase dep pe gentyl as . doth # the hound 

hond : hua?^ne ha zyp his praye / touore his e3en. fore his eyes. 

J5is is pet lyf / of pe wel louiynde. of gentil herte / This is the life of 
and affayted. pet zuo moche louyep m>*tue : and hatyep gentle heart, 
zenne. pet yef hi weren zykere / pet me ne ssolde his 



coraie / ne god ne ssolde his awreke : ham ne daynede 

[Pol. 22. b.] na ^t J to do zeraie. Ac al hare penchinges / and al hare 

who shall have wyllis : hire herten clenliche loki / and agray pi / bet hi 

the bliss of Para- J ' & J Y ' Y 

dise, by worpi : to habbe pe blisse of paradys. huer no cherl 

where no churl . . 

nor thief shall ne ssel come in/ ne uals. ne pyei. ne proud, uor pe 


worse ssolde by pe uela3rede. 


and evil. 

To live aright one ISTou ich pe habbe ysseawed / hou me tekp wel to 
sterue / and lede guod lyf. Ac pou sselt ywyte / pet pe 
begynnynge uor to come to guode lyue : is to zeche 

and know what is u/rtue. pet is pet me knawe / na3t onlepilyche huet is 

right as well as . . 

what is wrong. zewne / and huet is elmesse : ac pet me conne ri^t wel 
knawe / and deme : huet is kuead / and huet is guod. and 
uor to dele pet zope guod : uram pe opren. and pet greate 

a thing that one guod / uram pe little. Vor ping pet me ne knaup na3t 

knoweth not of is • i j_ i / i j a i t ii. » 

not hated or de- ne 1S yhated / ne ywylned. And peruore sselt pou 

sired ' ywyte be pan pet pe wrytinges zyggep : pet per byep 

zeue smale yefpes of god / pet me clepep pe smale 

guodes. on lite / an oper grat / and zope. An onlepi- 

liche byep guodes ari3t. huerof al pe wordle ys nye3 

begyled [fozuyke]. Yor hi yeuep pe greate guodes : uor 

This world is as a pe little, oper pe lesse / uor pe little, oper pe greate / uor 

many foul chap- pe lesse. Yor pis wordle is. ase a fayre / huer byep 

SrvaTue°of n a°n manye fole chapmen, pet of alle pinges / hi knawep pe 

Ti in h ch p^opre mVtue and pet worp. pet ous tekp pe holy gost / 

teacheth us to and now oper maister. He ous tekp to knawe pe greate 

know the precious 

things from the pinges uram pe little, pe preciouses / uram pe viles. pe 

vile, the sweet 

from the sour. zuete / uram pe zoure. 

Timely (temporal) Of TIMLICHE GUODES. 


The small goods Hy clepiep pe smale guodes : pe guodes of time / pe 

tune . " guodes of fortune [hap], and pe leuedy fortune : went 

fchtnfeTturneth hare nue 3 el Gche da J e / and "benynip / and yefp. and 
her whed each we nt pet is aboue i benepe. pet byep pe smale stones of 
some and taking gles ssynynde. and be conioun his bayb uor rubys. uor 

away from others- ° J J T J r J 


safyrs. oper uor emeroydes. pet bye]) as iueles to chil- 

deren. pet god ous yefp / ous to solas, and uor oure God gives us time- 

loue : to dra3e to him. uor pet he wot Jet we byep f or t us. 

fyeble / and tendre. and hyealde we ne nu^e his. 

efterward / wayes of pouerte / of zor^e / and of martire- 

ment / ase deb be guode godes kny3t. bet fane kyngdom Riches are not the 

true happiness. 

of heuene paynep be strewgpe to wynne be hisprouesse. Forwereitso, 

Christ would then 

fanne pise ne bye]? : ne grete guodes / ne smale ary3t. be a fool, that 

Jeanne wes a fol Iesu crist goddes zone. Jet cheas pouerte. ^shame, and 

and ssame. an efterward : he uorzok/ blisses/ worpssipes. T ^^^^ a " 

and richesses : yef pet bye]? pe zope guodes. panne ne 

bye]? na3t / alle zope guodes ine heuene. fanne ne is 

na3t god parfitliche yblyssed : pet ne vzep na3t zuyche 

guodes. baraie is god ontrewe / and onkende / bet pise God would be un- 

& * ° ' i r r true and unkind, 

guodes benymp his urendes. and hise yefp more large- 

liche : to his yuo. yef pet bye]? zope guodes : paraie the saints and 

, ,, it wise clerks were 

weren foles alle pe ha^en. and alle pe wyse clerkes. ail fools, 

and pe greate filosofes. pet pise guodes beulo3e / and 

onworpede / ase dong. Yef pet bye]? zo]?e guodes: 

panne lye3)? god / pet lye3e ne may : and holy wryt. and God would b * 

J?et hise elepe]? / leazinges. and ssed. and metinges. and 

uanites. nettes. and bendes. and pe dyeules grines. and The gifts of for- 

/ T r t t i tune are the 

]?et is zo]? / aze pater nosier. Vor pet byep pe dyeules devil's snare 

, t , i • ■, i x. whereby he be- 

gmnes. huer-by pe zaules me a J?ousond inaneres he guiieth souls, 
gyle)? / and nym]? / and bynt / and halt. C Fo1 - **. a.] 

Ac pe wyse chapman / pet is pe guode man / pet pe The wise ch?p- 

, - men know the 

holy gost aly3t. be zope beknaulechmge / pet ouer al worth of each 

him knaup / huet ech ping is worp / and yzy3p hit ri3t mg * 

wel Hi onderstondep / pet al pe wordle ne is na3t a 

guod snode : uor mannes herte to uelle. and pet per is They see that 

moche kuead : and litel of guod. And peruore huo pet inThVworid! ^ 

lokep pe perils / and pe kueades pet per byep / and 

wytep pet hit is zop : pet hi conne zigge. he pet ne 

yefp / pet he louep : he ne nymp / pet he wylnep. Hy 

niakeb to god ane handuol. uor hi yeueb be wordle : uor 

r r r They give up the 

heuene. na3t / uor al. hor : uor gold, and letep al uor world for God, 


and become god. riehesses. lostes. worjssipes. and become]) poure. 

Jpet is Je uayriste lyf / an Je zykeriste : Jet is ine Jise 

There are others j)e o]>ve bye]) / Jet yzej) / Jet ine uele maneres hi 

uMcrfrichf^ ni03e do bare prou / of guodes of time. Jet me may hise 

habbe : ak na3t to moche louye. Yor god ne bat na3t / 
who hold them in al to lete. hy bise of byealdej : ac litel bise prayzej. bi 
little esteem. ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^.^ ^. g y 0U jq^, ase dede saynt Abraham. 

lob. and dauij. and uele ojre. Jet Je perils beulo3e : and 

deden hire "profit / of Je guodes Jet god ham leride : hi 

They serve God coujen begge heuene. hi coujen hire zemien uorbegge. 

and helpe hare nyxte. Hi cojen more louye god / and 

herye / and Jonki. worjssipie. drede. and yleue. uor 

They see their Je greate perils huer hi bye J / and ham zelue Je more 

and their defects, boi^e / huawne hi yzej hare fleblesse / and hire poure 

loue / and hare defautes. hua/zne Jane strayte way ne 

dorren guo. huaraie zuo lyte wyllej uor god Jolye / and 

They would rather yeue / Jet zuo moche Jolede / and let uor ham / yef hi 

'r r utrJoods e wel ham wytyej / ak st[r]ang hit is. Vor hit is wel li 3 ter 

w^tLuttLViov™ J^g : alie f e S U0( ^ es °f ]P G wordle lete / at on tyme uor 

of God. g 0C i : Jamie his ofhyealde / and na3t louye. . 

Of the less goods. Op J?E LESSE GUODES. 

The middle goods fa m idel guodes / byeb of kende : and of techinge. 

are of kind and of J ° ' J r ° 

teaching. Of kende : ase uayrhede of bodye. prouesse. strengje. 

Of kind are beauty , 

strength, &c. ; zuyfthede. -myldenesse. clyer wyt. sle3Je. owderstond- 
?earning, n good y n S e - an( i a ^ e zuyche guodes Jet kende berj. JBe tech- 
manners, &c. ^^ . age g Yg ^ clergye. ine alle ojre guodes : Jet me 
wynj be studye / ojer be guode wone / ase byej guode 
Jeawes / and zome u/rtues. Ac Jise ne bye J na3t yet 
These do not ari^t Je zoje guodes : uor hi ne makej na3t Jane / Jet 
good, hise hej uollyche guod. Yor manye filozofes / ojer of 

pheXcierks 1 , greate clierkes l / and of kynges / and of emperours / 
had g mu & ch of h such P et hedden moche of zuyche guodes : byej ydampned 
damned ^n hen * ne ne ^ e - Afterward / zuyche guodes yefj oure lhord 

1 MS. cherkes 


alsuo to his uyendes : ase he deb to his uryendes. to Out Lord giveth 

* such goods to His 

sarazyns / and to ualse cristene : ase to Je guode. enemies. 

Efterward / hit ne is na3t zoj guod / Jet faylej / and 

Jet me may lyese wylle he nolle he. and Jet Jieues ne 

mo^e stele, ne robbere benime. alneway ate ende : dyeaj 

his benymj. Efterward / zoje guodes helpej eche 

daye / and ne harmej nenre. Ac uorzoje zuyche True goods never 

guodes / and zuiche graces wy Joute : do]) ofte kuead / Mere outward* " 

and harme), ham / fet hise habbe), / bote hi hise ne ^iS/l™ 

wel usy. And hua/zne hi ham yelpeb / ober hi ham us to become 

•* <j l r i j proud and boast- 

prodej / and ojren hy onworjej. Yor Je ilke to huam fai. 

god he]? yyeue Je ilke graces / and Je ilke guodes / Jet if we do not use 

ich habbe beuore ynemned god uor to serui. and helpe 

his nixte. bote yef he hit ne vsy treueliche : he ssel 

by ine be more gratter torment, and straytlyche him we 8 baii receive 

J r ^ ° J J the greater tor- 

behouej rekeni. and yelde seele to god / ate daye of ment. 
dome. 1 of Jet he he J ydo. and of Jet he he J ywonne / 
of Je guodes Jet god him hep ylend : uor to mory. 

Of })E ZO]pE GUODES. Of the true goods. 

Nou ich pe habbe ssortliche yssewed / huyche bye]) 
pe lyttle 2 guodes / and J?e midel guodes: nou ich pe The true goods 

, make him good 

wylle ssewy huet ys pe zope guod ar^t : Jet make]) pan that hath them. 

Jet hise he]) : guod. and wyj-oute ham : non ne wes 

neure ari3t guod. ]3et guod me clepe]) : godes grace, and 

itt'rtue. and charite. Grace: uor ])et he yaf / helfe. and They are grace, 

. , . virtue, and cha- 

lyf. and zaule. uor wyf-oute Jise guodes : J?e zaule is rity. 

dyead. Vor ase bet body is dyead wyboute zaule: The soul is dead 

J r j j j i without the grace 

alzuo is pe zaule : wyjoute godes grace. Hy is ycleped of God. 
m'rtue : uor Jet hy worjssipej pe zaule myd guode she is called vir- 

, , TT , , ii-i/ tue, for she hon- 

workes / and mid guode Jewes. Hy is ycleped charite : ours the soul with 
uor Jet hy ioyhej pe zaule to god. uor charite ne is non |£° bailed 
ojer Jing : Jamie dyere onhede. Jet is Je ende / Jet is ^Sttowia 
Je perfeccion / and Je guodhedde / huer-to we ssolle ous t0 God - 
dra3e. Moche weren Je egypciens deceyued. Jet is to 
zigge / Je yealde filozofes Jet zuo byzylyche desputede / The old phiioso- »MS.fy«fo Pherssetthe 


greatest g^od in and zc^ten huet wes J?e he3este guod ine pise lyue. ne 

or i)i riches,' or in neure ne my3ten hit vynde. Yor zome hit zette ine loste 

BuTst Paul says of ulesse. pe ofre : ine rich esses, and opre / ine oneste 

charft^the ueen ^ ^ c J' 6 g reate n l° z °fe saynte pawel. pet wes ynome 

of virtues, is the in to be bridde heuene / and pasede alle be opre filo- 

greatest good. * * ' x * * 

zofes / ous prouep be uele skeles. pet pe he3este guod 
ine pise lyue : ys pe kuen of mrtues dame charite. Vor 
he zayp wyp-oute hire : non oper guod / ne is worp. 
and huo pet pis he]) : he hep alle pe opre. and huawne 
when ail other alle pe opre guodes faylep : pis ne falep najt. and 
faiietn not. aboue alle pe opre greate guodes pet bye]? : pys is pe 

Iheuedy. Jjawne is pis pet gratteste guod : pet is onder 

Of three manners Of ])RI MANERES OF GUODE. 

of good. 

And hueruore wylt pou J>et guod / pet is ycleped 
There are three vi^t mVtue more louie / and zeche aboue alle opren : 
^Honourable. J>is ich wylle yet eft / his worp ssewy. Me can todele 
s. potable. M manere guodes. guod / worpssiplich. guod / lostuol 
of the goods of and guod : uremuol. namnore ne is of guodes. ne zobe. 

the world. ° . 

None desire them ne ydele. bote pise pri maneres. and pet pou yzist open- 

unless they be /> i / / 

either honourable, liche. Of pe guodes of pe wordle / pet non ne wymep / 

pleasant, or pro- . _ _. , i • < t i • 

iitabie. ne louep nopmg / bote yef he wene : pet hit by hi??? 

eth e the°first S , e the worpssipuol / oper lostuol. oper uremuol. ])e proude : 

thlrTandThe zek p f in g worpssipuol. ])e couaytous : J)ing uremuol. 

^rtue^ombTne^' ^ e lostuo1 : J in g tykynde. And alle pet pise zechep 

the honourable, ydelliche : is ine mVtue / zobliche. Yor mVtue is ping 

the pleasant, and J ' * s 

the profitable. we l worpssipuol. lostuol. and uremuol. 

Of virtue. - ° F U/.BTUE. 

virtue is honour- J^et m'rtue is worpssipuol : pet my^t pou ysy ine 

s^things are J^ se manere - 2yx pinges byep ine pise wordle moche 

^TFoi^fa^ y w y lned / uor > et nit J> in gJ> )> et n y D y e J> moche worp- 

they are honour- ss ipuol. uayrhede. wyt. prouesse. my3te. vridom. and 


i. Beauty, 2. wit, noblesse. ))ise byep zix wellen of ydelnesse. j}a?me 

8. prowess, ... -, 

4. might, 5. free- ydele blisse is to moche. Vayrhede / is Jung mochel 

dom, 6. nobleness. 


yloued. nor pet is ping moche yworpssiped. And na3t 

uorpan uayrhede pet pe e^e of pe bodye jzj^p / and 

louejj. is ping uals / ssort, and ydel. Vals : yef he ne is Beauty appeals to 

uayr. ne pe ilke uayr. ac onre e^en byep fyeble / pet ne ieeje ' 

zyep bote pet skin wypoute. panne huo pet hedde pe Had we the eye of 

. . the Lynx, we 

zj^pe ase hep pe lynx / Jet me clepep operlaker : sh0 uid see each 

leucernere. petyzy$ppoT$ panewal alouer. ha ssoldeyzy funordung. aSaC 

openliche / pet non uayr body / ne is : bote a huyt 

zech uol of donge stynkinde. and ase a donghel be- 

snewed. Efterward bis uayrhede is ssort. uor zone hit Beauty soon fails 

and withers. 

faylep and ualouwep ase pet flour of pe uelde / anon ase 

pe zaule him todelp. al pe uayrhede pet / pet body hep : 

pe zaule hit yeaf. and uor pe zaule he hit hep. Jperuore He is a fool that 

he is fol / pet of uayrhede of bodie him gledep. Ac pe count e ofh^fa1r- 

uayrhede of pe zaule: is uayrhede a^t / pet alneway Belutyofthesoui 

wext and neure ne ssel fayly. ])et is pe zope uayrhede / j 1 * 5 ™* f ^ e M or ** 

hueruore pe zaule to god likep / and to pe angles pet the angels. 

yzep pe herte. J)is uayrhede yelt /and yefp / to pe Jt s^t" e™* to 

zaule : grace, and m'rtue. and loue of god. uor hy re- 

formep / and agraypep / and him yelt his ry3te pryente. 

pet is pe ymage of his sseppere / pet is uayr wyp-oute ^^d uf the 

co?/iparysoun. and pet best hi?/?, anlyknep : most is uayr. soul that hath P er- 

p&nne pet uayreste ping pet ys onder god : is pe zaule / shape. 

pet hep parfitliche his i^te sseppe / and his ri3te bri^t- 

nesse / colour of flour, bi^tnesse of zomie. sseppe of 

man. lykynge of preciouse stones. And al pet pe e^e of 

herte yzyp of uayr : is uoulhede and uelpe / to pe zy3pe Nothing in the 

, _ world may be 

of him. and al pet me may onder gode penche ol uayr : compared to it. 
hit ne may na3t by ycomparisoned to him. 

OF WYT / AND OF CLEREGYE. Of wit and of 


Cleregye and wyt / byep pinges moche yworpssiped. clergy and wit 

_ . t ',it i i are things much 

Ac yef pou wylt by wys ar^t. and he3e cleregye lyerny : honoured, 
make pet pou habbe pet zope godes guod. pet is / grace / ^'^^m'that 
and mVtue. uor bet is be zobe wysdom. bet alyst pe herte enUghteneth the 

r r T T ? * heart of man. 

of man. ase dep pe zo?me : pe wordle. ))is wyt pasep pe 




This wit passeth 
the wit of the 
world, which is 
but folly. 

Those who love 
the world 
think the moon to 
be the sun. 

They mistake a 
glass for a sap- 

They live like 
children that seek 
only their own 

In such folk is 
reason dead, 

[Fol. 24. b.] 

they are like a 
woman with child, 
who prefers a 
sour apple to a 
wheaten loaf. 

They cannot be- 
lieve that there is 
more bliss in serv- 
ing God than in 
serving their own 

Their wit is the 
devil's wit, 
that each day 
tempteth others 
to do wrong. 

The bliss of the 
world is idle, 

wyttes of pe wordle / ase dep pe zonne : pe brytnesse of 
pe mone. Yor yef wyt of pe wordle ne is bote folye 
ase zayp pe wrytinge / and childhede / and onwyt. folye 
ine ham : pet pe wordle louyep / and hire uayrhede / 
pet hi ne conne yknawe / pane day : uram pe ny^t. ne 
deme betuene grat / and smal. betuene precious / an 
vil. Hy wenep of pe mone : pet hit by pe zoraie. nor 
hi wenep of pe worpssipe of pe wordle : pet hyt by pe 
zope blisse. of ane epple : an hel. nor hi wenep by pe 
wordle : pet hit by wel grat ping, pet to pe zi^pe of pe 
heuene ne is bote an eppel. hy wenep of a gles : pet 
hit by a safir. nor hi wenep pet hare my^te / and hare 
strengpe : by wel grat. pet more is brekynde / and 
fyeble : panne gles. Efter pe chi[l]dhede / pet pe wyt of 
pe wordle / and po pet byep zno wyse to loky pet body / 
and to eysy / and to delyty / pet libbep ase children, 
pet ne zechep bote hare wyl to done. In znych nolk is 
skele dyad, and pernore / hi libbep ase bestes. nor hare 
wyt is al myswent / and corupt. ase pe zuel3 of pe zyke / 
oper of pe wyfman grat myd childe. pet more hi nynt 
smak in ane zonre epple : panne in ane hnetene lhone. 
and pet child in ane cole : panne in ane gnode mete. 
Alsuo znych nolk ne mo3e ylene / pet per by more 
blisse / and lost / ine god to serui / and to louie : panne 
to done pe wyl of hare loste. nor hi ne conne deme / 
betuene zuete / and byter. Efterward / pis wyt / is 
onwyt. ine pan pet byep zuo moche sotyl ine kuednesse 
to uynde / ine opren to gyly / and deceyui oper be playt / 
oper be strengpe / oper be barat. pet hy ne penchep / ne 
studiep / bote ham zelue to auonci : and opren to harmy. 
J)et wyt is pe dyeules wyt / ase zayp saint iacob / pet eche 
daye him uondep / opren to harmy. Ac pe zope wyt / 
pet pe holy gost tekp to godes uryendes / is ine knauynge 
wyp-oute wypnimynge / pet ech ping is worp. hit ssewep 
pet pe wordle is ydel : ine byinge. vyl : ine worp. biter : 


ine smac. bet be blisse of be wordle : is ydel. be its riches are vile, 

and its lusts are 

richesses : vil. pe lostes : bitere. bitter. 

Efterward he yefp to y-uele / pet pe loue of god / virtue is a true 
and ufrtue / is zop ping / and of pris. Zop : nor hi worth, an 
uoluelp pe herte / and norisset / and sostyenep. of 
pris : nor me may god /an al pet he hep : begge. 
Zuete : uor pet is pe maraie / pet alle pise pinges makep it rendereth sweet 

i , labour, sorrow, 

znete. znynch. zo^es. tyeares / and wepmges. ssames. tears, and weep- 

martires. and alle pinen. and al pet me may penche. pet lllgs ' 

is pe znete sncre / and of gnod ssmak. and pet is pe 

wyt / and pe wysdom / pet pe writinge clepep / worp- it is the wit and 

ssipuol wysdom / hnerof wext zope blisse ine inwyt. honourable. 6 

Efter uirtues / an charites : he yefp zope prouesse. [Zo\>e prouesse.] 

panne per nys prowesse ari3t : bote ine godes kny3tes / True prowess 

, , , . , . / exists only in God's 

pet pe holy gost hep y-dobbed / and y-armed / mid uw*tu / knights, 
and mid charite. Ine prouesse byep pri pinges todeld. in this prowess 

, , T are boldness, 

hardyesse. strengpe. an stedeuestnesse. jN on ne is ary^t strength, and 

prens : pet pise pri pinges ne hep. pet ne ys hardy / and Bteadfastness - 

zyker / to greate pinge ondernime. Strang / and niy^tuol / 

uor to U0I3V. zed / and stable : uor to uol^y. Ac wyp-oute 

wyt / and wyp-oute porueyonee : ne byep na3t worp non 

of pise pry pinges. Vor ase zayp pe boe of pe art of kny3t- i n quarrels an 

hod / ine opre quereles huanne me mysnymp hou pet rectified, 

hit by uounde myd ainendeme^t. Ac errour in batayle / mistake^iay^ot 

ne may na3t by amended, uor hi is anon awreke. be amended * 

Fole op-nymynge is huer lite profit lip. and moche [Fou opniminge.i 
cost, and of peril, and of payne. Zueche byep pe The world's 

prowess is peril- 

opnymynges / pet me clepep prous. and hardi / ine pise ous. 

wordle / pet body / and zaule brengep into zerme / and 

pe guodes also / and ine peril / and ine payne / uor a 

lyte lost to habbe : pet mochel is ydel / and litel ylest. 

Ac mVtue makeb man of greate herte / and of wyse virtu© makes a 

man bold in heart, 

opnymynge pa/me hi makep man pet ne is bote erpe / so that he aspire 

. p , /to the reign of 

zuo hardi / bet he dar opnyme : be regne ot heuene to 

1 * [Fol. 25. a.] 

wynne. and alle pe dyeulen / pet byep zuo stronge / to heaven. 
6 * 


ouercome. J?is opnimynge : is guod / and wys. huer 

per is lytel peril / and litel of pyne. and blisse. and 

He who is without worpssipe wyp-oute mesure. Huo bet ne hep mrtue : 

virtue hath no 

great courage, ne ne he]? grat herte / ase he)? ]?e ilke J?et he]? drede of 

for he dreads the . ^ , . 

adversities of the na^t. Zuyche bye]? }?o pet zuo moche drede]? ]?e kueades 
and J?e aduersetes of ]?e wordle. and pet habhe]? drede 
uor to lyese : pet hi ne mo3e na3t longe hyealde. ha ne]? 
na3t grat herte pet hit yefp uor na3t. ase dop po pet 
yeuep hare herten to louie pe guodes of fortune / pet 
ine zope : ne byep na3t / to pe zi3pe of pe zope guodes of 

He is as a child blisse. Jparaie zuych uolc byep ase is pet child / bet 

who likes amirror , 

better than a king- iouep more ane sseawere : pa^ne ane kingdom, an eppel : 
virtue maketh a lP^ niiQ a * his kende. Ac mVtue yefp grat herte ari^t. 
"" to SSS U0r Uirtue make J> wynne heuene : and onworpi pe 
world, wordle. grat berdone of penonce to here, and alle pe 

kueades of pe wordle onderbere. and gledliche polye. 

and uor god to leste / to alle pe asaylinges of pe dyeule 
so that he is no wydstonde. And ase zayp pe wyse seneke. JSTa^t ne 

more troubled by , _ _ ? 

adversity than nabbep more ot my3te aye m'rtues / kueade mysfalles / 

the sea is by drops -, / , _ 

of rain. a *ia zoi^es / ne al pet fortune may preapny /an do : 

virtue makes a more paraie per byep dropen of rayn ine be ze. Virtue 

man as hardy as / r 

a lion, strong as makep man hardi / ase lyoun. Strang / ase olyfont. 

an elephant, and , . ' 

steadfast as the stedeuest and lestmde / ase pe zonne / pet alneway 
yernp / and ne is neure wery. Jjawne per ne is prowesse : 
bote uirtue. 

Might. ' MY3TE. 

No true lordship Alsuo per ne is non zope lhordssip : bote ine uirtue. 

but in virtue. A ^ lhord he ^ . ^ t(y ^^ ^ ^ WQrdle serue p. 

Wannea ihord- Zu y cn Ihordssip / yefp man grace and mVtue. Vor hi 
8sip < ] zet man spirituellyche ine his ri3te stat / huerinne 

Man was made to ne wes uerst ymad. j)e man wes ymad ine zuyche 

rule over all crea- wor j ?ggipe y and ^ ^^^ Ihordssipe I pet he wes 

lhord of alle sseppes / pet were onder heuene. and to 
huam : alle pinges bo3en / and to huam noping ne 
my^te derye. and pet is pe ^te stat to man and to his 


lhordssip. Ac pis lhordssip he leas be zenne. ne he hit b »t &© lost this 

lordship by sin, 

n&$t ayen ne nn^te awynne : bote be mVtue. Ac mVtue virtue P u t* »u 

,,.,.. ,, , things again under 

arerep pane man an he3 : and him dep pe wordle onder- his foot, 
not / and him dep wende to henene. 

Virtue make]? fane man / more ari^t lhord of the virtue makes a 

J1 man more a lord 

wordle : panne by pe kyng / of his regne, Vor of pe than is the king by 

guodes of pe wordle / he he J? ase moche ase his herte " mgn * 

wylnep. J)er is his wone / and his sustinonce / and al 

pet he wyle habbe / more yno^ / paraie habbe pe kyng. 

uor al pet habbep pe guode / and pe kuede : al hit is 

his. Vor of zuo md'che make]) his prou / and of al hire it causes him to 

god / and ponkep. and more louep / and dredep / and enJ ° y l mgB ' 

seruep. ine pet he yri$p j and knaup / pet alle sseppes 

byep ymad him uor to serui. Efterward / he hep He is emperor of 

i , , himself, i.e., of 

anopre empire / uayr / an grat / wypoute pet non ne ys his body and 

ary3t lhord. uor he is emperour of him-zelue. pet is of 

his bodye : and of his herte. huiche he demp / and halt 

ine guode payse / huerof he dep his wyl. Vor his 

herte is zuo blipe to pe wylle of gode : pet al pet god His heart is ai- 

dep : al hit is him uayr. and perby hep he alneway : pe hisbodyisgovem- 

herte ine peyse. and pet body gouernep be pe wylle of %^ 

god / and al pet god dep to his bodye : he yelt ponkes / [Fol . 25. bj 

and hym payp. and pet is pe lhordssip / pet uirtue yefp He gives thanks 

to pan pet hit hep. Huerof specp senekes pet zayp # g ift 8 . 

Ase moche worpssipe / and grat empirete 1 of the kynge / 

by emperour of py-zelue. A god uele byep per kynges / There are many 

and of barouns ine pe wordle / pet habbep casteles / rors that have 

cites /and ngnes / J»t ne habbej, na 3 t Jris lhordssip. X'ha^S 

pet of hare herten : ne byep na$t lhordes. pet hyse lord8hi P- 

tormentep ofte. oper be yre / oper be euel wil. oper be 

couaytyse / oper be wylny[n"|gges. pet hy ne mo3e na3t 


VRIDOM. Freedom. 

Efterward / now ne hep uridom : bote he habbe 
grace / and mrtue. baraie yef pou wilt conne huet is There are three 

fo ' ' J r sorts of freedom, 

1 So in MS. 


uridom a^t. Ja??ne sselt Jou onderstonde J?et Je man 
1. of kind(nature), he J Jri maneres of uridom. Je one of kende. Je ojre of 
bliss. ' grace Je Jridde of blisse. 

1. Free-wiii to do fie uerste is uri-wyl / huer-by he may chyese / and 

good or evil. 

do / uryliche ojer J>et gnod ojer Jet kuead. Jerne 
This freedom uridom he halt of god zuo uriliche bet non ne may him 

comes from God, 

and the devil can- do wrang. ne alle Je dyeulen of helle ne mo^en maraies 

against his win. wyl strengji to do one zewne wyj-oute his wylle. Yor 

yef man. dede Jet kuead toyeans wylle : hit nere non 

zenne. Vor non ne zene3ej ine Jet he ne may na^t 

bevly. ase zayj saynt austyn. uridom habbej alle men. 

ac hit is ybounde ine children / and ine foles / and yne 

wytlease / Jet ne habbej nenne skele / huer-by hi 

coraie chyese : Jet guode uram Je kueade. Jerne 

Man loses his free- uridom Je man benymj him-zelue ine grat del. huarme 

neth deadly, he zene^ej dyadliche. uor him-zelue zelj : uor Jane lost 

of Je zeraie. and him-zelue "yelt to Je dyeule / and 

and becometh the becom J his Jrel to Je zenne. zuo Jjet he ne may hit 

devil s thraii. uorjrawe to his wylle / Jet he he]? ymad zyker : bote Je 

grace of god him helpe. 

2. Freedom of J^e ojer uridom is Je ilke / Jet habbej Je guodemen 
IhoTe have this in f ise wor[d]le / Jet god hej yvryd be grace / and be 
freedom who by U2 vtue / uram be breldome of be dyeule and of zeraie : 

grace and virtue ' T J i J 

are no longer |?et hi ne byeb brelles. ne to gold / ne to zeluer / ne to 

slaves of sin. Y J r r & / / 

hare caroyne. ne to Je guodes of fortune / Jet Je dyaj : 

ne may benime. Ac hy habbej hire herten zuo arered 

They care not a i ne g° d : ]p e ^ hi ne praysej Je wordle : bote ane botoun. 

w^Xtnd^read and ni ne drede > k y n S- ne erL ne non niisual. ne 
neither king nor pouerte. ne ssame. ne dyab. uor hi byeb half deade. and 

earl, nor life nor x ^ r J T 

deatn > habbej Je herten zuo todeld uram Je loue of Je wordle : 

Jet hi abidej and wylnej Jane dyaj / ase dej Je guode 

but desire death workman his ssepe. and be lezere his heruest. and bo 

as the reaper longs J J 

for harvest. Jet byej ine wo of ze : guod port, and Je prisons : hare 

deliureonse. and Je pylgrym : his contraye. and Jise 
bye J stedeuestliche uri / ase me may by ine- Jise wordle. 

They dread no- - r / -i i .-i 

thing but God. V or in ne leuej / ne dredej no Jmg bote god and bye J 


ine greate pays of herte. uor hy hys habbep yzet ine 
god and byep nye^ ine parad} r s be wylnynge. And pe 
ilke vrydom : com)? of grace : and of mrtue. 

Ac yet eft bis vridom : ne is bote breldom / to be 3 - The third free- 

dom is far greater 

zy3J>e / of pe pridde uridontfs. pet babbej) po Jet bye]? than the other 

nyej deliured / of bodye / and of al. and myd gode _ 
byej? / nou ine bis glorie. pise bye]? zoJ?liche vry. uor 

hy bye J? delyured of alle wo / of drede / of deabe / and Those who have 

J J r J I ' r ' this freedom are 

of zeraie. of wanhope. of gyle, and of be wordle. of delivered from ail 

woe, from dread 

zor^e. and of alle pyne of herte / and of bodye ; wyp- of death, from sin 

. „ . .. , . , . and sorrow, for 

oute comynge ayen. of huyclie J?mges / non ne is ury they are now in 
ine J?ise wordle : huet hi is y-do. e ory# 



Hvo pet ]?ano]?rene urydora huer-of ich habbe yspeke 
my3te habbe : to greate noblesse hit ssolde come. J)e True nobility 

cometh of the gen- 

zo]?e noblesse / com]? of ]?e gentyle herte. Vorzope tie heart, 
non herte ne is gentyl : bote he louie god. pawne per ne 

is non noblesse : bote to serni god an louye. ne vyleynye. The gentle heart 

. . . •/tit loves ***** an< * 

bote ine ]?e ccwtrarie }?et is god to wre]?i / and to do hates sin. 

ze/me. ISTon ne ys ari^t gentyl / ne noble / of ]?e No one hoideth 

gentilesse of pe bodye. Vor ase to pe bodye : alle we from the body ; 

byep children of one moder. pet is of erpe : and of wose. d „n ofon* 

huer-of we nome alle : uless and blod. of po zide : non ^{^andmudf 

ne is ariat gentil / ne vri. Ac oure mte uader / is Our right father 

70/ > 1 is King of heaven, 

kyng of heuene / pet made pet body of pe erpe. and 
ssop pe zaule to his anlycnisse an to his fourme. An 
al ase hit is of pe uader ulesslich pet mochel is blipe / 
huaraie Ids children him byep ylych. al-zuo hit is of 
oure uader gostlich / pet be wrytinges / an be his zondes / 
ne let na^t ous to somony / and bidde / pet we zette and He sent ms 

,,..,., -. . i J.-L* son Jesus Christ 

payne : to by him llich. and peruore he ous zente nis t0 bring us the 
blissede zone Ihesu crist in-to erpe / uor to brenge ous JJI^^are 
pe zope uorbisne / huer-by we byep yssape to his ymage / ^f**^ 
and to his uayrhede / ase byep po pet wonyep ine his ness. 


he3e cite of heuene. }?et bye]? pe angles / and pe 

lia^en of paradis / huer ech is pe more he-$ / and pe 

more noble / pe more propreliche pet lie berp pe ilke 

The holy man in uayre ymage. And peruore pe holy man ine pise 

this world endea- _, , , -i i • i , i -i i i • j i 

vourstoknowand wordle dep al his herte / and al his payne to knawe 
love God. g 0( ^ an( ^ i 0U j Gt ^nd f hi re herte : alle zeraie to 

The more the waynye. Vor pe more pet pe herte is clene / and pe 

heart is clean, -.. , ■, o nx • x i. 

the more openly uayrer : zuo moche he yzy3j> pe tace 01 Lesu enst pe 
je8U3. ththefaCe0f more openliche. and pe more pet he his yzy})? openliche : 
pe more he him louep pe stranglaker. pe more he him 
liknep propreliche. And pet is pe zope noblesse / pet 
makep ous godes zones. And peruore zayp ^t wel 
eaynd ion pe apostel. uor pawne we ssolle by godes 
children, and we ssolle by him ylich propreliche huarnie 
in paradise we ^re him ssolle yzy / ase he ys openliche. pet ssel by ine 

shall see God ,..,, , n -i • i l 

openly as He is. his blysse : huawne we ssolle by me paradys. uor nyer 
allnTgiaT Him ne z y]> non onw^e pe uayrhede of god / bote ase hit 
dimly. ^y - ne ane gsewere# ase za yp sainte pauel. Vor pa?me 

we him ssolle yzy face to face clyerlyche. 

True nobility be- ])Q zope noblesse pamie of man begynp hyer be 

fs1ompiSed e in nd grace / and be mVtue. and is uolueld ine blysse. j)ise 

bliss * noblesse makep pe holy gost ine herte pet he clenzep 

ine cle/messe / and aly3t ine zopnesse. and uoluelp ine 

charite. frise hjep pe pri greteste guodes : pet god yefp 

pe angles, ase zayp saint denys. huer-by hy byep yliche 

This nobility the to hare sseppere. And pus workep pe holy gost ine pe 

*hl®tetZT~ herten of S uode men be s mce / and be mVtue / huer " 
by hy bye]? ymad to pe ymage / and to pe anlycnesse of 

Heraisethmenup god / ase hit may by ine pise lyue. uor he his arerep zuo 
ine god / and his beclepp zuo ine his loue / pet al hare 

[Foi. 25. b.] wyl J and al hare onderstondinge is / pet is pet 

is hare bepenchinge pet is ywent ine god. pis loue and 

pis wylnynge / pet ioynep / and onep zuo pe herte to 

so that their win god - Jet he ne may ofer ping wylny : oper Jamie god 

te one with God's ^^ uor M ne fahhep betuene god and ham : bote on- 

lepi wyl. and panne to pe ymage / and to pe anliknesse 


of god. ase me may habbe in erje. and Jet is Je grat- 
teste noblesse / and J>e he3este gentilesse / Jet me may 
to hopye : and cliue. A. god / hou hy bye}) uer uram Far from God are 

, . _ those who are so 

pise b^nesse / Jo Jet make J) ham zuo quaynte of Je like pr0 ud of their no- 

ponre noblesse Jet hi babbej) of bare moder Je erje / ^J^ 811 from 

Jet berj and noryssej azewel Je hogges : ase by dej Je 7^ x n ^ iaheth 

kinges. and hy ham yelpej of hare gentylete / uor Jet kings. 

hy wenej by of gentile woze. and Je ilke ke^rede : hy 

conne ri3t wel telle. And Je ojre zyde hy ne lokej 

na3t / huer-of ham comj Je zoje noblesse / and Je 

gentil kenrede. Hy ssolden loki to hare zo Je uorbysne we should look to 

our true exemplar 

Thesn crist / Jet mest louede / and worssipede his Jesus Christ, 
moder: barme eure dede eny ober man. and alneway who has said that 

* J t «/ His mother and 

huaraie me hi?/i zede. ' sire : bi moder / and bi cosyn / Hia cousins are 

r I r J I those who do the 

Je aksej.' He ansnerede. 'huo ys my moder / and huo win of God. 
byej myne cosynes 1 huo Jet dej Je wyl of myne uader 
of heuene : he is my brojer / and my zoster / and my 
moder.' Yor Jis is Je noble zyde / and Je gentyl 
kende / Jer-of comj / and wext ine herte : zoje blisse / 
ase of Je ojren ydele noblesse : wext prede / and ydele 

GENTYL GUOD. Gentle blood. 

ISTou ich Je habbe al uolliche ysseawed Jet ich leue. There is nothing 
Jet Jer ne is non guod ary3t worjssipuol : bote mrtue / ur except virtue 
and charyte. Jet is uayr loue of god. })et Jer ne is non aml chanty - 
ojer guod profitable. )?is ous wytnessej saynte paul 
Jet zayj alsuo. ' Yef ich hedde zuo moehe wyt ine me / 
Jet ich couje alle clergyes. alle speches. and speke alse Learning, speech, 
wel ase my3te man / ojer angel, and ich couje godes ^rthieTs wTthout 
pn'uites / and his redes, and yef ich betoke my body to chanty - 
sla3e. and yeue al Jet ich habbe to Je poure. and dede 
by miracle Je helles lheape uram one stede / to anojre. 
bote-yef ich ne hedde Je ittVtue of charite : al hit nere 
me na3t worj.' Nou nim hede Jet zaynte paul Jet me if,asstPaui 
ssel wel yleue. ous he J hyer ynemned / Je meste gentile possessions profit- 


eth nothing with- guodes / pet man may do / and pet mest were y woned : 

to by worp. and profiti. Jpet bye]? [pe] porueyonces of 

bodye. and sla3pe to polye. helpe poure. to wende pane 

zenuolle. and connynge. an and [he] zayp pet alle 

pise guodes wyp-oute charite : ne bye]) na3t worp. and 

how shall less yef pise guodes ne hjep n^t worp : hou ssolde lesse 

goods avail? guodes by wovp ? J)is pi-zelfpe my3t yzy be skele pet 

hyer beuore me hep yzed. zuo moche is worp pe man : 

ase is worp his land. pet is ase zop / ase pater noster. 

who that most Huo pet wel onderstarct. hou / and huer-by / pe man is 

mott. 18 W ° rth worp / oper na3t / oper zomdel / oper more oper lesse / 

and pet ne is non drede / pet / pet ne by charite / and 

pe loue of god. Yor huo pet mest hep : mest is worp. 

and huo pet lest hep : lest is worp. huo pet na3[t] l ne 

hep : na3t ne is worp. Yor huo moche pe man het of 

timliche guodes / ase byep / gold / an zeluer. an richesses. 

oper guodes gostliche. oper kendeliche / ase byep / creft/ 

and queyntyse. wyt / and clergye. strengpe / and prou- 

How shall we say esse, and opre guodes. Hou ssel ich zygge pet hi dop 

who shall hereafter guod / parcne he ssel by pe more zoruollaker y damned / 

LtrL d ey hat ™r pet he his benotep na 3 t ari 3 t. of pe guodes pet god 

awdthe gifts of ^ m ^edde ylend uor to wiraie. Efterward yef he dep 

workes bodylyche / as dop pise zuynkeres / and pise 

Bodily works and gememen. Oper yef he dep workes gostliche. ase byep 

spiritual deeds _ -i , i ni 

are nothing with- uestmges. benes. ssrede pe poure. bere pe here, yel ne is 
an y. W yp-oute charite : zop uor to zigge : hit ne is him n^t 

worp. Yor peruore / pe more mede to-uore god him ne 
worp pe rapre / yef he sterf p wyp-oute charite : y-damned 
ha worp. Ac pe ilke pet hep wtue and charite guode / 
of al pet god him zent ine pise wordle / of al he dep his 
nyede. and of al he wynp ; grace of blysce. 

charity is good Charite is a guod chapfare /pet oueral wynp / and 

wherTwin^and 7 " none time ne lyest. alle pe guode paneworpes hy bayp. 

never loses. an £ ^ a ] newa y j^g n y e de. and na3t uorpan : hy hep 

alneway hire peny ayen / pet is pe loue of herte / pet is pe 
1 MS. na3 


godes peny / huer-mide me bay]) / alle pe guodes of pe The love of the 

wordle / and alneway ha blef p uor euremo / ine pe penny, wherewith 

purse. Loue he)) ine eche stede his zales. Charite the goods of the 
wynp in eche pinge. and playntes. and hy hej) pe 

maystrie : ine alle batayles. Hi dej) / pet asemoche charity is ever 

• . . i i j -i i uniform in her 

is worp to onenen ueste enne day : ase to anopren : al conduct# 

ane lenten. Hi dej? l / J?et ase moche is worp o peny to 

onen Jet ha yef )) : ase to anopren : an hondred pond. 

Zygge a pater noster : ase to anopren a sautyer. and Jet 

ne is uor non oJ?re skele : bote uor J>et / Jet zuo moche 

is worp pe man / zuo moche bye J) worj? his workes. Vor 

J)e more J>et he hep zope loue : pe more he wynp eche 

daye. Loue is be wy2te ine be balance [zayp] saynt Love is the weight 

. . to the balance. 

Michel, uor non oper ping ne may we3e : liuanne me 
com]? to nime ech his ssepe : bote loue and charite. and 
beruore ich zigge / bet ber ne is non guod profitable There is no profit- 

/ i • i i i/i able good but love 

aperteliche / and a r^t speke : bote uayr loue / and and chanty, 

Op tuo lostuolle guodes. oftwoiustmi 

(pleasing) goods. 

Ase god made man of body an of zaule : alzuo he 
him hep y-yeue tuo manere guodes lostuolle / uor his 
herte to him dra3e. ine huychen byep alle pe zope lostes. 
pe uerste guod wyp-oute : byep pe vif wyttes of pe J- The five wits 

(senses) ot the 

bodye. be zy3pe be hyerpe. / be smellinge. be zue^ynge. body 

and be takynge. Jpise uif wytes / byep ase uif condwys / are as five chan- 

. nels whereby the 

huerby pe lostuolle guodes of pe wordle guop m-to pe lustful goods enter 
herte uor to deliti / and uor ham zouke to pe zope lostes/ ii ght it. m 
pet byep ine god to louie. Vor al pe lost of pise wordle / 
pet habbep pe vif wyttes / ne byep bote a drope of deau/ The lasts cpiea- 
to pe zi3pe of pe welle. ac of pe greate ze / huer-of alle wor id are only a 
pise guodes comep. pe drope of pe deawe huaraie me his comparedwlth the 
zykp auer: anlyknep to ane stone, of pris. ac huanne ^XtiShE 
me wenp hine nime : he ualp agrund / and to na3te in & 8 - 
becomp. Alsuo pe playinges of pe wordle / and pe jtoi. 27. b.] 
1 MS. de3 



The lusts of the 
flesh are but as 
dreams that come 
and go. 

The wise men 
long for the love 
of God, 

the more they 
see the sweet 
drops, the more 
they desire to 
come to the well. 

lostes of pe vif wyttes huawne me hise pengp / and 
sseppep / and sseawep moche of pris : ac hua/me me hise 
halt : alle hi bye]? uorlore / and become)? na3t / and 
metinges. Jpench of pe lost of uernyere / and of metinge 
of ny^t / pou sselt ysy Jet hit is al on. an haste guop : 
and zone comep. ine none manere uelle ne may. and Jet 
ine one drope is zuo moche zuetnesse / pet hy ssel by pe 
zuetness of al pe welle. And peruore pe wyse and pe 
holy man l ine pise wordle / ine al pet hi zyep and 
smackep of pe guodes lostfolle of pise wordle : heryep 
god. and pe more wylnep pe loue of him. and pe more 
pet hy yzep pe zuete dropes : pe more hy wylnep to 
come to pe welle. And peruore pet hi wytep wel / pet 
pe more me louep pane drope : pe more me uor-yet pe 
welle. and pe more pet lykep pe zuetnesse of pe wordle : 
^Teetnmof 68 f e lesse me w J lne P I ]> e zuetnesse of god. peruore myd 
ontde S r ir d ' thele88 a ** e ^ e non( * en J> et n y mo 3 e / n * nemep and usep. pe 
sweetness of God. lostes ulessliche / and pe ple3es. pet be pe vif wyttes 

They are fools A. god hou hi byep foles / and more ba^ne a best. 

and worse than J ' r 

beasts who think pet wytep pet / bet body of man : is be meste poure 

the body tobe /r Y F 

greater than the makynge. and pe vileste pet is. and pe spirit of man : is 
pe zaule. and ys pe nobleste ping / an pe he3este sseppe 
pet may by. and na3t uorpan / hy mo3e wene / pet more 
byep zuete / and lostuoller / pe guodes pet comep by pe 
bodye : paraie po pet comep be pe goste. pet byep zope 
guodes / and clene / and lestynde / and mo3e pe herte 
velle and uoluelle. Zueche guodes yef p god to man 
ine pise wordle. huanne he yefp pays of herte. and pe 
maystne of his vyendes. and blisse of inwyt huanne he 
uoluelp pe herte of loue. and of blisse gostlych / and 
him adrengp of ane zuetnesse wonderuol. zuo pet he ne 
may him hyealde / ne him-zelue yuele. Of zuyche 
with the lusts of blisse / and of zuyche loste / no liknesse / ne non com- 

the world. . ' ' 

pansoun ne may by yuounde ine yoyes / and ine lostes 
of pe wordle /pet ne byep bote dropen to pe zi3pe of pe 

Spiritual gifts 
are the best, as 
peace of heart, 
victory over devils 
and joy of the 

Such bliss is not 
to be compared 


welle of zuetnesse. Jpet is Je welle huer-of oure lhord The true bliss is 

spekj ine his spelle. < Huo Jet ssel drinke ' he zayj / < of our E^SZfn 

Je wetere Jet ich wylle y[e]ue him : hi 1 ssel become a welle / the gospeL 

Jet him ssel do lheape / in-to Je lyue eurelestynde.' J)et 

is Je welle of blisse / and of zuetnesse. of loue / a[n]d 

of charite. J>et may uoluelle Je herte / and non ojer 

Jing Jet is. Of Jise welle hedde dauij y-nome / Jet 

zede ine his sautere. <0. god / hou is nou grat / Je of this well David 

mochelhede / of Jine zyuetnesse 3 pet Jou lokest to Jine &!$£* the 

seruinde / and yelst to fine uryendes.' And uorzoje huo whoso should 

Jet hedde wel ytasted and ysmacked Je ilke zuetnesse ^IhLTot 

pet god yef J to his urendes : he ssolde onworji alle pe g^ toHiB ' 

lostes / and alle pe blissen of Jise wordle. and wolde 

chise / and of healde pe gostliche blisse / and ssolde by would despise ail 

ase fe ilke / Jet bontej Jet mele / Jet to-delj Jet flour J^ ^ 

uram pe bren. and ase pe ilke Jet makej pe oyle / Jet world - 

nimj Je pure grece : and let Jet greate draf. Yor blisse CFo1 ' 28 ' a ' 3 

of herte Jet com J of god to louie Jet is zoje blisse and j oy of heart is 

ziker / ase zayj Je uorbisne. Jet non ne hej zikere wwST^'of 

blisse / bote yef hi come of loue. And in Je writyngge lovetoGod - 

ha clepej uile 2 / oure lhord by be 3 Je profete / Jet zayj. 

*Ich wylle' zayj he 'vile 2 of blisse uorwepinge. alle blisse/ 

clene / and zoje of herte / uor wop of penonce.' Of Jise with the oil of 

oyle bye J y-smered / Jo Jet god hej ymad kinges / and ^> an™ ° f 

lhordes of Je wordle /and god zelf. and Jarcne is Je man 8 C ^* ns are be " 

ziker cristen / huarcne he is ysmered my d Jise holy crayme. 

Yor of crayme : is yzed crist : and of crist : cristendom. 

And huo bet is ysmered mid bise oynement : bet is be The ointment is 

' r j r ^ the bliss and love 

blisse / and Je loue of god. he leuej ine god : and god of God, 

ine him. ase zayj saint Ion Je apostel. and Jet lif is of 

cristene Jet is ari3t to speke / lif of man. pet is guod 

lyf and yblyssed Jet cristene ssolle yleue / and wylny to The christian 

zeche : to habbe Jet lyf eurelestinde. uor he ne is na3t ]J e ™ ie g °° 

alyue : ac ine langour / Jet echo daye leuej ine bysyhede/ ^H^ 

ine bostes / ine zories. ne bet ne is naat lyf of man : ac live f h . in care8 > 

1 J ' ' * j <j anxieties, and sor- 

of child / Jet nou wep J / nou lhe$J / and nou is wel an TOW8 - 
1 he ? 3 Written for oyle 3 So in MS. 

94 man's soul is like a garden. 

Neither is it the eyse : and nou is euele aneyse. nou is wroj / nou is me 

life of man, but of . 

a child, who alter- payse. nou me blisse. nou me zor^e. 

nately laughs and ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ m . zeche j,^ he 

habbe / Jet zoje guod. and Jawne ssel lie habbe lyf 

worjssipuol lyf. lostuol. and profitable, and Jamie he 

whoso seeks true ssel libbe ase a man. Jet is to zigge : zikerlycbe. hollycbe. 

havfhTouttL wysliehe. and blisuoUiche wy J-oute zor 3 e. and to zuiche 

and proftubT' lyue me com]) : o Jer be grace / o Jer be mVtue. and na 3 t 


Of virtue more specialliche. 
we have now con. Nou ich Je habbe aboue yssewed generalliche Je 
SXSS dingnet^ / and Je worj / and Je guodnesse : of uirtu / 
and goodness of d f charit £ . and bueruore me ssel hise zeche. Yor 


which leads to joy, grat ureme ]>er com]? his nor to habbe. blisse. worjssipe / 
eveXtin^ 1 ^ 6 and lyf enrelestinde. Ac uor fan / Jet me ne knauj 
na$t zno wel Jet Jing ine general / ase me dej in 
special : Jeruore hyer ys myn ywy] to spekene of mVtue 
more openliche. zno Jet ech Jet wylle ine Jise boc 
studye : mo^e his lyf ordeyni be mrtue / and be guode 
it is not enough to d e des. ^ or ojerlaker litel hit him ssolde by worj to 

know what is . ,. ~ T 1.4. 

good, unless we conne Jet guod : bote me hit dede. Vor ase zayj saynt 
He'sTnnethwho iacob. He Jet can guod / and ne dej hit na$t : Jer is 

act^contrarytohis ^^ j ^ { ^ ^^ ^ he ^ ^ CQJi j,^ ^ 

way / and be his wytinde mysgej. 
The Holy Writ p Q holy writ comparisonej Je zaule and of Je guode 

compares the soul _ , 

of the good man mawne / an of Je guode wyfmaraie : to ane uayre 

or woman toafair ^^ ^ Qf grenhede / and f nayTe traweS / and of 

SSKS35 guodfrut. Huerof god zayj ine Je boc of lone. 'My 

good fruit. zogter J my i emman j,ou art a gardin besset / myd tuo 

ssetteles.' Jet is Je grace of god / and of angles. )3erne 

ShTe^elf" gardyn zette Je greate gardyner / Jet is god Je uader / 

!rther, er ' G ° dthe huaraie ne n^essej Je herte / and make J zuete / and 

tretable / ase wex ymered. and ase land guod 1 and 

agrayjed / and worji Jet hy by yzet mid guode ympen. 

whe C rHe 2 s 8 often- pe ilke ympen byej Je utVtues / Jet Je holy gost 

e th the heart. x yd$gud (digged) has been erased. 


be-deawej myd his grace. G odes zone bet is be zobe The branches are 

* * * the virtues bedew- 

zoime be Je uirtue of his clem esse : dej ham wexe an ed by the grace of 

he 3 / and piofite. the Holy Ghost. 


. needful to the 

Pyse Jri )>mges bye]? nyeduolle to alle Je Jinges Jet earth, 
in Je erje wexe]?. Guod molde. wocnesse norissynde. 2 ] Nourishing 
and renable hete. wydoute l Jise Jri Jinges gostliche / ne ™°^o nable 
mose be ympen of iwVtue / ne wexe / ne bere frut. bise ^ AAV 

' r ** x ' ' ' Without these 

Jinges / makej be grace of be holy gost mid herte. and tnin & B the Roughs 

' of virtue will not 

hi dej) al greny / and flouri. and bere frut. and hi bear fruit. 

make]? alsuo / alse a paradis erjlich to lykerous. uol of 

gnode traues / and of frut / and precious. Ac ase god 

zette paradys erjjlich uol of guode trawes / and of frut. As God set in 

and amydde zette a trau / Jet me clepej : Jet trau of of^ffamMst^ 6 

lyue. hueruore Jet his frut hedde nyede to loky Jet lyf / other g00d trees * 

to Jan Jet hit ssolde ete / wyjoute steruinge / and 

wyjoute zyknesse. and wyj-oute ealdinge. and wyj-oute 

fyeblesse. Alsuo dej gostliche to Je herte Je greate so God hath set 

gardyner. Jet is god Je uader. Yor he he J y-zet Je arnwTthe tne of 

trawes of u/rtue / and amydde Jet trau of lyue. Jet virtue8 ' 

is Iesu crist / Jet zayj ine his spelle. ' He Jet eth my that is Jesus 

uless / and dringj my blod : he he J lyf eurelestinde.' 

Jpis trau grenej and uayrej be his lurtue : alle Jo ine 

paradis. Be Je mrtue of Jise trawe wexe J / florissej / This tree causes 

j it.i?j. ni ix ti-j i others to flourish. 

and makeb irut : alle be obre trawes. Ine bise trawe al 

1 The tree is to be 

hit ys guod al Jet Jer is. J)is trau is to alowe / and to praised for its 

! . / , . TT . . t-t root, its wood, the 

louie / uor manye Jmges. Yor Je rote. Yor Jane flower, the smeii, 
wode. Yor Jet flour. Yor Jane smel. Yor Je leaues. ftUTnd'its'tair 


The root of the 

Yor Jet frut. And uor his uayre ssed. j)e rote of Jise 

trawe / bet is the wel greate loue / and to moche charite * re ^ is !*! e love of 

' r ° ' God, which 

of god be uader / hueruore he ous louede zuo moche / red eemed his 

i-i i i i i n i - i wicked thralls by 

Jet uor liis kueade Jrel to begge : he yaf his wel guode the blood of his 

zone, and him deliurede to Je dyaje / and to torment, onhis root speaks 

Of Jise rote spekj Je profete / and zayj. Jet 'a yerd ssel he\ay°s^Vod en 

guo out of Je rote of yesse.' Jet word is worj ase moche/ ^Sj^f.^ 
1 So in MS. 



The wood is the 
flesh of Christ. 
The pith was His 
holy soul. 

The rind was His 
fair conversation. 
The sap was His 
tears, sweat, water 
and blood. 

The leaves were 
His holy words, 
the flowers His 
holy thoughts, 
the fruit His 
twelve apostles. 

The boughs in one 
sense, are all the 

In another sense 
they are His vir- 
tues and examples, 
which he showed 
to His private 

[Fol. 29. a. 

when on the 
mount He opened 
His mouth and 
said :— 

" Blessed be the 
poor of spirit, 
for the kingdom 
of heaven is 
theirs, " &c, &c, 

These are the 
seven boughs of 
the tree of life. 

ase a becleppinge of loue. })et wode / Jet is his pre- 

ciouse uless. J)q herte of Jo traue : wes Je holy zaule / 

ine huam wes / Je preciouse yolk of Je wysdome of 

god. j)e rinde / wes Je uayre conuersacioim / wyjoute. 

Jpet zep : of Jo traue / and Je tyeres / weren uour wel 

preciouses Jinges / and of ri^t greate uirtue / Jet of his 

preciouse lemes yourne. Jet weren tyeares. zuot. weter. 

and blod. j)e lyeaues : weren Je holi wordes / Jet 

helden of alle zycnesses. J?e floures : weren Je holy 

Jo3tes / Jet alle weren uayre and oneste / and berinde 

frut. J)et frut / weren Je tuelf apostles / Jet al Je wordle 

uedde an norissede be hare techinge / and by hare 

uorbisne / mid hare guode dedes / and Je benefices. 

])e bo3es / of Jo traue / ine one wytte / byej alle Je 

ychosene Jet euere l were, and Jet byej. and Jet ssolle 

by. uor ase he zede to his apostles. c Ich am' he zede c Je 

vyne / and ye byej Je bo3es.' Ine anojre wyt : Je bo3es 

weren Je uayre u/rtues / and Je gloriouse uorbysnes / 

Jet he ssewede be dede / and to3te be mouje Jet weren 

Je mVtues uol-do and uolle of Je zoje guodnesse / Jet he 

ssewede to his priue urindes / Jet weren Je tuelf 

apostles / Jet he ledde in-to ane he3e helle. priuelyliche. 

J}er he zet ase zayj Jet godspel / and his deciples aboute 

him. Jamie he openede his mouj / and his trezor Jet he 

hedde ywre3e ine his herte. and haw Jus zeayde. 

Yblissed byej Je poure of goste / uor Je kyngdom of 

heuene is hyre. Yblissed byej Je mylde : uor hi ssolle 

by lhordes of Je erje. Yblissed byej Jo Jet hyer 

wepej / uor hi ssolle habbe Jet confort of god. 

Yblissed Jo Jet habbej honger and Jorst of ri^t. uor hi 

ssol by uolueld. Yblissed byej Je merciuolle / uor hi 

ssolle uynde merci. Yblessed byej Je clene of herte / 

uor hi ssole yzi god aperteliche. Yblissed byej Je 

paysyble / uor hi ssolle by ycleped godes zones. J^ise 

byej Je zeue bo3es of Je trawe of liue / of godes zone 

Iesu crist. 

1 MS. euerte 


Ine pe ssede of fise trawe / him ssel guod herte 
sseduy / and yzy pe ilke uayre bo3es Jet berejj Jet frut 
of Hue eurelestinde. Ine Jise zeue wordes is beloke alle in these seven 
he^nesse / and alle perfeeeiou of grace and of mVtue of ™hi$hne!£ an* 
zoj e blyssedhede. asemocbe ase me may habbe in Jise l^^tfZt 
wordle. and habbe and onderstonde : ine pe ojre. J?ise blissfulness - 
bye]) J?e zeue ruieles of holy lyf / Jet Je zoje Salomon These are the 
tekj to his children. j)is is Je zoje filozofie / Jet pe j?™ nrueso hoy 
mayster of angles tekj to his deciples. Ine Jise zeue in these seven 
wordes bye)) besset ase ziggej) Je ha^en / al Je summe th^sumof the 
of Je newe la 3 e / Jet is Je La 3 e of loue / and of zuet- ^ w ^i 
nesse. Hy is wel yzed newe : uor hi ne may naat ?ff * „ . 

J J J ' It is called new 

yealdy / ase dede be yealde laae to be yewes. hi is because it never 

J J ' r J 7 r J shall become old. 

zojliche newe / and desgised uram ojre la3es. La 3 e is 

yzed Jeruore Jet hy hare-zelue ne bynt. ake Je o])re 

byndej / and J)is onbynt. \>e o Jere charge]? : and Jis i n the old law we 

onchargej. Je ojre JreapneJ : and Jis behot. Ine Je £JKSS£; 

ojre to strif: ine Jise to pays. Ine Je ojre to uor- Jj^^^ 

zuerie : ine Jise to loue. Ine ojre corsynge : ine Jise and blessings. 

blissiwge. Jarcne is Jys / al uol of blissinge. and Jeruore 

hi byej yblyssed Jo Jet hyse healdej zayj> Salomon. 

Yor Je ilke Jet his he]? : he he]) ywonne J)et trau of 

Hue. Hueruore bise zeue binges touore yzed byeb These seven 

r r ° J J r things makea 

ycleped blyssinges. uor hy make}) man yblyssed ine man blessed in 

. this life, and more 

J)ise wordle ase man may by me Jise lyue : and more blessed in the 
yblyssed ine J)e o])re. 

Nou hest ])ou yherd huo is Jet trau of lyue / pet is 
amydde paradis / Jet god zet ine pe holy zaule. Ine pe 
ssede of ])ise trawe / wexej / and profitej / and berej 
frut. pe traw of mVtue Jet god pe uader / ]?et is pe God watereth the 

, i / i. • t j /j-l* x r. tree of virtue from 

greate gardyner / zet me pe gardyne / and his weterej? theweiiofms 
of pe welle of his g?-ace / Jet his de]) greny / and wexe / grace - 
and profiti. An hise halt ine grenehede / and ine lyue. ™ 8 j ^ eU i8 

r ° ' divided into seven 

be ilke welle hym todelb ine zeue streames. bet byeb be streams, 

r J r J which are the 

zeue yeffes of Je holy gost / Jet weterej) al fane gardin. seven gifts of the 

Nouloke pe greate cortaysie of oure zuete maystre Iesu Behold the great 



courtesy of God crist godes zone / pet com to pe wordle to zeche / an to 
Son! souy / pet / Jet wes uorlore. Vor pet he wyste wel 

ne^and^bmty oure pouerte / and oure fyeblesse. and uor oure zeraies / 

to forsake sin and we yjH^ J^ c ^g ous we ne m0 i e na: >t ar j se / ne come 
to come to grace. ■> ? ' 

[Foi 29 b ] ayen. ne out of zewne guo. ne uirtue to zeche / ne come 

to pe blissede lyue / pet is of his grace and of his yefpe 

Therefore He pro- ne comp. j)eruore he na3t ne let ous uor to somoni / 

S we would but ^ t e ^ we n 3 an bydde and bezeche his yefpes. And moche 

ask for them. oug ^q}^ . j^ e t yef we hym bezechip ping pet ous is 

guod : pet we hit ssolle habbe. And more he ous dep 

Christ is our of cortaysye. Vor he is oure playtere / pet ous makep 

makes r inTerces- oure bezechinge : pet we ne coupe na3t maky / yef he 

swnforus. ner( ^ p Q bezechinge pet he ous made of his uayre 

He gave us the yblessede moupe : uayre. guode. ssorte. an cleuiynde : 

wherein are seven J^ wes P e ^ V^ er noster. huerinne byep zeue bezech- 

fotthe n seven gifts in & es / be nmcnen we bezechep oure guode uader of 

of the Holy heuene / pet he ous yeue pe zeue yefpes of pe holi gost / 

pet hi ous delyuri of pe zeue dyadliche zennes / and 

hise screpe of al of oure herten. and ine hare stede : 

zette and uorpdra3e / pe zeue mrtues / pet ous lede to 

pe zeue blissinges of perfeccion / and of holy lyf. huerby 

we mo^e habbe pe zeuen behestes pet he makep to 

firstVeakofthese nis y cn °sene. Huerof oure onderstondinge is myd pe 

TfTwrrdfonhe ho1 ^ gostes helpe. Verst speke of pe zeue benes of pe 

seven virtues that p a t er noster. Efterward : of pe zeue mVtues bet bveb 

are against the ■• j <J r 

seven deadly sins, ayens pe zeue dyadliche zeraies / huer-of we habbeb 

The seven peti- ' r 

tions are as seven aboue yspeke. j)e zeue benes byep / ase zeue uayre 

maidens who are , , . 

ever lading water may denes / pet ne letep na3t uor to lhade of pe zeue 
trelsVmt bear the streames pe qutkke weteres uor to wetery pe zeue trawes 
i f Smg. life ever " J> et bere )> J> et fm yt of liue eurelestinde. 


Pater Noster. 

The Pater Noster Huanne me zet a child to lettre. ate begynnynge 

is the first thing , . , , . 

we teach a child. me nim tekp his pater noster. Huo pet of pise clergye 
ittfwTwouidbe ^y* 6 conne : become milde ase a child, uor to zuyche 

mild as children. scolers ^ Qme guode mayster j esu cr j st / J, ise 


clergie / Jet is Je uayreste / and mest behofsam Jet 

is. huo Jet wel hit onderstant and of-halt. Vor zuyche The mere letter of 

wenej hit wel conne and onderstonde : Jet neuerte ne rind?™ 7 ** ™ 

couje bote Je rynde wyjoute / Jet is Je lettre / Jet is 

guod. Ac litel is worj to Je zy3je of Je newen Jet is 

wyjinne zuo zuete. Hit ys wel ssort ine wordes : and This prayer is 

wel lang ine wytte. L^t to zigge / an sotil to onder- andionginwit, 

stonde. J>is bene / pasej alle ojre / ine Jri Jinges. ine KK^. 

dignete / in ssorthede. an ine guodnesse, J)e dignete 8tand - 

is / ine Jan Jet godes sone hit made. To god pe nader 

ine worde. God Je holy gost / Jet is Jet me acsej. 

He wolde Jet hit were ssort / nor Jet non ne ssolde God willed it be 

him werye : hit uor to lyerny. An uor Jan Jet non ne Sraid^eSied 

ssolde him tyeny hit uor to zigge gledliche / an ofte. in learniu s lt - 

And uor to ssewy / Jet god Jc uader ous yhyerj wel 

zone : huanne we him biddej mid guode herte. uor he God does not care 

ne hej none hede of longe ryote of tales y-slyked / ne S^wo^ 

y-rymed. Vor ase zayj sant gregorye. Zojliche bidde / 

ne is na3t to zygge uayre wordes / and y-slyked myd p ra yer does not 

mouje : ake keste playntes and dyepe zykynges of w"rdf bu/of 

herte. be worb / and be profit of bise bene : is zuo P« titio t n s a,ld 

J * ' r * r deep sig-hmgs ot 

grat j Jet he beloukj ine ssorte wordes / al Jet me may the heart - 
wylny of herte. An to bydde wel to done. Jet is Jet [Foi. so. a.] 
me by delyured of alle kueade : and uolueld of alle 

HYER BEGIN j) j)ET TATEB NOSTl?/*. Here begins the 

Pater Noster. 

J)us beginj Jet pater noster. * Vader oure / Jet art our Father that 
ine heuene.' Loke hou oure guode spekeman / and oure Behold how our 
zuete mayster Iesu crist / Jet is Je wysdom of god Je Jesusl?nriTt^ an, 
uader / and kan alle la^es / and Je wones of his cort Je pi^dfwiBeiy, 
tekj wel to playty / and wyslyche / and sotilliche / an S^*"" 1 ' 
ssortliche to speke. Vorzobe bis uerste word bet bou The sweet name 

* ' * t of Father giveth 

zayst / yef hit is wel onderstonde / and yuo^ed / hit us hope to re- 

, X7 - it ceive all our pe- 

Je ssel yeue al Jme playnte. Vor saynt bernard Jus titions. 
zayj. J)et Je bene Jet begynj be Je zuete name of Je 


uader. yef J ons hope to ondemonge alle oure byddynges. 

)}is zuete word / uader / Jet al Je remenont make)? 

zuete / Je sseawej Jet Jou sselt yleue. and Je somonej 

to Jan Jet Jou sselt do. and Jise tuo Jinges sonej man : 

huaraie he ylefj wel / and a-ri3t. an he dej efterward / 

when thou caiiest Jet he ssel. Huaraie Jou him clepest uader / Jou 

thou acknowSdg- beknaust Jet he is lhord of house. Jet is of heuene / 

Lord h ofthe i3 and of erje. and heaued / and ginnynge / and welle / 

house. huerof alle ssepjes / and alle guod come J. and Jus Je 

And since He is beknaust his nu^te. Efterward / zej Je Jet he ys uader / 

fhtproVidlrfo? he is di3tere / and gouernour / and porueyour / to his 

and governor of mayne \ an nameliche of his children / Jet is of man / 

His children, 1. e. J ' * ' 

of man, j,^ hi m _ ze lf he J y-mad and yssape / to his anlik- 

and loves those nesse. and Jus Jou beknaust his wysdom. Alast Janne 

mad™ He hath f et he is Uader be kende / and ^ e ri 3 te / ne loVLe 1> $ Gt he 

He rewards them hej ymad / ase zayj Je boc of wysdome. and is zuete 

Indchasteneth and milde. and zuo louej / and dra3j uorj his children. 

mSdo Whenthey and nam de ) J nare P rou - and betere Jaraie hi conne 

deuisi. and he his by at / and his chaste J huaraie hi 

misdoj uor hare prou ase guod uader / and blejeliche 

he his onderua[n]gJ / huaraie hi comej to hym. 

The word Father Non icn )> e sseawy Jaraie Jis word Jet Jou zayst : 

not only reminds ua( j er# hj s m ut e . his wysdom. his guodnesse. He be 

thee of God's ? j o x 

might, wisdom, bebengb of ober half be zelue. bine noblesse, bine 

and goodness, T or i s 

but of thy noble- uayrhede. Jine richesse. More gratter noblesse ne may 

ness, fairness, and 

riches. ich habbe : Jaraie to by zone to ane zuo greate emperur 

could ^one have Jet is god. More gratter richesse ne may by : Jaraie to 

!o a gre b at S anem- *>y k J n g of alle f in g- More S ratter ™yrhede ne may 
peror,thatis, God. ^y . j amie to by him ari3t ylich. Huych uayrhede is 

zuo grat : Jet hit pasej Jo3t of man / and of angle. 

Let the word jaraie Jis word / uader / Je bejengj Jet Jou art zone. 

ttoof thy duty ™r Jet Jou Je paynest him uor to by ylych. ase guod 

ward g s°a d g S ood t0 " Z° ne SSel h Y J lich his g U ° de Uader ' )> et is to Z W : > et 

father. ^ QU ^y ^^ j an( j f g m t wyl / and Strang / and mijtuol 

wel to done, and Jet Jou by wys / and y-wer / large / 
and cortoys / zuete / and milde clene and wyjoute 


uileynye / ase he is. and bet bou hatye zemie / and see that thou 

J J ' r r J I hate sin as God 

uoulhedes / and kueadhedes ase he dej. zuo Jet Jou doeB, 

na$t ne do aye kende. Jpis void Jamie Je dej bejenche / 

at alle Je times Jet~Jou zayst Jet pater noster : Jet yef [ ° * 

Jou art ari^t zone : Jou sselt Idm anlykny be kende. be 

heste. and be ri3te. and Jou him sselt loue. worjssipe. 

and reuerence. drede. seruice. and bo^samnesse. Nou and so act as a 

Jench Jarane hua/zne Jou zayst Ji pater noster / Jet Jou f^ son and 

by him & guod zone and trewe / yef bou wylt bet he be ever thinking 

17 ° I J r J r r whose son thou 

by guod uader. an milde. ' Jench huas zone bou art' : me art. 

Now thou seest 

zayj to Je newe kny^te huawne he gej into Je tome- how sweet is this 
merit. Nou Jou yzyxt wel hou Jis uerste word is zuete. how it admonishes 
and hou hit Je amonestej Jet Jjou by bold and of an^ofagood 
guode wylle. and hit Je tekj huych Jou sselt by. Wl11, 

jSTou ieh Je acxy hueruore Jou zayst ' uader oure.' why we say 
and na3t ' uader myn' ? and Jet Jou him uek^est mid Je / and not « Fa ' ther 
huaraie Jou zayst : 'yef ous' / and ne zayst ns^t 'yef me.' mine ' 

Ich wile Je zigge yef J>ou wylt. Non ne ssel zigge / 
uader min. bote Je ilke Jet ys his zone be kende wyj- 
oute gynnynge / wyjoute ende / Je zoje godes zone. 
Ac we ne byej na3t his zones be kende / bote ase- We are not God's 

sons by nature, 

moche Jet we bye J ymad to his anliknesse. ae alsuo but by adoption. 

byej Je sarasyns. ac we byej his zones be grace and by 

adopcion. Adopcioun zuo is a word of k^e. uor by Je Adoption is a term 

la3es of Je emperurs / huaraie an hej man ne hej no 

child : ha may chiese Jet child of a guod man yef he 

wyle and maki hi??i his zone be adopcioun. Jet is be 

auoerie. zuo Jet he ssel bi yhealde uor his zone auoud / 

and ssel bere his eritage. bise grace god ous made be God adopted us 

° * ° ° r without any de- 

uader wy Joute oure ofseruinge. ase zayj saynt pauel. serving on our 


Hua?me he ous dede come to Je cmtenedome we were Before we were 
poure and naked / and child of yre / and of helle. po0 r, naked, and 
Jaraie huawne we zigge J 'vader oure.' and we zigge J / 
' yef ous.' we gaderej alle oure brojren mid ous of adop- 
cion / Jet byej children of holy cherche. be Je byleaue 
Jet hi onderuiwge ine cnstnynge. 

102 what "our" teaches us. 

God giveth not Nou ous sseweb / huer-of bis word / oure. [of] J?e lar- 

only to one, but to 

many. gesse / and J?e cortaysye / god oure uader. ]?et ous yet J? 

more blepeliche / yno^ / J?araie lyte and to uelen : 
fanne to onen allone. Huer-of saynt gregorie zay]?. 

The candle that is < \>q bene / be more bet hi is eommun : be more hy is 

set in the hall full r ' r r T 

of people, wor]?. ase J?e candele is betere bezet J?et seruej? to ane 

set apart for the halle and uol of uolk : J?a^ne zy Jet ne serue]? / bote to 

only! oneman onlepy mawne.' pis word hat ous to yelde Jjonkes myd 

al oure herten. of Jrise grace ]?et he ous he]? ydo / huer- 

by we bye]? his children / and his eyrs. and ]?et moche 

ardontliche louye oure ealde broker Iesu crist / ]?et ous 

uela3ej? wyj> him ine his grace. 

This word Father J?is word ous amoneste]? pet we loki ine oure herte 

S^doptimfisa holylyche ]?ane holy gost ]?et is oure wytnesse. J?is 

pledge adopcaon is ase weddes / ase zay]? saynte paul / huer- 

that we shall be by we by]? zikere / ]?et we ssolle habbe ]?e eritage of oure 

tage.° ° Ur en " uader. pet is ]?e blysse of paradys. pis word ous tekj? 

it teacheth also and zayj? ]?et we bye]? alle bropren / grat / and smal / 

that we are all i-i/i-i/r* r 

brethren, great poure and riche. he3 / and I03 / of one uader / and 01 

and poor, high one moder. ]?et is of god / and of holy cherche. and 

non ne ssel o]?ren onworpi : ac louie ase broper. and ]?e 

and that we on ssel helpe paraie o]?re : ase do]? J?e lemes of pe zelue 

should help and -• -i -i • i -i • ^ x i 

pray for one an- bodye. and ech bidde uor o]?ren ase zay]? samt Locob. 

other, as do the . , , . . . -. , -r T -i , 

limbs of the same And zuo hit is oure urenie wel grat. Vor nuaraie J?ou 
body> zest fine bene ine J?e uela3rede of al holy cherche : uor 

on paternoster pet ]?ou zayst / J?o wynst mo pawne an 

hondred pousond. 

it teaches us to J^is word / oure. ous tekb to hatye ]?ri ]?ing name- 

hate three things, . _ 

pride, wrath, and liche. Prede. wre]?e. and auarice. Prede : de]? man out 


of uela3rede. uor he wyle by aboue alle oJ?ren. Wrepe : 

de]? man out of uek^rede. uor huaraie he werrej? wyj? 

enne : he werre]? wy]? alle J?e o]?re. Auarice : de]? man 

which bring men out of uekwrede. vor hi nele ne him / ne his ]?inges / 

out of fellowship. 

communy mid oJ?ren. And ]?eruore zuych uolk ne hab- 
Theword "our" ^eb part / ine be holy pater noster. bis word / ' oure ' : 

shows that God is r r ' Y J r put 

ours ous ssewej? J?et god is oure : yef we wyllep. and pe 



uader. and be zone, and be holy gost. bet is yef we if we keep His 

. t -II . commandments. 

lokep his hestes. and zuo zayp ine pe godsspelle saint 

' Vader oure / bet art ine heuene.' Hua/&ne ich zigge / "That art in hea- 

. ven." 

' Jet pou art me heuene : ich zigge tuo ping, pet he is Here we assert 

kyng / and pet he is at paradis. Alsuo huarane ich an d that H*isTif' 

zigge / 'pet art / ine heuene ': ich zigge pet he is / and 

Jet he is ine heuene. Me vinfc ywryte ine pe opre boc 

of pe la3e. bet god him ssewede to Moyses ine ane when God a P - 

. . peared to Moses 

helle / and him zede. guo m-to egipte / and zay to pe He made known 

kynge faraon of mine half / pet he pe delyuri mi uolk « i am." 

pe children of y[s]rael / of J>e preldome / huerine he hise 

halt. 'lhord ' / zayde moyses. 'yef me aksep huet is pi 

name, huet ssel ich zigge V ' Ich am / pet am.' zayde 

god. Nou ziggep pe hal^en / and pe guode clerkes. 

bet amang alle be heie names of oure lhorde : bis is be Tn i 8 ih the first 

r o r ? * * and the most 

uerste / and pe mest propre. and pet mest ari^t ous proper name of 

tekp uor to knawe / pet / pet god is. Yor alle pe opre 

names huer hi spekep of his guodnesse. and of his othemamesspeak 

. , . , / , of His goodness, 

wysdome. oper^ of his irn^te. oper he is zuich / and wisdom, &c. t 

zuich. he is pe ri3t guod. pe ri^t trewe. pe ri3t wys. pe 

Ti^t mi3ti. and uele opre manures of speches pet me 

zayp of him. pet ne ziggep propreliche pe zope of pe ^n^Msertthe 

byinge of god. Ac we pet byep greate / an boystoyse existence of Go d. 

to spekene of zuo b^e pinge / speke we of god / zuo / w * «peakofGod 

ase we conne deuisi ane man / of huam me ne kan na3t of men, 

his name / ase me zayp. he is kyng. he is erl. he is zuo 

grat. zuo uayr. zuo large, and uele of zuyche pmges / 

huer-by me may ywyte hou pet hit by pe man knawe. 

Ac ne ziggep na3t ari3t his name / ase we spekep of 

god : uele we uindep of wordes / pet ous ssewep huet 

bet hit bi of him. Ac per ne is non zuo p?*opre ase pis bu * th ere is no 

* * m word so proper 

word / ' bet art.' bet zuo propreliche. zuo ssortliche. zuo as these words, 

«. ^ / / • "pet art." 

cleuiyndelyche. zuo sotilliche / pe names nemnep / me 
zuo moche / ase onderstondinge him may strechche. 
Yor god is ase pe ilke / pet one is / ase zayp saint lob. 



God alone is, for 
He is everlasting, 
without begin- 
ning and without 

He is true and 
truth above all 

[Fol. 31. b.] 

He alone is firm, 
and fast, and un- 

without end, with- 
out beginning, 
" without was, 
without shall be" 

There is nothing 
that one may bet- 
ter believe than 
that God is. 
Note \>is wel 
We cannot know 
what God is, 

and it is enough 
for us to say 
" Dear Father, 
that art in hea- 

He is the oldest, 
the most known, 
the most beloved, 
and the most hon- 

The word 
"Father "bids us 
worship God ; the 
" our," to love 
God; "is," to 
dread God ; 

He one is / ari3t to spekene. uor he one is / eureles- 
tinde / wy]?oute beginnynge. and wyjj-oute ende. J?et me 
ne may zigge : of non ofre Jing. Efterward he one is 
zofliche. uor he is zo]T/ and zojmesse aboue alle Jnnges 
yssape. and zuo bye]? alle sseppes ydele and ydelenesse. 
And ase zay)? Salomofn] and na^t to pe zy^pe ofdiim. and 
to na3te ssolden come : bote-yef he his ne sostyenede 
be his uirtviQ. Ate laste he one is zetnesse an uestnesse 
ine onelepi poynte wyjj-oute him to trobli / wyJ?-oute 
him to chongi / wyJ?-oute him remue ine none manere. 
ase zay]> saynt Iacob. Alle o]?re jjinges bye]) chonginde / 
ine eche manere of hare kende. J^a^ne is he propre- 
liehe yclieped l : Jet art. Yor he is zofliche wyp-oute 
ydelnesse / zetnesse / wipoute enye chonge eure to 
yleste : wyp-oute ende. wy]>-out heaued. wyj-oute wes. 
wyj-oute / ssel by. uor pei ne is no gelt. 

Nou ]>ou sselt onderstonde zuo pet ]?er ne is na3t 
pet me mo^e betere ywyte / paraie pet : Jet god is. Ac 
per ne is no-ping zuo Strang to conne / ase huet / and 
huet ping is god. )?er-uore ich pe red% wel / pet pou 
ne musy na^t to moche / hit uor to zeche. uor. pou 
my3test ly3thche guo out of pe ri^te waye. Hit is yno3 
uor pe J pet pou zigge : 'lyeueuader pet art ine heuene.' 
Zop hit is pet he is oueral yhered. ine erpe. ine ze. ine 
helle. ase he is ine heuene. Ac me zayp he is ine 
heuene / uor pet he is pe eldeste / and pe meste yknawe / 
and pe meste beloued / and pe meste yworpssiped. 
Efterward he is ine heuene gostliehe / pet is ine holy 
bodyes pet bye]? he3e. clyre. and clene. ase is pe 
heuene. uor ine zuyche herten : he ys aid. and yknawe. 
and ydred. and yworpssiped and yloued. 

Nou hest pou yherd pise uour wordes. Pater iioster 

qui es in celis. })et uerste pe somonep / to worpssipie 

god. J?et oper : to louie god. pe pridde : to drede god. 

Vor J?a3 he by uader oure : alneway he ys bezide / and 

1 MS. has ycheped 


na3t chonginde. j)e uerpe pe to strengpi. uor asemoche "heaven," toem- 

. i/i i i>, ,, u , bolden and en- 

ase he is zuo he3 / and pou zuo 103. yet pou ne art bald / C0U rage us. 

and of guode wylle : pou ne sselt na3t come / huer he 

woneb. bet uerste word ous sseweb be langnesse of his The ist showeth 

T . . , us God; the 2nd, 

eurebleuinge. pet oper : pe brede of his charite. pe the breadth of 11 is 
pridde : pe dyepnesse of his zofhede. pe uerpe : pe the deepness of ' 
he3nesse of his mageste. Huo pet hep wel pise uour 4th 8 f the highness 
pinges zopliche wypoute drede he ssel by yblyssed. of ms majesty. 



Nbu hest pou yherd pe uorespeche of pe holy pater 
noster. pet is ase ane inguoinge of pe vipele. ey god / The P ref{lce of the 
huo bet coupe wel al bane zang : hou he ssolde vinde as the beginning 

__ . . . _ , of the fiddle. 

uayre notes. Vor hit ne is no drede pet ine pe zonge / 
pet pe wysdom of god made / pe ilke pet tekp pe uo3eles 
zynge : ne hep uele notes sotiles / and zuete / pa3 per 
by lyte lettre. Ine pise zonge byeb zeue notes, bet In thi8 son s are 

7 seven notes, that 

bye]? pe zeue benes. pet porchacep pe zeue yefpes of are the seven P e- 
pe holy gost. pet strepep pe zeuen haved zercnes of pe the seven gifts of 
herte. and hi zettep / and norissep pe zeuen m'rtues. be ° y " 10St ' 

huychin me comp to pe zeue blissinges. Of pise zeue 
benes / pe pri uerste : makep man holy / aze moche ase The three first 

, , „ _ make men holy, 

man may by me pise wordle. pe uour efterward him the other four 
makep stedeuestlyche : ri3tuol. Al pe holynesse of man / fast i v righteous. 
pet is ymad to pe ymage of pe tr/nite / pet is be pri [ po1 - 32 - a -J 
pinges pet byep ine pe zaule. bepenehinge. onderstond- 
ynge. and wyl. ine pet pet pe zaule bi stedeuestliche The three things 

. .. .. tit that are in the 

yclenzed me pe wylle. stedeuestliche al^t me pe onder- soul are thought, 
stondinge. stedeuestliche yuestned in god. mid god ine andwnf" lng ' 
pe bepenehinge. and pe more pe zaule onderuangp a nd the ™°™ the 
plenteliche pise pri 3efpes of god : and hy more p7*opre- plentifully these 
liche ne3le[c]p / to his ri3te uayrhede of his kende. pet is 
to pe anlicnesse of pe uader / and of pe zone / and of pe 
holy gost. pet is huanne god pe uader him ccwfermep 
his bepenehinge. god pe zone hbn aly3t his onde[r]- 



the more is man 
in the likeness of 
the Trinity. 

" Hallowed be thy 

By these words 
we show that our 
principal desire is 
to have God's 
name hallowed 
and confirmed in 

In this 1st peti- 
tion we ask for 
the gift of wis- 

which enables us 
to taste the sweet- 
ness of God. 

The word " holy " 
signifies clean ; it 
is as much as to 
say that we are 
dipt in blood and 

Wisdom hallow- 
eth the heart of 
man in five ways : 
By 1. purification. 

2. Cleansing. 

3. Hallowing. 

4. Dipping in 

stondinge. god pe holy gost hep ycletised his wyl. pise 
pri pinges we bezechep ine pe pri uerste benes of pe 
pater noster. 

Huaraie we ziggep / sanctifieetxa nomen tuum. we 
ssewep to oure guode uader corteysliche oure principal 
desyr pet we ssolle eure habbe. pet is pet his name by 
yhal^ed and ycewfermed ine ous. pawne hua^ne we 
ziggep / sanetificetvx nomen tuum : pet is to zigge. 'sire / 
J?is is oure he3e wyl / pis we bezechip toppe alle J)ing / 
pet pin holy name / pet is J)i guode los pi knaulechinge / 
pi beleaue by j-confevmed ine ous.' 

Ine pise uerste bene : we bezechep pe uerste and 
pe principal yefpe of pe holy gost / pet is pe yefpe of 
wysdom / pet uestnep / and ccwfermep pe herte in god. 
and his ioynep zuo to him : pet / hi ne may by ondo / 
ne to-deld. Wysdom is yzed of smac / and of smacky. 
Y or huawne pe man onderuangp pise yefpe : he zuel3 [p] / 
and smackep / and uelp pe zuetnesse of god. Ase me 
uelp pe zuetnesse of pe guode wyne ate zuel3 / betere 
parnie to pe zi3pe. Ac to pan pet pou onderstanst betere 
huet is to zigge / ' pi name by yha^ed ine ous :' pou 
sselt y wyte pet pis word / holy / is ase moche worp : 
ase / klene. ase wypoute erpe. ase yha^ed to godes 
seruice / ase y-dept ine blod / ase ycowfermed. Ine pise 
uyf maneres ha^ep pe gost of wysdom / pe herte of 
man. Verst he his wypep / and clensepi/ ase dep pet uer 
[pet] clenzep and finep pet gold. Efterward he dep away 
al pe ilke uelpe / of alle erpliche loue. and of alle wylle 
of ulesse. and makep to comene al out of smak. al pet 
me wes ywoned byuore to louie. ase pet weter is out of 
smak to pan pet is ywoned to pe guode wyne. Efter- 
ward he him ha^ep of al to godes seruice. uor he dep 
him al away of alle wrepe. and dep him al penche of 
god. and to louie / and serui. Ase pe cherche is yha^ed 
to godes seruice. zuo pet me ne ssel oper ping do 
perinne : panne pe seruice of god. Efterward he depp 


ine blod. Vor he hise zet in ane zuo berni[n]de loue / 

and one zuo zuete deuocion of Iesu crist. pet huawne 

lie pengp ine him / and his passion : he ys alsuo ydept / 

and al-suo dronke of pe preciouse blode / pet Iesu enst 

ssedde uor him : ase is a zop of hot bryead huaraie me 

hit potep in-to wyn. pet is a newe cmtninge. Vor 

depe and cnstni : is al on. Efterward he him uestnep s. confirming in 

zuo ine god / pet no ping ne may him to parti ne ' 32 b 

onioyni. fanne [he] wyle pis word nou zigge : ' pin name «Thy word be 

by yhaljed ine ous.' pet is to zigge : ' yef ous pane gost of ^ ed m U8 ' 

wysdom/be huam bi we zuo yclensed ase gold, and ^.^ spirit 

yuayred of alle uelbe / huer-by we ssolle by zuo uol wherel >y we m *y 

J J r i <j »/ ^ renevve( j an( | 

dronke of pine loue : pet alle opre zuetnesses / ssolle by fastened in God, 

ous bytere : be huam we ssolle by zuo yyeue to pe / an 

to pine semise : pet neure mo of opren we ne maky 

strengpe. be huam by we najt wypoute more y wesse : 

ac zuo moche ydept yne grayne / and ynewed and eft 

ycristned ine pe bloode of Iesu ]crost be deuocioun of 

ueste loue / huer-by pe name of oure uader by zuo 

yuestned ine ous: pet he by oure uader and we his so that nothing 

zones / and his eyrs. zuo yuesbned pet no ping pet mo3e from God, 

beualle ne mo3e ous ondo of pe ilke uestnesse / ne of 

pise grace.' Wei is hit grat grace of god h[u]araie pe wyl 

is zuo yroted ine god huich / ne may to cryepe uor none 

uondiwge. Wei gratter ping his huanne me is zuo 

yuestned ine pe loue and adrayngt in pe zuetnesse of ™* »f ^ e om ' 

god. pet no solas ne no contort me ne onderuangp : bote s™ 08 of God - 

of him. Ac y-yeue is pe herte parfitliche and ycon- 

fermed. uor pe memorie is zuo cleuiynde ine him : pet 

ne of no ping penche / bote ine him. And pet we 

byddep him huaraie we ziggep : sanctificetm nomen 

tuum. ' lhord pi name by y-ha^ed ine ous.* 


tion of the Pater 

Adueniad reqnum tuum. pet is pe opre bene of pe Noster, "Thy 

kingdom come." 

pater noster. huer we byddep / pet godes regne come Here we pray for 



God's reign to 
come within us, 
which is brought 
about by the spirit 
of understanding, 
that enlighteneth 
the heart, 

and showeth man 
his many faults. 

He seeth that he 
is not clean nor 
worthy of seeing 

so he begins to 
cast out the in- 
ward filth which 
deprives him of 
the sight of God. 

[Fol. 33. a.] 

Then he finds 
peace, rest, solace, 
and bliss. 

to ous / and by wyj?-inne ous. Oure lhord zay)? ine his 
spelle to his deciples. * J?e regne of god : is nou wy]?-inne 
you.' Nou onderstand wel hou Jet may by. Hua?me 
god yefj? ane grace ]?et me clepej? / pe gost of onder- 
stondinge to pe herte. ase dej? the zowne ]?et de]? away 
pe fyesternesse of J?e ny3t / and waste]? pe cloudes / and 
J?e hore urostes bi pe moi^en. Alsuo waste]) J?e holy gost 
alle J?e J?yestemesses of pe herte. and^ him ssewej) his 
ze/mes / and his defautes / zuo ]?et J?e ilke wende by al 
klene. panne wynde]? hi zuo uele defautes. and of 
motes, and of doust wyJ?-oute tale. Ase pe zo^ne byam 
ssewej? his motes / and ]?et doust ]?et bye]? benej?e ine 
J?e house. Efterward he him eft ssewe]? of o]?re half na^t 
wy]?-oute more J?et / ]?et is wy]?-inne him / ac ]?et / J?et 
is bene]?e pe helle. and ]?et / ]?et is aboue him ine 
heuene. J?et / J?et is aboute him / alle uayre ssepfes : 
]?et alle herye]? god / and him wytnessej? hou god is 
guod and almi^ti. wys. and uayr. grat and milde. 
zuete. and }?e more me zy^t pe sseppmges bri^te : J?e 
more hit is wynynde him-zelue to yzyenne. Ac he 
yzy3]? / J»et he ne is clene / ne wor]?i him to zyenne : 
J?awne anhet J?e guode herte and trewe / and him wre]?ej? 
to him-zelue. })a?ine nym]? he his pic / and his spade / 
and begin]? to delue / and to myny. and ge}? in-to his 
herte. J^erinne he vint zuo uele zennes / and vices / 
and zuo uele defautes / and zuo moche doust / and 
tnbulaciouns of herte / and of }?03tes / and of wyckede 
wylles / J>et he him wre]?ej? / and zor^ep. and nimj? a 
wycked wyl to him-zelue. zuo J?et he begin]? ]?e herte 
to clensi to J?e zo]?e l / and to keste out alle J?e uel]?es 
J?et him benim]? pe zv^pe of god ine him and J?et he dej? 
mid pe spade of zope ssrif]?e. Ac huanne he he]? longe 
ymyned / and he he]? / alle his uel]?es ykest out : J?awne 
uint he pays / and reste / and solas / and blisse / zuo 
J?et him J?ing]? j?et al the wordle by an helle to pe lok- 
1 MS. zo\>o 


inge of Je ilke clyernesse / and of Je ilke pays : Jet he 
uint ine his herte. and Jet we oxej : hua?me we ziggej 

Adueniacl regnum tuum, Jet is to zigge : * Leue uader / "Thy kingdom 

y^y^y Je / Jet Je holy gost ous wille aly3te Je herte / as to SB ,y, "iS 

and clensi and zuope / al-huat hi by worji god uor to Hoi^Ghost" 16 

y-zy. and Jet he will come and wonie ase kyng / and Jjjj^jj^ 8Weep 

ase lhord. and gouernour / and hotere. zuo Jet al Je 80 that God win 

herte by his / and he by kyng. and euremo we him mo^e S^T^ng 

yzy. uor Jet is lyf wyp oute ende. and godes riche habbe God'S'dom is 

wyb-inne ous.' beruore zayb oure lhord in his spelle : as a treasure hid 

T / Jr * in a field, that is 

bet godes riche is ase on tresor in be uelde yhed. bet is greater than an 

^ > * > . , . „ the world. 

me herte Jet is gratter Ja?me al Je wordle. 

J?E j^RIDDE BENE OP \)E HOLY FATER NOSTiJff. The third petition 

of the Pater 

Jhiat uoluntas tua / sicui in celo fy in terra, J5is Noster. 

" Thy will be 

is Je Jridde bene huerinne we byddej onre uader of done/'&c. 

heuene / Jet his wyl by ydo ine ous : ase hit is ydo ine weVay obey God 

heuene. Jet is ase Je holy angles of heuene / Jet byej an^ntten, 

zuo ah^t / and yuestned ine god : J et hi ne ni03e ojer 

Jing wylny / bote Jet god wille. })is bene we ne ni03e but this we cannot 

habbe : boteyef we ne habbe / Je yefje of red. pet is of c?unS, Uheglft 

Je Jridde yefje of Je holy gost / Jet ous tekj his 03ene 

guod wyl. and Jet he ous wende. oure wrechide wil / given us by the 

and hise confermy / al to Je lie3e guode. zuo pet he ne conform our win 

hep ne 03ene wyt / ne o3ene wyl. ak his 03ene onlepi- t0 G ° d s " 

liche / pet hi by lheuedy of al Je herte yhollyche. and 

maki ine ous al Jet hi wyle ase hi make]) ine angles of 

heuene / Jet makej echedaye his wil wyj-onte misnim- 

ynge / and wyjoute wyjzigginge. 

ISTou hest Jou yherd Je Jri uerste benes l of Je pater in these three 

noster. Jet byej Je he3este / and Je dingneste. Ine Je LorV's^rayer? 

uerste / we aksej Je yefje of wysdom. Ine Je 2 ojre : gTft^f wisdom^* 

Je yef Je of onderstondinge. Ine Je Jridde / Jet guode I %£££& 
red. ase ich Je habbe aboue yssewed. ))ise Jri Jinges 
we ne byddej / na3t uor Jet we hise habbej ine Jyse 
1 MS. benenes 2 MS. ohe 


We cannot have lyue dyadlich parfitlyche. ak wesseaweb to orulre uader 

the full measure J J , J , „ , , 

of these in this oure wylles / ]?et bye]? / o]?er ssolle by / to fan ]?et ]?ise 

J?ri benes by ine ous ymad / and uolueld ine J?e lyue eure- 

The remaining lestinde. j)e o]?re vour Jet come]) efte[r]ward we willej? 

four petitions are , , , -r-r ., , i • -1 , 

necessary to us in speke ane o]?re speche. Yor we ziggep apertelicne to 
this mortal life. oure ua( j er < y e f ous# uor yef ous. wyte ous. delyure ous.' 

bote ]>ise vour benes of him we ne habbe : we bye]? 

dyade / an euele betake ine pise wordle. Yor hi bye]? 

ous nyeduolle ine pise lyue dyadlich. 

The fourth peti- )?E UERJ2E BENE OP pE HOLY PATER NOST-EB. 

tion of the Pater 

Noster. Panem nostrum, cotidianum. da nobis liodie. Mochel 

" Give us this day 

our daily bread." ous tekj? oure guode mayster / to spekene myldelyche / 
and wysliche. huawne he ous tek}? to zigge. Vayre 
uader / oure bryad of eche daye / yef ous to day. Huet 

what may the may pe zone betere acsy to his uader : J?a?zne bread wyb- 

son ask of his 

father better than oute more / uor ]?ane day to endy ? He ne acse]? none 
[Foi. 33. b.] outrage / ne wyn. ne uless. ne uiss. [ac] bread wyJ?oute 

He does not ask niij. j_ / j_ i 1 1 

for wine, flesh, nor more [hej byt. na3t uor a-yer / ne na3t uor al ]?e woke, ac 
itls a great thing wyf-oute more : J?ane day to endy. Nou hit ]>ingj? ]?et 

Z^^T hit h y wel lite J> in s J> et we acse J> : ac uor Z0 J> e hit is wel 
light request, g ra ^ jjj n g # Hua?me me bit pe broperhede / and J?e 

uela^rede / and part / and ri3t / ine alle J?e guodes of ]?e 

house. Alsuo hit is huose ]?et smacke]? of pise breade. 

He he]? J?e bro]?errede. and part / and ue^rede. and ri^t. 

and ine alle ]?e guode dedes J?et bye]? ine heuene. pet 

for we ask for the i s jj e t bread of be ilke holy couent. bet bread of heuene. 

everlasting bread J * 

that preserves the ]>et bread of angles. J?et bread lostuol. J?et bread of lyue 
eurelestinde. Yor hit yef]? guod lyf / and loke]? J?e 
zaule wy]?-oute steruinge. Huer-of zo]? zay]? ine ]?e 
godspelle. ' Ich am J?et bread of lyue / ]?et com doun 
uram heuene. hou J?et ssel ete of J?o breade : he ssel 

This is true meat, eure lybbe wy}>-oute steruinge.' pet bryad is mete ari3t. 

ail the hunger of uor hit stonche]? al ]?ane honger of ]?e wordle / and uel]? 
1 wor * man pet he he]? yno^ / zuo ne dej? non o]?er mete. J}et 

it is the bread and is ]?et bread and ]?e mete / pet ]?ou nymst / of J?e sacre- 


ment of be wyeuede / bet bou sselt ete zuybe / and meat taken of the 

_ \ . ' T . , i sacrament of the 

glotounhche / ase tekj Je wntinge / ase dej Je lecher- altar. 

ous fane guode mete : Jet ojerhuil uorzuel 3 J Jane guode 

snode / wyj-oute chewynge. Jet is to zigge / Jet Jou 

sselt nyme feme mete mid greate wylle of herte /and 

mid grat lost. And Jou hit sselt ase hit by uorzuel 3 e / 

wyj-oute chewynge. and Jet is to zigge. yleue ine grat / 

Jet / J?et hit is Je zo Je bodi of Iesu crist. and Je zaule. and the true body 

and Je godhede / al to-gydere / wyj-oute to zeche : hou 

hit may by. Vor god may more do : Jamie man mo3e 

onderstonde. Efterward me ssel Jerne mete eft chyewe / one should chew 

ase Je oxe Jet gers Jet he hej uorzuol 3 e. j)et is to ^oxthe^" 

zigge Jet me ssel recordi zueteliche and smalliche be ^ J e has 8Wal " 

little stechches / alle Je guodnesses of oure lhorde and 

al Jet Iesu crist Jolede ine erje uor ous. And Jamie 

vint Je herte Jane ri 3 te smac of Je ilke mete, and onder- 

ua[n]gj ane wel greate hete of Je loue of god. and ane wel 

greate wylnynge to do yno 3 an to Jolye uor him al Jet he 

mi3te. and al Jis dej Je mrtue of Jo breade. Yor Jet is Jet This bread com- 

bread Jet confortej and strengjej Je herte / to Jet hy by strengthens the 

wel Strang uor to Jolye / and do grat Jing uor Godes thT^onhl'ote 

loue. Ac Jet ne may na 3 t by wy J-oute Je uer Je yefje of God - 

of Je holy gost / Jet is y-cleped Je yef J of streng Je / Jet 

armej godes kny 3 t / and him dej yerne to by martired. 

and make J ham le 33 e betuene Je tormens. Nou mist Thus when we 

ask bread we ask 

Jou wel yzy hou corteysliche / huawne we acsej Jet ilke or strength, 
bread : we acsej Jane yeffe of stre[n]gje. Vor ase Jet 
bread bodylich / sostenej and strengjej Jet bodi : alsuo 
Je yef Je of stre[n]gje / makej Je herte Strang to Jolye / 

and to done grat Jing uor god. J>et ilke bread we hit This bread we can 

clepiyj oure / uor hit wes ymad of oure do 3 e. yblissed made of our 

by Je guode wyfman : Jet of hiren Jet flour Jer to dede. doush * 

J?et wes Je mayde Mane, and yfryd me Je Janne of Je ble85ed by the 

crouche / ase' he zayj ine Je sautere. uorzoje uorzoje ^ ood maiden 

yfryd ine his oaene blode. uor bet dede he / ine be greate and Med in the 

" ? * / x o pan f the cross. 

wylle of his loue / Jet he heclde to ous. And Jet is Jet 



It is bread twice 

It is ours because 
Chi-ist left it to 
us as His last re- 

It is our daily- 
bread, because 
each day's dole 
is given us by 

Each day it is 
necessary to us, 

and each day one 
shall take it either 
at the sacrament of 
the altar, or by 
right belief. 

It is bread, not 
for churls, but for 
noble hearts, 
cleansed and 
washed by shrift. 

It is sure sub- 
stantial bread, 

surpassing all 
other substances 
in virtue and 

bread tuies y-bake / huermide he astorep his ssip. pet 
is holy cherche / uor to pasy pe greate ze / of J)ise 
perilouse wordle. Hit is oure. uor he hit ous let : at 
his yleaue nymynge / and at his laste bequide / Iesu 
crist pe wel large / ase meste greate tresor : pet he ous 
mi3te lete. and hit ous yaf ase pet uayreste iowel / Jet 
he ous mi3te yeue. and pet we hit ssolde loky : uor his 
loue. Hit is uorzope oure / uor noping ne may / hit ous 
benime toyens oure wylle. We hit clepiep oure bread 
of echedaye. Jet is to zigge / of eche daye. uor pet is pe 
eche dayes dol / pet god yefp to his wel wilynde : pet 
eche daye dop his seruice / and ziggep his oures. pet is 
to alle guode herten / pet eche daye zueteliche be zope 
loue makep memorie / and bepenchinge of his passion. 
pet greate of pe prouendre / we nimep ine oure 
heruest ine heuene / huarme we him ssolle ysy onwry3e / 
ine his uayrhede / ase he is. Hit is ysed peruore eche- 
dayes : pet eche daye / hit is ous nyeduol and echedaye 
me ssel hit nyme / oper ate sacrament of pe wefde / ase 
dop pe pmstes : oper gostliche be 113 to byleaue. J?et 
bread is wel precious / an wel noble / and wel ydi3t. 
J)et is kynges mete / huerinne byep ech manyere lyk- 
inges / and alle guode smackes / ase zayp pe hoc of 
wysdome. pet ne is na3t mete to gromes / ne to yeue. 
ne to piecaille. ne to cheuaille. ne to cherles. ac to 
noble herten and gentil. an cortays. and clene. pet is 
to pe herte pet is gentil be grace, noble / be guod lyf. 
yclensed / and ywesse be zope ssrifte. Of pise mVtue 
spekp saynt matheu pe wangeliste / and hit clepep ziker 
bread substanciel. pet is to zigge : pet pasep / and 
ouergep alle substances / and alle sseppes be ver. ine 
mVtue / and ine dingnete / and in alle opre maneres of 
worp. ne me ne may betere write / ne more yno3 : 
pawne wit substances. Me zayp pet mete is pe mi3[t]- 
uoller / panne he hep yno3 of my3te. and of noriss- 
inge. and pe more pet he is norissinde : me zayp pet he 


is pe substancieler. and pere-uore pet ine pise breade is 

more luVtue /and ofguod / and of norture I banne me and contains more 

' ' ' J nutriment than 

mo3e penche / oper zigge. ne zayp me na3t pet hit is anything else. 

substanciel. alsuo me zayp pet hit is ope substance / 

pet is / uzHuous / and substanciel aboue onderston- 

digge / and wenynge. j)et bread we byddep to oure we pray for this 

uader. and him we bidde j? / pet he hit ous y eue to-day. is ^ e f n th ° i8 ^Vtaf 

ine pise daye / pet is ine pise dyadliche Hue. zuo pet llfe " 

we mo3e maky ane guode iornee / and to abyde pe 

gledlaker oure ssepe. Jpet is pe peny pet he yefp to his This is the penny 

workmen / h[u]amie euen comp. pet is pe ende of be workmen when 

evening coineth. 



of the Pater 

Dimitte nobis debita nostra sicut et nos di 'mittimus <« F Jjj ve us om . 

debitoribws nostvis. Ine pise bene we bidde]? oure He r ^ e e sa y &C ' 

uader of heuene / Jet he ous wylle uoryeue / oure Forgive us our 
misdedes / ase we uoryeue]? to ham : Jet ous mis-do]?. 
o|?er habbe}? mis-do. pa/me zigge we J?us. 'Leue uader/ [ * 01 ' ,M ' b] 

uoryef ous oure dettes : ase we uoryeueb oure dettours.' as we forgive our 

J or debtors. 

Oure dettes : bye}? oure zercnes / J?et we habbe}? ydo our debts are our 


wexe ope oure zaulen. ))et is }?et beste wed of }?e house. 
\)e zenuolle be one zezme dyadlich / }?et zuo zone is 
y-pased / ase to be loste / o]?er ase to ]?e dede / is the interest of 

. . which is hell pain. 

y-obliged to zuo ane greate gauehnge : }?et he ne hep 
mi3te to hit endi. }?et is to pe pine of helle / pet is 
wy b-oute ende. Efterward / he ssel to gode /pet he No man could 

. , ,ji t_i_"j. make sufficient 

hep ywreped / zuo grat amendes : pet he ne nep mi^te amends for one 

nor to yelde. Vor ine al his lyue pa3 ha leuede an deadly 8m ' 

hondred year oper more : he ne imjte na3t do uoluel- 

linde penonce of one dyadliche zenne / yef god wolde 

usy to yelde dom. And peruore hit behouep to yeme therefore it be- 

J ^ ' hoveth him to run 

to be cort of merci and bidde merci / and aksy uorye- to the court of 

/ mercy, 

uenesse. Vor be pe ri3te of pe cort of dom / pe zene- 
3ere ssolde by demd / and yeon&enmed to dyape eure- 
lestinde. peruore oure guode mayster lesu cr?*st ous for by the court 




of justice we 
should be doomed 
to death everlast- 

If we do not for- 
give others, God 
will not forgive 

Wherefore in thy 
prayer, see thou 
hast no wicked 
will, cast out all 
wrath, evil, and 

Think how Christ 
forgave his ene- 
mies who crucified 

It is no great 
thing to return 
good for good, 

but since we are 
God's children, 

we ought to for- 
give one another, 
and love our ene- 
mies, and pray for 

tekj zuo to oxi uoryeuenesse and quittinge huawne we 
biddej cure guode uader Jet is zuete and milde / uor to 
y[e]uene : large and corteys / Jet he ous uory[e]ue oure 

Ac nim wel hede hou Jou bidde. * Yoryef ous oure 
misdedis / ase we uoryeue J to liam : Jet ous habbej 
misdo.' Yor yef we ne uoryeue J to ham Jet ous habbej 
mi[s]do : god ne uoryefj na3t ous oure misdedes. ase 
he himzelf zay J ous / ine Je godspelle. panne he Jet 
zayj his pater noster / and hej ine his herte hate / 
wreje / ojer wyekedhede : he bit more aye hira-zelue : 
Ja?me uor him-zelue. Yor he bit god / Jet he ne 
uoryeue him na3t / hua?zne he zay J. ' uoryef me : ase ich 
uoryeue.' and uor Jet at alle Je times Jet Jou zayst pi 
pater noster beuore god Jet yzi^J? fine herte : Jou sseit 
uoryeue fine wyekede wil / and keste out of June herte : 
alle wreje / and alle hate, and euelwyl. ojerlaker pi 
bene is more aye Je : panne uor Je. Yef hit Je JingJ 
Strang Jing and kuead uor to uoryeuene / Jin euel wyl 
to ham Jet Je hatiej / ojer Jet Je kuead willej / huer 
he al misdej : Jeneh Jet god uoryaf his dyaj to ham 
Jet him dede a Je rode / Je uor to yeue uorbisne / uor 
to uoryeue to ham / Jet Je habbej misdo / and more 
yet eft : ham guod do : yef hi habe J nye[de] to Je. Yor 
ase he zayj ine his spelle. Ne is hit na3t grat Jing ne 
grat ofseruinge aye god to do guod to ham Jet ous doj 
guod. ne to louie Jo Jet ous louyej 1 Yor Jet dej Je 
paen / and Je sarasyn / and ojre zene^eres. Ac we Jet 
byej godes children be byleaue and be grace / and we 
byej cristene ynemned of Iesu cnst / and we byej eyrs 
mid him of Je heritage of paradys / of ous to uoryeue 
Je on to Je ojre / and louye oure uyendes. \)et is to 
zigge hare persones. an bidde uor ham / and do ham 
guod yef hy habbej nyede and Jou hit mi3[t] do. Yor Jus 
he hit hat ine his spelle. Jjawne ssolle we onlepiliche 
hatye Je zewnes / and louie Je zaules. Jet byej ymad 


to pe anliknesse of oure lorde. Alsuo ase a leme of pe 

bodye / lone)) and uorberj? an oj>er. yef o leme bleehep weareaiione 

,1 .t. j. i • . i A^r body in Christ 

anojier be eas. J>e oj>er na$t mm awrecj) peruore. We JeBUS< 
byej? al o body ine Tesu crist / ase zayf pe apostel. and 
j?eruore we ssolle ech louye ofer / and na3t hatie / ne 
harmi mid wrong / on / pe oJ>er. Hno J>et oferlaker whoso hateth an- 
dej? : lie is mansh^te / and him-zelue d&?nnep ase zayj? dever> 
pe wrytinge. Zuycb can zigge his pater nosier : hvn 
were betere pet be were stille. uor be let bis domes- 
man : ayens him. 

In bise bene bet we dob to gode. we him bezecheb in this petition 

r r r ° we ask God for 

one yefj>e of pe holy gost / pet is y-cleped / pe yefpe / thegiftofknow- 

of eonnynge. Jet make)? fane man ine Jjojte and uol of 

wytte. bes ^ost him sseweb huet he is. and ine huet whereby man 

J ' ° ' sees what he is, 

peril he is, and hua/mes he comb, and huyder he gej?. an.i in what peril 

he is, 

and pet he dep. and pe misdede J)et he hep ydo. and 
hou moche / he \\ep hyer ywonne. and hou moche he 
ssel. And huarane he yzht bet he ne heb huermide and seeing his 

. own imperfec- 

endy : ba/zne him dejj pes gost wepe / and grede merci tions, he asks 

. _ mercy of God, 

to god / and zigge. ' Lhord / uoryef me mine dettes. 

J?et bye)) myne zennen. Vor ieh am mochel ine dette 

ayen pe / and uor pe queades Jet ieh habbe ydo. and 

uor pe guodes J?et ieh habbe uoryete / and ylete to done. 

pet ieh my3te / and ssolde habbe ydo. And uor po andfolgiveneBB 

guodes J>et Jjou me hest ydo. and Jrine greate guod- for his great sins. 

nesses ]>et ieh habbe eche daye onderuonge / huyehe 

ieh habbe kueadliche yvzed / and pe kueadlieho 

yserued. And J?eruore Lhord ieh ne habbe huer-of 

maki be yeldinge : uoryef me bet ieh be ssel.' Huarcne when he knows 
r j r> ^ j j his faultSj 

pes gost him he]? zuo aly3t / J>et he knau)> his defautes : 

and barme him deb keste out of be herte able wrebe / he casts out m- 

r r f will from his 

and alle hate / and al to uoryeue his euele ywyl / yef heart, 
ber is eni. and yef ber ne is : he is ine wylle and ine 

* m and then is he able 

porpos uor to uoryeuene mid herte / yef me him misdej?. to say, "Father, 

, forgive us our 

And bamie may he zigge wel. V ay re uader uoryei ous misdeeds as we do 

, , , , iiit_-ijto them that have 

oure misdedes / ase we do)> to ham : J?et ous habbe J) misdo. wrongcd U8 .-> 



The 6th petition J?E ZIXTE BENE OF j)K HOLY PAT#R NOSTRA, 

of the Pater 

" And lead us not ^t ne nos inducas in temptacionem. Je ybernde : 
Thebum P t t onl° n ' M uer dret - and )> e ilke )> et oferliuyl yualle is into zewne. 
dreads the fire, hua/me Je zewne him is uory[e]ue : lie is Je more milde : 

and Je more dreduol / and Je more he hep grater drede 
so the sinner who of uondinge. Jeruore bit lie liier to huam god his mis- 
afmif o/feiUing dedes uoryefj / Jet he hine loky uram ayen-uallinge. 
intosin. jgj. ne nos iiiducag ' m temptacionem. Jet is to zigge. 

'Vayre zuete uader / ne led ous na3t in-to uondinge.' fie 
The devil is the; dyeuel is be uondcre. vor hit is his creft / huer-of he 


seruej) me godes house / uor to prom Je newe kny^tes. 

and yef Je uondinge nere guod and uremuol to guode / 

god pet al make]? uor oure guode / nolde na3t Jolye Jet 

but when he beat- hi come. iAc ase zayb sant bernard. huawne be uondere 

eth our backs, ' ° J * 

he is making our ous knokej ope Jane reg : he ous ssep J oure eorounes 

crowns of bliss, hit* -n r> 

as when one dubs of blisse. Ase Je like Jet ope Je regge 01 Je guode 
smiting and beat- kny3te / smit and beat / him ssept his los : and his 
TheTeviUrieTto' Dlissa £ e dyeuel Jerto proprdiche uondej Jane man : 
draw man from j^ ^ Q pj ne my^te wyjdra3e uram Je loue of god. 
})eruore bit sainte pawel his deciples / Jet hi by yzet 
ase tours, yroted ase trawes : ine loue. zuo Jet non 
uondinge him ne mo3e refye / ne rocky. jeruore ine 
in this petition h[ S Q bezechinge we acseb help of gode ine oure batayle / 

we ask help of ¥ . , . 

God in our battle, and be yefbe of pite. bet is a grace bet bedeaweb be 

as well as the gift Y J Y ,. 

of pity. herte and make J his zuete and reujeuol. and make J 

his al become grene / and berj yno3 frut of guode 
workes wyj-oute and wyj-inne erje / strengji his roten 
ine Je erje of libbende. Jet is ase Jet guode mortyer / 
huer-of me make J Je guode walles sarzineys Jet me ne 
may na3t breke / ne mid pic / ne mid mongenel 

We say, « Sweet J^araie hua?me we ziggej. et ne nos inducas in tempt- 

Father, make our . . 

hearts fast, so acionem. Jet is to zigge. i Vayre zuete uader / make oure 
ationTna^shake nei> ten ueste / an stedeuest /Jet hi ne ssake uor none 
wTdo'notpray uondynge Jet to hare com J.' We ne byddej m^t / Jet 
not to be tempted, we ne ssolle by uonded : Vor Jet were a fole bezech- 

[Fol. 35. b.] 


inge / and ssamuol. Ase J?e zone of a guod man pet 
ssel by a newe kny^t him bezekj). 'Leue uader ich J?e 
bidde pet )>ou me loki j?et ich ne guo neuremo : ne to 
ioustes / ne to tornemens.' We wylleb wel bet we by but we desire to 

' . . _ be tempted, for 

yuonded. vor hit is oure ureme ine uele manures, uor that is our profit, 

we bye J> pe more ymylded / and pe dreduoller / and pe 

more wys ine alle pinges. and pe more worp / an pe 

more asayd. Vor ase zayp Salomon. Ze Jet ne hep pise 

nondinges : he ne may noping wel cowne. bote ase me for otherwise we 

kan pe batayle of troye / be hyere-zigginge. Vor he ne of these trials, 

may hi?>i-zelue yknawe / ne him nestni ine pe strengpe nor learn how to 

of his uyemles / ne hare sotylhede. and hou god is ^tThTfiend. 

trewe to pe nyede / his nryend uor to helpe. ne of hou 

uele ze/znes / ne of hou uele perils /he hep pe ofte 

yloked. and uor alle pise skeles / he ne ssel na3t ai^t 

conne god louie / ne him ponki of his guode. Ac we 

him biddeb bet he loky oure herten / bet hi ne guo in- we entreat God 

r T J ' T . that our hearts 

to uondynge / pet is pet hi ne ronsexiti. Vor al pet is may not consent 

of ous : we byep zuo poure / and zuo fyeble / pet we 

ne mo3e na^t ane time of the daye polye f>e asaylinges 

of pe dyeule : wyp-oute pe help of oure lhorde. And 

huawne he ous fayleb : we guob ber-in. Huarcne he when He heipeth 

J ' ° * J us then we fight 

ous helpp : we wypstondep. and we uyjtep / and we and overcome, 
ouereomep. And peruore we ziggep. ' Lyeue uader ne 
led ous na3t into uondinge. pet is ne J>ole na^t / pet we 
go in-to cowsentinge.' 

bE ZEUENDE BENE OF \)E HOLY PAT#i2 FOSTER. The 7th petition 

3 of the Pater 

Sed libera nos a malo amen. Saynt austin zay}>. « BuTdeiiver us 
pet pe opre vices ous make)) o[)er pe kueade to done : fromevil " 
oper pe guodes lete to done. Ac al pet me he)? ydo. ^avfof God/ 6 
and alle pe yefpes pet he hep yporchaced : prede is ine P^ eseeks t0 de " 
wille to destrue / and to benime. An peruore h[u]a7?ne 
god he)? y-yeue to man pet he him hep ybede ine pise 
zeue benes beuore yzed. fane uerst hit is nyed uor zope : 
pet he him delyuri of pe kueade / and of his aspiinges. wherefore we ask 



God to deliver us ^nd beruore comb alast bis bene / ase be efter-warde / 

from evil. * r J I j I 

pet zayp pous. Se& libera nos a malo. amen. pet is 
We entreat to be to zigge : i Lyeue uader deliure o[~uls of be kueade. bet is to 

delivered from . 

the devil and Ms zigge : of the dyfeluele. and of his sle^pes. bet we ne lyese 


be prede / pe guodes : pet pou ous best y-yeue.' Inne 
we pray for the pise bene we him biddep / pet he ous yeue pe yefpe / of 
that wemay be drede. huer-by we ssolle by delyured of pe kueade / and 

delivered from all of aUe Q w k ^ ^ ^ f ^ / and f R 

sins. J J / 

[Foi. 36. a.] perils ine pise wordle : and ine pe opre. Amen. 

Nou hest pou y-herd pe notes / pet me kan noty ope 
pise zonge pet god made. J>et is pet pater noster. Nou 
loke pet pou hit conne wel zinge ine fine herte. Yor 
grat guod pe ssel beualle : yef pou zuo dest. 

The seven gifts 
of the Holy 

It behoveth us to 
speak with rever- 
ence of these 

1. We shall say 
what are the gifts, 

2. why they are 
so called, 

3. why gifts of the 
Holy Ghost, 

4. why seven, and 
neither more nor 

5. what good they 
do us. 

A blissful bridal 
was made in the 
womb of Mary 
when God's Son 
espoused our flesh 
and nature. 

Many fair gifts 
He brought to his 

Christ was the 
flower of Naza- 


Efter pe zeue benes Jet byep y-contyened ine holi 
pater noster : ous behouep to spekene mid greate reuer- 
ence / of zuo he^e matiere / ase of pe zeuen holy yef pes 
of pe holy gost / ase he himzelf ous ssel teche. And 
uerst we wyllep zigge : huyehe byep pe yefpes. Efter- 
ward hueruore hi bye]? y-cleped / yefpe. and huereuore 
yefpe of pe holi gost. Efterward hueruore per byep 
zeuen / ne mo / ne les. and efterward of pe guodes pet hi 
ous do]?. Wone is and cortayzie / pet h[ii]arane man is 
riche /and worpi / and noble / and comf to his spouse / 
and he hise louep mid al his herte and hire brengp of 
his ioiax. Ysaie pe profete yze^ ine goste pe ilke blis- 
uolle bredale / pet wes ymad ine pe womhe of pe blisfolle 
mayde marie / huawne godes zone nom / and spousede 
oure zoster and oure uless. oure manhode / and oure 
kende. Yef we telle]? pe ioiax and J?e uayre yef]?es J?et 
he brc^te mid him uor to yeue to his spouse / and to 
his eldringes / and zayde ]?ous pe zuete profete wel 
corteisliche. ' Of pe rote of iesse ssel guo out a yerd / 
pet ssel bere ]?et flour of nazarep.' pet is to zigge : pet 
flour / of flours. Yor nazarep : is ase moehe worp / ase 


flour / and grace, ase moche ase cos. and ope ]?et flour : 
him ssel resti J?e holi gost. pe gost of wysdome : and of 
onderstondinge. pe gost of strengj?e : and of u/rtue. pe 
gost of wytte : and of pite. pe gost of godes drede. Jrise 
byej? Jje graces huer-of he wes al uol / uram pe time pet From His birth 

i -. . p He was full of all 

ne wes onderuonge m-to J?e wombe ol his moder. ase pe graces, 

greate ze is uol of wetere / and welle of alle weteres / of water?* ** U 

zuete / an zalte. huer-of hi weterep al pe wordle. Alsuo 

wes he ase zayjj sayn Ton / zuo uol of grace and of 

zobe J bet of his uolhede : we nimeb al. bise zeue And we partake of 

T * His fulness. 

gostes / and pise zeue yefpes we onderuonge J? al / mid we receive these 

i. i i • i • * , ,.,. , , holy gifts with 

pe lioly cnstnmgo. Ac ase pe graces bodihehe pet god holy christening. 

yef p to pe childe / ine wytte / ine guodnesse / and ine 

strengpe / and ine opre graces (?et he yefp to his wylle. 

to echin he him ssewep litel / and litel. ase bet child At first in a lesse 

' degree, 

wext / and com]? uorp. Alsuo is he in his graces gost- 
liche he pan pet ech profitep ine guode / and agraypep 
his herte / and him yef b to gode : he ban bet god him hnt leasing 

1 x x o more and more in 

yef)) more / and more of grace. And bet sseweb bis those who use 

„ , . them aright. 

yeipe be worke / pe on : me pe on. and pe oper / ine pe 
oper. ase hit Jy kef pe holy gost / pet his todelp to his 
wille. ase zaynte paul zayp. Jparme ine ous beginnep These graces h e - 

. • - . . . , , gin low and rise 

pise graces ase pe mrtues me I03. and ssewep an he^. high. 

And pet is of drede. j)anne ine wysdome. Vor drede 

is beginninge of wysdom. ase zayp dauid. Ac ine him Fear is the begin- 
ning of wisdom. 
weren echedaye alle pe graces / and alle pe m'rtues wel 

uolliche wyp-oute enie mesure. and peruore his zet pe [Foi. 36. b.] 

profete dounward / ech yefpe be pe ordre of hare ding- 

nete. Alsuo ase zeue benes bye J) yzet beuore be pe 

ordre of hare dingnetes. pe he^cste beuore. and pe k^este 



called gifts. 

J)ise graces byep yhote yefbes uor bri skeles. Verst i» These graces 

are called gifts 

uor hare dingnete and hare worJ>. yef me yef)? ine pe for their dignity 

' and worth. 

kmges cort ane robe to ane childe / oper ane poure 


marine : ane dissuol of pesen / pet ne is no ping pet by 

worpi to by ycleped yefpe of kyng. fieruore saynt 

iacob clepep alle pe opre guodes pet god yef p / and tim- 

au other gifts are liche / and gostliche. nau$t yefpes : ae y-yeue. Jet by 

going. ° clionginde / and guoinde. Ac pise graces he clepep 

giventousbyGod yefpes uolueld. Yor he his ne yef J? to nonen : pet he 

ne yefp him-zelue. fie oper scele is / uor pet pe opre 

2. other graces graces / and pe opre guodes he ous lenp uor to usy ine 
in this life, but pise liue. Ac pise hyep yefpes a^t wyp-oute wypnym- 
mnainwhh V us. y n g e I and wyJ>-oute lere. Yor huarane pe opre ssolle 

fayli / pise ssolle ous bleue. fianne byep hi zuo propre- 
liche oure : J>et we his ne mo3e na3t lyese wylle we 

3. They are given nolle we. ase we nK^e pe opre. fie pridde scele and pe 

he^este is. uor per hyep yefpes clenliche be loue and pou 

wost wel pet yefpe lyest fane name of yefpe : huawne 

hit ne is na3t y-yeue clenliche be loue. Yor huawne pe 

a gift becomes yeuere he]? Z13 j?e to his 03ene prou : pet ne is no yefpe : 

chaffer when the . TT , , 

giver has an eye ac rapre is chapuare. Huawne he yzy3J? guodnesse 

to his own profit, 0? ^ ernon g e j j, er se ruice / pet ne is no yefpe / ac hit is 

rapre dette y-yolde. Ac huawne pe yefpe com]? propre- 

a gift comes from liche and clenliche of pe welle of loue Avip-oute prou. 

without reward' wyp-oute yefpe. wypoute drede. wyp-oute enie dette : 

fimne is hit ari3t ycleped / yefpe. Huerof pe filosofe 

zayp. Jjet yefpe / is yeuynge : wypoute ayen-yefpe. pet 

is wy[p]-oute onderstondinge of ayenyefpe. ac wypoute 

more : uor to zeche loue. Ine zuyche manere god yefp 

God gives us His °us his yefpes clenliche / uor pe loue J>et he he]? to ous / 

HehathtoVr" 6 an( ^ uor ^° gaderi on re herten. and oure loue. and uor 

pise scele : propreliche hi byep y-cleped / yefpes. 


called gifts of the 

Holy Ghost. Ac hueruore hi hyep y-cleped / yefpe of pe holy 

beira° r to the" ght & os ^ : J 8,111161 J e fy e °f lP e ua( ler / and of pe zone, uor alle 
Father; works of h{ re d e des / and hire yefbes byeb commun. (1) ber-to 

wisdom to the ' J r J r v ' * 

son ; works of byeb tuaye sceles. fie one. uor pan pet ase workes of 

goodness to the 

Holy Ghost. nry^te / bye]? apprcpred to pe uader. and pe workes of 

1 more kanne ! 


wysdom / to Je zone : alsuo Je workes of guodnesse : to 

Je holy gost. vor 1 guodnesse is / ase zayj) sanyt denys / i [MS. wor] 

to lere hitn-zelue. Yor yef a man yefj Jet him na^t ne 

costnej : Jet ne is na}t grat guodnesse. Ac uor Je 

holy gost. be byse zeue yefbes / spret him zelue ine oure These gifts spread 

J ° rJ J r l v in our hearts as 

herten / ase zayj zainte paul / ase be zeue streames. by seven streams. 

Jeruore hi bye)? propreliche y-cleped yef Jes of Je holy 

gost. Yor he is be welle. hy byeb be streames. And The HoiyGhostis 

, . . . . , the well, the gifts 

Je ojer scele is / uor Jet Je holy gost is propreliche Je are the streams, 

loue / Jet is betuene Je uader / and Je zone, and Jeruore is theiove between 

Jet loue is Je propre / and Je uerste / and Je he3este So n. 

yefje : Jet man may yeue / Jet a^t yef J. and ine Jise ^oVaiJgms.^ 1 " 

yefje : me yefj / alle Je ojre. and wyjoute Jisen : non ( < 

ojer yef Je ne is na*t ariat y-nemned yef Je. beruore is The Holy Ghost 

. _is gift and giver, 

ari}t J?e holy gost propreliche / yef Je / and yeuere. Yor for he giveth and 

he him yefj : and is y-yeue. Ine echen of Jise zeuen j- FoL " 37 a j 
Jet he yefj uor to cowfermi oure loue to his / Jet hi 
by feruent / and guod /and zojje / and clene. 


Yor tuo Jinges is Je man ybo^e. be Je be-uliynge ^y man is 

of kueade : and do Jet guode. fiet kueade beuly / and 1. By eschewing 

hatie : ous dej Je yef Je of drede. fie ojre zix do J ous 2. By doing good. 

Je guodes to done, fie yef Je of drede is Je doreward caU ses us to flee 

to Je greate Jreste. Jet is to zigge : to Je greate Jreap- Thither six gifts 

ninge of godes dom / and of Je pine of helle. Jet is ena bieustodo 
echedaye / aredy and arise. Jet is Je wayte of Je 

castele / Jet neure ne slepj. Jet is Je wyed hoc of Je The gift of dread 

gardine Jet uordej al Jet kueade gers. fiet is Je hor- keeper, 

dyer Jet lokej Je herte / and alle Je guodes Jet byej cast i e , 

, « , . /., iti j i. the weed-hook of 

Jermne. fie ojre six yef Jes / ous make J Je guodes to the garden . 

Nou sselt bou ywyte / bet ase be brhfYlnesse of be The sun gives 

. , ' r r J , light to the world, 

zonne bet bou izixt yefb lht to be wordle and m'rtue / and virtue and 

r r r 7 T ' strength toall 

and strengje to alle Je Jinges Jet wexej) and come]? to things in it ; 

Je wordle. alsuo de J Je holy gost Jet ah^t in heuene Ghost gives light 


to those who are and ine erje alle Jo Jet bye]? in grace / and men / and 
ThfreTre three angles. And al alsuo ase ine heuene / he]? Jri stages 
heTv e en? ff0lkin of uolke / ase zayt saynt denys. huer-of Je on is 
GoT^Zte: *e 3 ere. j>e overmen. Je Jridde lojest Je he 3 este / bye}, 
Him * ase Jo / Jet byej of Je kinges consayle. Jise bye]) 

alneway mid god Je nixte Jamie Je ojre / and yzyej 

and yherej / and him : and his pWuites. fie men 
ones areTike ° [midliste] / bye J ase Je barouns / and Je baylifs Jet 
bainffl and gouernej and wytyej Je kingriehe / and guoj / an 

come]?, and lyerniej of fan of Je consayle. an Jet hi 
3. The lowest are hote]) and make)? hit do ojren. )pe lojeste / bye]? ase 
v a rr ntS(8er " sergons and Jo Jet byej ine office / and habbej Jo 

mestyeres / and do]? Je offices / and Je messages ase 
so are there three me ham zayj. In Jo manere / and in Jo uorbysne he J 
sons on earth* J e J>ri states of godes zone ine erje. Huiche Je holy 

gost / let / and conduej / ase zayj sainte pauel. fie on 
1. Those who live s tat is of ban / bet byeb ine be wordle and libbeb be 

liveth by God's r l r J r r 

behests. godes hestes. and be Jet hi leuej / and yhyerej of hyre 

a. Those who ouerlynges. fie o Jer stat is of Je stedeueste / Jet of al 

have their hearts 

in heaven and habbej Je herten out of Je wordle / Jet ysye J god ase 

earth. ° ™* ° n moche ase me may ine Jise lyue. and habbej hire con- 

nersacioun ine heuene / and Je bodyes ine erje. and Je 

3. The third herten mid god. fie Jridde bye J ine Je middel stat / 

govern them- . . -ivi-ii 

selves and others Jet gouernej. wel / ojex ham / ojer ojre. and lib be J 

by God's behests. ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^. ge ^ maneres tek j, ^ holy 

gost / and let / and gouernej / be Jise zix yef Jes. and 
ha?ft to-delj Jise graces to echen to his wylle ase zayj 
The two first of Je apostel. fie tuo uerste of Jise six yef Jes / belonge J 
Omowiedgfand to Jan / Jet byej of Je uerste stat. fie yef Je of con- 
beioigto those of nynge : bam tekj. And Je yefje of pite : makej h&m 
The two m?ddie to bidde - P e tu0 midleste / belorcgej to ham of Je 
ones (counsel and m id f i e l stat. be yefbe of red : ham gouernej. And Je 

strength) belong ' d T * J 

to those of the yef Je of strengje : uoluelj Je nyedes. fie tuo laste / 

second stage. 

The two last belongej to ham of Je he3este stat. fie yef Je of onder- 
and wisdom) be- stondinge : his aly3t. fie yef Je of wysdom / hise make J 
the g highest e state. stedeuest / and his cawfermej / and ioynej to god. An- 


oper skele per is / hueruore per byep zeuen. Vor pe 

holy gost be pise zeue yefpes : bestrepp pe zeue ze/mes The seven gifts 

. . , strip away the ; 

uram pe herte. and plontep / and norissep zeue mrtues seven sins from 

eon[t]ravies / pet makep man stedeuestliche yblyssed. 

Jrise byep pe guodes / pet pe holy gost makep ine herte 

huer he descendeb be pise zeue yefbes. Ac er ban ich i win now speak 

. . of seven other 

decendi to pe uzrtues pet byep contraries to pe zeue virtues, whereof 
zeraies : ich pe wylle speke ssortliche /of zeue opre and four cardinal. 
mVtues. huer-of pe pri byep yclieped * : godliche. and 
pe uour byep y-cleped cardinals. 

OF ])E J)RI UERSTE UIBTUES. Of the three first 


j)e pri uerste clepep saynte paul : beleaue. hope. Belief, hope, and 

f it i -i ) -M-i it -•• charity, are called 

and charite. and byep y-cleped / godliche. V©r pet hi godly, they direct 

ordaynep hare herten to god. Beleaue / ase zayp saynt By belief we ac- 

austin : ous zet onder god. and hi ous dep beknawe / knowledge God - 

and to byknawe. to pe lhorde / of huam we healdep al 

pet we habbep. of guode. Hope : zayp. hi ous arerep Hope raises us to 

to god / and ous makep Strang / and hardi / uor to on- 

dernime uor him pet hi pet pacep m'rtue of man. 

Charite. bis zayb. hi ous ioyneb to god. Yor charite ne charity joineth us 

1 ** * * to God. 

is oper ping bote dyere oninge. uor hi dep of pe herte 
and of god : al on. ase zayp saynyte Pol. Beleaue / 
y-zi3t ine gode pe h^este zopnesse. Hope, ouerlyche 
he3nesse. and ouerliche mageste. Charite. ouerliche For three things 
guodnesse. Jjise pri u/rtues byep to-deld be pri degres ^Having heTrT 
of loue. Vor pri pinges me louep ane man. Oper uor JJ ^ reat good 
pet me hep y-herd grat guod of hi//?. Oper uor pet me ^^ood^oThim 
onderstant grat guod of him, Ober uor bet me heb on- 3 - Havi «K r e- 

00 is j ceived great good 

deruonge grat guod of him. )?ise pri maneres of loue : of him. 
byep ine pise pri mrtues. Loue of beleaue : hyefp ine 
dede. Loue of hope: uelp pane smel / and zekp. Loue ofiovearein 
of charite : nimp. and zikp. and zue^p / and halt. tU e^ 

1 MS. ycheped 



nal virtues. 

Godgivethand Of )>e uour m'rtues cardinales spekej? moche J?e 

SSS^tiSr yealde philosofes. Ac J?e holi gost hise yef]? / and 

pwir s ophers he ° ld tek J> / betere an hondredsi]>e. ase zay]? Salomon ine Je 

boc of wysdome. Of bise uour m'rtues be uerste me 

1. Sleight (Pru- J . . 

dence). 2. Tem- clepe)? /sle$J?e — . )>e o]?er temperance. )?e )?ndde/streiigj?3. 
3. er strength. 4. ]>e uer)?e / dom [^tuolnesse]. Jjise uour m'rtues bye]? 
fre^foufctr- y-cleped cardinals, uor Jet hi bye]? newest amang \>e 
dinai virtues. u ?Vtues / huer-of J?e yealde filosofes speke. Vor be 
J)ise uour m'rtues ]?e man gouemej? him-zelue ine )?ise 
wordle. ase J?e apostles gouerne]? holy cherche be his 
i. Prudence keeps cardinals. Sle^Je : loke)? ]?ane man J?et he ne by be 
S a uUed mbeinS none sle 3)> e of f e kueade y-gyled. Temperance. J?et 

2. Temperance he ne fy ^ e none k n ede ]oue amerd. Strengbe. bet he 

preserves man ° " J ' 

from being marred ne ^y be tyene. ober be drede. ober be zone : ouercome. 

by wicked love. j j r r j 

3. strength bears bise bri hyeldeb man ine guod stat auorye him-zelue. 

him up against < . 

sorrow. Dom. nine zet me ordre and me r^t stat a-yens o]?re. 

These are the four tours ine be uour cornyeres of ]?e house of )?e guode 

towers that make 

the house of the ma7me / J?et make)) ]?et hous ziker and Strang. ble3]?e : 

Yor hi yelt to echen al jjet his is. j?ise bye]? J?e uour 


I nd strong? 1 ™ hit were]? wy]? ]?et yeast be porueynge aye )>e perils. 
Temperance] / aye ]?et zou]?. aye J?e wykkede hetes. 
Streng]?. aye ]?et nor]?, aye J?e wyckede cheles. Iustice. 
ay[e] ]?e west, a-ye ]?e wyckede raynes. 

Of the office of the Of j}E OFFICE OF J?E UOUR UJJSTUES. 

four virtues. 

CFoi. 38. a.] j^ise uour m'rtues habbeb diuerse offices / and 

These four virtues 

have diverse mochel ham diuersej? ine hire workes / ase zay]? an aid 


filosofe ]?et hette platoun ine his boc pet he made of J?e 

uour mrtues. and hise to-del]? wel sotilliche. and zay)?. 

Prudence hath w s l e ^jj e heb bri offices, uor be bise m'rtue al bet man 

three offices to r ir r f J r 

direct man aright deb / and zay]? / and JengJ?. al he di3t / and let / and 

as to thought, . 

word, and deed, reulej? to ]?e lyne ot scele. ne noJ?mg he nele do : bote 
ri3t and scele. And ine alle his workes he him poruey]? 
J?et hi by do / by )?e ordinance / and by ]?e wylle of 


god / Jet al y-zi^J / and demj. A grat lhord ssolde he 
by ase me JingJ / Jet Jise onelepi mrtue hedde : and 
be }>ise Jri Jinges him gouernede. 

TEMP^ANCE. Temperance. 

pe mrtue of te/Tiperance he J Jri offices. Vor herte The virtue of tem- 
Jet Jise office lie]) ne wyle / ne ne wylnej Jing : Jet S^ 1 ^*"* 
makej to uorjenehe. Ine jnone Jinge lie ne agelt pe 
Id^e to louie zikerliche. and onder him of scele be zet / 
and dret alio pe couaytises of pe wordle. \)et is to 
zigge. he Jet he]? Jise mrtue. he him loki / pet he ne it keeps man from 
by amerd be Jise Jri Jinges Jet pe wordle ssent. ase t tlThfnel, 
zay]> saint Ion. ze^ne of ulesse : and prede of herte. pri ?° of heart ' 

r and the eovetous- 

COUay tise of pe WOrdle. «ess of the world. 

StRENGJJB. Strength. 

fie u/rtue of strengje / he]) alsuo Jri offices. Vor This virtue hath 
lmo Jet pise uirtue he)) : he him a-rerej an hej a-boue *£%£££?„ 
pe perils Jet bye)? ine Je wordle. No Jing him ne dret / ^ e rl p d erilsofthe 
bote vileynie. 

Aduersete / and prospe?*ite / he berj / and JoleJ 
wyj-oute wepinge. ne ai^thalf ne alefthalf. Wei ssolde 
he by guod kny3t / Jet ine Jise Jri Jinges were wel y- 
proued. Jjise Jri u/rtues armenj / an ordaynej. and it governs the 
agrayjej man / ase to Jri deles of Je herte / Jet me tL^^-ret^ 
cliepej 1 scele. lone, and strengje. Prudence / lokej ™^ and 
Jane sckele 2 / Jet hi ne bi beca3t. Temperance / loke J 
Jane loue / Jet hi ne by amerd. Strengje. loke J Jet 
wyl : Jet hi ne by ouercome. 

Rl^TUOLNESSE. Rightfulness. 

Ei3tuolnesse. makej Jane man ordeneliche libbe Rightfulness 

makes a man to 

amang ojren. vor ase zay J platon. Jis is Je mrtue / live orderly 

,■!,,., -,, , , , among others, 

Jet make J Jet Je man a-yens echen dej Jet he ssel do. toyield reverence 
Vor hi yelt reuerence to ham Jet byej a-boue. loue to t0 . those above 

1 MS. chepe> * MS sclele 


to love his equals, ham pet bye J) "bezide. grace to ham pet bye]? benepe. 

and to show kind- . . , . . , , 

ness to those be- Be pise uour mrtues ydo / is pe man worpi pet lie by 

neath him. . « -. . -, in* i e v. 

gouernour uerst oi lm?i-zelue. and eiterward oi opren. 

Ine pise uour mVtues ham studede pe yealde lilozofes 

pet al pe wordie onworpede / and uorlete / uor u/rtue 

to zeche and wysdom. and peruore hi were y-cleped : 

philosophy sig- lilosofes. Vor filozoie is ase moche worp : ase loue of 

wisdom el ° Ve ° f wysdome. A god hou hit ssolde ous ssende and astonie / 

The old phiioso- hua?me po pet weren paenes / and wyp-out laje y- write 

pliers who strove «? i / i» t 

to climb unto the pet na3fc ne coupe of pe zope grace oi god/ ne ol pe 

Hill of Perfection ., . , , . , . , . -, , , p 

by strength of holy gost : ne wenden. hi chuen m to pe helle ot per- 
p^soTnId' 116 ' frccion of hue be strengfe be hire 03ene uirtue / and 
christians to ne ( j ayne( j G na ^t to loki ope be wordie. And we bet 

shame, who, hav- J ■> L * * 

ing the true be- ^,^1, cr / s tene / and habbet be zobe beleaue and corcne 

lief, yet wallow in J r ' r J 

the mire of this he hestes of god and habbep be grace of pe holy gost. 

world. T ' . ". . 

[Foi. 38. b.] Yef we yze3e pet we m^te more in one daye pronti / 

parme hi ne mo^e ine one yere y-hol / we walewep ase 

wh f -th z W a ^y er benepe / ine pise wose of pise wordie. })eruore 

st Paul, that the za yj, sanynte panl / pet pe payens pet byep wyp-onte 

law without the l a ?e / and dop pe lase. ate daye of dome : hi ssolle ous 

law shall judge us ^ ' r m 

that have the law deme / pet habbet pe la^e / and na3t hise dop. Ac uor 

and do it not. _ , • , -i i / , -it 

pan pet hi ne hedden na3t r^te byleue / ne pane holy 

gost/ne none xuVtue. ne lyf / ne zope beknawynge : hi 

virtue without ne ! mo3e y-wyte hou moche pet hi weren uayre / uor ase 

aead coai ol- dead moche ase per is be-tuene dyad col / and quyk / man 

man * dyad / and man libbinde : ase moche per is be-tuene 

uirtvLG pet is wyp-oute charite / pet is pe guodnesse / 

and pe worp / and pet lyf of pe opre iwVtues. Huer-of 

The four cardinal saynt austyn huawne he specp of pise uour m'rtues / he 

Mnd^ofToveT bis to-delp be uour manures of loue. and be uour pinges 

pet zop. loue makep. panne he zayp / pet pe mrtue of 

fovfonhiheart pradence : is the loue of herte. pet wysliche uorlet / al 

^auihafmay Jet him may derie : and chyest al pet him may helpe. 

harnu and habbe bet he louep / pet is god. ])e virtue of tern- 

Temperance en- * * ' J 

abies man to give p erance is pe loue of pe herte / huerby he him yefp y- 

himself wholly to 

God - 1 MS. no 


holliche and wyponte corrupcion to j?et ha lone J) / pet is 

to god. be u/rtue of stre/?gbe / is be loue of herte / strength enables 

° or i r i him to endure all 

huer-by he polep strongliche alJe pinges pet mo^e come/ things. 

uor bet he louep. Iustice / is pe loue of herte / huer- Justice is the love 

. whereby he serves 

by he seruep onlepiliche and wyp-oute more / to J>et he God and putteth 
lone]?. pet is to god. and uor zuo moche dep onder uot * n a e Vfoot, ,,n88 
alle opre pinges. Jeanne dom zet man / ine his i^te stat. 
pet is abone alle pinges / and onder god. wyp-oute J)ise f ^^ es n e one 
uour lurtues non ne may cliue into be helle of perfec- may climb unto 

J J theHillofPerfec- 

cion. Vor hno pet wyle zuo he3e clyue / him behouep tion. 

ate uerste pet he habhe prudence / pet him makie to 

onworpi pe wordle / and strengpe permide / pet him 

yeue grat herte / of grat ])ing to onderuonge. and U0I3L 

Of operhalf fet he habbe temperance /uor pet he ne 

by to moche y-charged. and ri^tuolnesse per-mide / Jet is 

pe ri^te pe]?. and him ssewy godes riche. ase god dede 

to Iacob. ase zayb pe hoc of wysdome. Huo pet pise whoso had these 

_ , virtues should be 

uour uirtues mi3te zuo habbe / he ssolde by wel per- blessed and per- 

,,. , . _ n/ i • 1 fected in this 

feet / and ybhssed me pise wordle / and more me pe wor{(1> and more 
opre. Vor he ssolde by ine payse of herte. and ine mtheollier - 
blisse gostlych / na3t ne sso[l]de him faily / ac wexe ine 
god pet he ssolde habbe ine him / ine huam he him 
ssolde lyky. 

Nou we ayen comep to oure kende. and bidde we Let us pray the 
mid al oure herte / pane holy gost / pet tekp pe hertes. »Z™?Lt us 
pet he by oure auocat / and ous teche to sseawy hou he ^°*^^ ese 
be bise zeue yefbes : bestrepeb pe zeue zeranes of oure the seven sins 

* *> * 1 j j irom our hearts. 

herten. and he zette / and norissy pe zeue lurtues. 

OF \)E YEFj) OF DREDF, dread. ^ ^ 

»e yefpe of drede : is pe uerste / of pe yefpes. pet %££*£* 
kest out alle be zeraies of be herte. ase we habbep yzed the sins from the 

J * J heart. 

beuore wel propreliche. He bestrepp pe rote of prede. [Foi. 39. a.] 

It strippeth the 

and zet in his stede : pe mrtue of mildenesse. ISou root of pride, and 

,, , i.i ii 1 i_ j. i i_ ♦ setteth in its stead 

loke and onderstand wel hou. pe zene3ere pet slepp me the virtue of 
dyadhche zerane / is ase pe ribaud and dronke / pet hep ThfXner is like 

the drunkard 

128 the sinner's unconsciousness. 

who knows not a l uorlore in be tauerne / and is zuo naked and zuo 

his nakedness and 

poverty. poure : Jet he ne hej nsi^t. ac na3t he hit ne uelj ne 

playnej. Ac he wenj by a wel grat lhord. 

Ac Jamie he hep y-slepe / and com]? to him-zelue : 

panne he yuelj his kuead / and knauj his folye / and 

The first good that him playnej of his harm. j)et is Jet uerste guod Jet 

doth to the sinner Je holy gost dej to Je zene3ere / huamie he him nisitej. 

his'sensef, im t0 V° r ne n * m J e ^ n ^ s wyttes / and his onderstondinge / 

so that he may and him brengj ayen to him-zelue. zuo Jet he him 

hw fallen W he knauj / and him reuertej huet guodes ne he J uorlore / 

and how waste- and ine huet pouerte he is y-ualle be his ze^ne. ase 

squandered his dede Je guode mannes zone Jet his eritage wastede and 

heritage. dispewdede ine ribaudie and leuede lecherusliche / 

alhuet him behouede to loki zuyn. ase oure lhord ous 

makej Jise uorbysne ine his spelle. Atenende Je 

zene3eres [ ase zayj Salomon is ase Je ilke Jet slepj 

amide Je ze / and Jet ssip spilj / and he na^t hit ne 

The sinner is as uelj / ne none drede ne he J. Ac huarcne Je holy gost 

him awakej : panne yuelj he and zi^J his peril / and 

one in prison, in 
irons and fetters, 

and strongly begin!) to habbe drede of him-zelue. And yet eft be 

guarded, as was "or J r 

St Peter in 
Herod's prison. 

zene^ere is ase Je ilke Jet is in pr/sone in ysnes and 
The wretch ine ueteres / and ine greate lokinge / ase wes saynte 

thinketh not of 

the gibbet, but peter ine herrodes pnsone. and Je wrechcne ne JengJ 
dreameth^hat he of him Jet hine halt : ne of Je gibet Jet him abit. ac 
and^eddtngl! s lepJ> an d met Je* na £ e P to testes an( i to bredales. Ac 

w the angeUhaf f e £ mCe ° f t 6 ho1 ^ £ 0St ls aSe t Q an § le J ?et awakede 

awoke st Peter za ynte petren / and him deliurede of Je hand of herrode. 

and delivered him J ' 

out of the hand of nor hi awakej Jane zene^ere / and him deliurej of Je 
arousetiuhe^in- hand of Je dyeule. Ateende 2 Je zene3ere is ase Je ilke 
hT"hr Jet wenj by Strang / an hoi / and he hej Jane dyaj 
power of the onder his clo Jes. Vor he hej Je kuede humours and 
The sinner ween- corruptes ine Je bodye / huer-of he ssel sterue wyj-inne 

eth to be strong, 

yet he hath Death ane monje. and he wen J libbe yet uourti yer / ase 

under his clothes. _ . *» , i , -r\ * re 

zayj elyuans ine uers 01 Je dyaje. Do away Je scones 
The Holy Ghost and Je scornes. uor zuich me wrikj onder his clojes 
dan. 6 g ° P iyS1 Jet wenj by Strang and hoi. Ac Je holi gost is Je guode 

1 zene^ere ? 2 Atenende ? 

the singer's sickness. . 129 

]eche / Jjet amaystrejj his ziknesse / and chongep his that masters the 
humours, and him yef Jj zuych a hyter medecine : Jjet ^t^man such 
him heljj. and him yefjj Jjet lif. Alsuo troblejj oure ^ r h ™^ h ine 
lhord Jje herte Jjet he wyle hele. ase zayjj dauijj in \ e £? d 8™ eth 
sautere. and him wyjj-nymjj 1 / and dejj him come ay en our Lord troubles 
him-zelue to knawe / ase he dede adam : oure uerste i«* wm heal, 
uader efter Jje zenne Jjo he hi?n hedde / amawg Jje trawes 
of paradys. Hueruore he him zede : 'adam huer art Jjou?' m 

1 ° * Three questions 

bri obre acsiwgges made he be enne of his angles to be ««*ed the angel 
> r no ^ & r of Hagar> when 

bierne [of] saynt abraham / bet hette agar bo hi ulea? uram she fled from her 


hare lheuedi. Agar he zayde / ' huarcnes comst Jjou. Huyder 1. whence comest 

tt , i i , rt i t • , • • i , , i i thou P 2. Whither 

gest Jjou. Huet dest Jjou? pise Jjri acsmges make]? Jje holy goe st thou? 
gost to Jje zene^ere huanne he awake]? and arerejj and him thou P a 
openejj Jje e3en of Jje herte. and him yelt his wyttes and Th ^e°three b "* 
his onderstondinge. ' Huer art Jjou ? ' zayjj he : Jet is to HoT^Ghost^uts 
zigge : c Yzn 2 wrechche inehuiche zorses / and ine huiche to the siuner 

00 ? J ' when he awaketh 

perils Jjou art in })ise wordle. Vor Jjou art ase Jje ilke Mm and openeth 

tils eyes. 

J>et slepjj ine Jje ssipe / Jjet is yspild / and na^t hit not « Look," he says, 
ne onderstant his peril.' ' Hua^nes comst Jjou? ' Jjet is to t to U t ^» pen 
zigge : < Loke wrechche Jji lif ca» arrieres / nor Jjou comst JC^l^I 
uram J?e taurnie of Jje dyeule / huer Jjou hest / Jji lif the tlevi1 ' 8 
y-wasted / and y-lore Jjine time / and alle Jje guodes 
Jjet god Jje hedde y-yeue.' <Huet dest Jjou?' Jjet is to ^ how brtttle 
zigge : <Ysy hou Jjou art fyeble / and brotel / and a- *£ d ^ le 
uorye Jjet body / and a-uorye |je zaule. Jjou wenst by and how thy 
hoi / and Strang, ac par auentwre J?ou hest Jje humours [^JJ™™* 8 
ine Jje bodye Jjet Jje ssolle lede to Jje dyajje. And ine death - 
Jje zaule Jjou hest kueade Jjeawes / Jjet Jje ssolle lede to 
Jje dyajje of helle : bote Jje grace of god : Jje ne werie.' Look and under . 
Efterward. < huider gest Jjou V bet is to zigge / < wrechche stand that thou 

° ' J ' goest to death, 

bench / and loke / and onderstand / bet Jjou gest to Jje and shait fan 
dyajje. ojjer Jjou sselt ualle ine Jje hand of herrodes / ofthedevii. 
bet is Jje dyeuel / and to his mayne.' And Jjeruore zayjj 

,r i • n I \ ILokewelhyer^ 

be guode man. * Man may longe nis lyues wene / and Man thinks his 
ofte him lye3e]j his wrench, ase uayr weder went in-to bu e t f ten is lie & ' 
1 wy\>-nyn\> in MS. 2 So in MS. 8 ta in MS. eoeive " 




All shall drink 
of death's drink, 

wherefore repent 
thee, ere thou 
fall from thy 

Thou goest into 
hell where is fire, 
brimstone, and a 
thousand ever- 
lasting pains. 

These four 
questions are 
like four strokes 
of thunder, that 
astound and 
terrify the 

How mildness 
waxeth in the 
The four 
thoughts above 
mentioned strip 
the garden of 
the heart of the 
four roots 
of pride. 
These roots are 
the four horns 
that God showed 
to Zechariah the 

The four smiths 
are the four afore- 
said thoughts. 

When man 
thinketh whence 
he cometh, and 
and knoweth the 
poverty and vile- 
ness of his birth, 
[Fol. 40. a.] 

then the grace of 
God enables him 
to feel his own 

rene / and uerliehe make]? Ms blench. £er ne is nofer 
king ne kuene / J>et ne ssel drinke of deajjes drench, 
maw Jeruore J?e befench / er ]?ou ualle of J>i bench / J?i 
zenne aquench.' J?ou gest to pe dome / huer J?ou sselt 
uinde : fane domes man zuo sterne / and zuo stout / an 
zno strayt / an zuo nnjtuol. J?ou gest in-to helle / huer 
J?ou sselt yuinde : ver. and bernston. and a J?ousond 
pinen / Jet neure ne endej? J?e uor to pini. And J»ous 
def pe holy gost to pe zene3ere / J?e e^en openi and [he] 
yzyj? a-boue / and bene]?e / and beuore / and be-hynde. 
J?ise bye]? uour strokes of jjondre / Jet astonej? fane 
zene3ere / and makej> ssake / and habbe drede. And 
J?ise uour to zi^Jje / bye]) J?e uour smale roten of pe rote 
of mildenesse. Jet pe yef]?e of drede zet ine ]>e herte of 
pe zenejere huawne god him uisite]?. 


])e uour J>03tes be-uore ysed strepe]? of pe gardine of 
pe herte j pe uour rotin of prede J>et pen bye]?, huer-of 
]>e proude wen]? / of azemoche ase can habbe. o]?er 
azemoche he is of im^te. o]?er azemoche ase he can 
conne. o]?er ase moche ase can by wor]?. ]?ise bye]? ]?e 
uour homes, Jet is to zigge : J?e uour cornardyes ]?et 
amerre]? Jo contraye / Jet god ssewede to zakarie ]?e 
prafete. Ac ]?e uour smijes ]?et he him ssewede efter- 
ward / J?et comen efter ]?e uour homes to uelle : bye]? 
J?e uour fortes be-uore yzed. Yor huamie ]?e man ]?engj? 
huaraies he com]? / and onderstant and knauj? his 
pourehede / J?e vilhede / ]?e brotelhede of his beringe / 
hou he wes beyete in zeraie / and of zuo uoule matere 
y-mad And y-ssape. and ine zuo poure house y-her- 
ber^ed. ine zuo greate pouerte y-bore. and ra]?re dyad 
to J?e zaule : panne ybore to pe wordle. in huiche 
zor^es he wes y-norissed. ine huet traaail he hep 
yleued. hou he he]? his time uorlore. and he yzi^J 
J?ane greate heap of his zewnes. and pe guodes Jet he 
he]? uorlete to done. Jpawne him de]? 1 J?e grace of god 


yuele mid herte : J?et he ne is na3t wor]?. Efterward Afterwards when 

huarcfne] he pengp huer he ys / and j-zi^p ]?ise wordle / where he is, that 

Jet ne is bote an exil and a dezert uol of lyons an of * teZTtaiiot* 

lipars. a forest uol of J?yeues an of calketreppen / and of ^"^£11 of 

grines. ane ze uol of storm / and of peril, a fornays anhet thieves > 

mid uer of zeraie and of zorje. a ueld of uiy^t huerinne 

him be-houej) eure to libbe ine werre and wy3te* mid 

dyeulen pet zuo moche byej? wyse / and sotil / and 

Strang, fcawne him dej? J?e grace of god yuele to zo>e / % ^XhZn' 

and to aparceiuy his onconnynge / and J?et he ne can weal ™ ess and 

na^t.' Ate laste h[u]a/zne he J?eng]? and onderstant his 

zercnes and his defautes ase he is uol of zewnes and ydel 

of alle guode. J?a?me him yef]? pe holy gost y-uele his 

pourehede / and pet he ne he]? i^t. Efte?*ward hua/ine 

he y-zi3J) be-uore him huiderward he gep. and he y- 

zj^p ]?ane dyajj to huam non ne may wy]?stonde, he 

yzi3f his demere god / zuo rt3tuol be huas hand him thought of his 

,1 , . . n i n / 1 • i sins and defaults 

be-houej? guo. he j-zi^p ]?e pmen 01 helle / hmche non shows him his 
ne may ascapie, J?a/me yef J? him god iuele ]?et mawnes ^hZ then ifthe 
nu^te ne is na3t / and J?et he ne may na3t. Huamie he f/""^ l ^ a to i ^., 
j-zi^p J?a?me / and uel)? / and onderstant pet he ne is 
na3t wor]? / J?et he na3t ne hej». J?et he na3t ne de]? / 
and }?et he ne dej? na3t / and ]?et he ne may na3t. 
]?a?me begin]? he uor to byenne poure of spirit. Ine 
{jise uour ]?03tes / bye]? J?e uour bo3es of ]?e rote of pe 


trawe of mildenesse. Jpis trau is yzet bezide pe welle of ness is set beside 
godes drede. huer-of hit is echedaye y-wetered / ine God's fear. 

j. -I. , j • iij j • The seven virtues 

wyntre : and ine zomere. ]?et is me wykkednesse and me are geven gtep9 
guodnesse. Nou sselt ]?ou conne ]?et ech of ]?ise zeuen cnmheth t^good 
mrtues. huerof ich onderstonde to spekene of his stapes. n**™* a " d 

r x good deeds. 

huer-by profite]? an clifj? / and wext ine pe herte. and virtue groweth 

his dedes / and his guode Jeauwes / huerby hy hare a cypress, or a 

ssewe]? wy]?-oute. Yor mrtue wext an he3 ase palme / and^preadeth 

o]?er ase cipres. o]?er ase cedre. and farme spret and j^JJIjf 18 nght 
keste his bo3es : an ech half. 

9 * 



Of the steps of 

This virtue, hath 
seven steps. 

The first step is 
to know one's 
poverty and 
defects, and to 
feel one's own 
and vileness. 

Some know their 
faults but do not 
feel them. 

The second step 
is to feel and 
bewail one's sins, 
and to endeavour 
to get rid of the 
sorrow and 

The third step of 
meekness is to 
confess and shrive 
and cleanse our 
hearts of sin. 

The fourth step 
is to desire to 
make known 
one's un- 

The fifth step is 
to hear willingly, 
gladly of our own 
failings and 

The sixth step is 
a willingness to 
endure reproach, 

Of J)e stapes of mil[d]hede. 
Of pe mVtue of mildenesse spec]? saynt ansalm. and 
zayp Jet hi hep zeue stapes huerby hy clifp an he3 / al- 
huet pet hi come / to perfeccion. Nou onderstand wel 
hou. j)e uerste stape of mildenesse / is to knawe his 
pourehede. and his defaute. Vor ase zay]? saynt 
hernard. Mildenesse is pe uirtue pet make]? pane man 
hi???-zelue to onworpi / and healde uor vil. Huanne he 
him knaup zopliche. £is knanlechinge wext of uour 
roten beuore yzed. Ac per bye]? zome ]?et wel conne 
hyre defautes and hire pouerte / ac na}t hit ne uelep. 
J^eruore is pe o]?er stape : ynele / and playni his de- 
fautes and his pouerte. And J?et he yuele his zo^e and 
his zicnesse / he yern]? blej?eliche to ]?e fisiciane / and 
zai]? ]?et he y-uel]? J?e kueade humours ine ]?e bodye. 
blij?e he is hua?zne ]?et he may his purgi and keste out. 
and peruore is J?e pridde stape of myldenese / his zennes 
and his kueade wylles ble]?eliche beknawe / and ssriue / 
and his herte clensi. Ac ]?er bye)? zome pet beknawe]? 
hare defautes / and y-uelej? / and zo^uolle bye]? / and 
wel ham sriue]?. Ac hi nolden anone manere ]?et o]?re 
hit wyste hou hy do]?. peruore ]?e uer]?e stape is of ]?ise 
mVtue : wylni to by y-knawe / and y-healde uor uyl / 
and onwor]?. Ac J?er bye]? eftsone some ]?et wel 
yk[n]awe]? and uele]? / and ziggej? here defautes / and 
ziggej? wel : ich am a kuead / and zenuol / and zuych / 
and zuych. ac yef an o]?er him zede : uorzo]?e pet is 
zoj? / Jet )?ou zayst : zo^uolle hi wolden by / and 
wolden by wrope to J?e dyaj?e. peruore is J?e vifte stape 
of J?ise trawe / yhere ble]?eliche of him-zelue. and pet 
me him zigge his defautes. and pet is pet saynt bernard 
zayp / pet pe zope milde : wyle by hyalde uor vyl. 
na3t ase milde y-praysed. peruore is pe zixte stape 
hua^ne pe man polep in polemodnesse pet he by uoul- 
liche y-draje / and ase persone onworplych / ase dede 


be guode king dauid / bet bolede zueteliche / and lheste as did David when 

* & ° l r r I ^ Shimei threw 

ane sergont bet hette semey / bet him breu mid stones / stones at him, and 

. to . . s P° ke evil of 

and him missede / and him zede al pet lie coupe of uoul. him. 

Yet eft per is a stape / hueri/me is be uolle of perfec- The seventh step 

is a willingness to 

cion of pise uirtue. j)et is wylny to zope / and mid be esteemed vile, 
herte wylny wyp-oute fayntise : to by y-hyealde vyl / persecuted. 
and villiehe to by y-dra^e. J5et is ariat pouerte of gost. Thisistruepoverty 

, of spirit and meek- 

and mi[l]dehede of herte. Mochelouede pise pouerte pe ness of heart. 

riche king of heuene. huaraie zuo uer he com hit uor 

to zeche / ase uram heuene : to pe erpe. Wei he hit 

louede ine herte / po he hit zuo dyere bo3te / pet al pet 

he hedde / and pe robe of his regge he yaf / uor pet he 

wes zobuolliche poure. Mochel he louede mildenesse / Much did Christ 

pve meekness 

hua?me pe ilke pet neure zerme ne dede. pe ilke ine when he came 

, ^ c> i i i ' i ^ » * amongst thieves, 

huam nes neure detaute / him dede amang pe pyeues. that iS) amo ngst 

Jet wes amang adames zones / and him clopede mid pe the sons ° am ' 

elope of pe zenuolle / and of pe misdoere / uor pet he 

wes villiche y-draje ase a pyef. Hueruore he zede to 

his apostles pe ni^t of pe sopiere / mid graate wille. 

Ich habbe perne paske y-wylned. pet is to zigge : perne 

dyap. pise ssame. pise wendinge. J^on he3ere ne may 

pis trau arise. And huo pet were al-to pise stape of 

mildenesse y-cliue : wyp-oute drede : he ssolde by y- 

blissed ine bise wordle. Vor be ilke bet bis zede : ne Cnrist teacheth us 

1 , to he meek, and to 

may lye3e / pet pe he3este zop zaip mid his moupe. leamofmm, 

' Y-blissed byep pe poure of gost.' And hou pet pis by / 

he him ssewep hua^ne he zede. ' Lyernep of me : and 

na^t of obren / uor to by milde of herte ase ich am. so that we ma y 

■> T ' J find rest for our 

and pou sselt uinde reste to pine zaule.' ])is reste is pis souls - 
blissinge. Ac huych pet hit is / ne huet hit hatte / [Fol 41 a , 
non ne wot : bote he pet hit nimp. J?a?me yef pou wien thou hast 
wylt ywyte huet pet is : do pi mi 3 te of pine herte zuo f^^of 
moche ouercomo / bet bou by y-cliue to be zeuende mildness then 

'IT J J r thou mightest ga- 

stape of mildenesse. and ba^ne bou mist fruyt gaderi ther fruit and eat 

r . . of the tree of life. 

and ete of pe trawe of liue / ase god zayp ine pe boc of 


Of the seven ^ F ^ E ZEUE B0 3 ES 0F MI[l]dENESSE. 

ness. Ovt of ]?e trawe of mildenesse wexej? zeue bo3es. 

1. To honour God, uor J?is mVtue him sseawe]? ine zeue maneres. be god to 

2. to praise others, 1 • • i ^ ±. i i • ij.~ 

s. to despise one's worfssipie. be ofren to prayzy. be him-zelue to on- 
seif, 4. to love po- wor j,i ^ pourebede to louie. be blebeliche to serui. be 

verty, 5. to minis- j r i 

ter joyfully, 6. to heriynge to byuly. be him-zelue of al / ine sod y-leue. 

beflee praise, 7. to J ° J J / o J 

he in good belief, fie zo]?e milde : wor]?ssipe]? god in ])ri maneres. Yor he 

ylefj? simpleliche. He ]?onke]? treweliche. He him bit 

The man truly deuouteliche. He him worssipeb uerst / ine bet he him 

meek honours God # . 

as a child doth its lefj? simplehche of al J>et he zay]?. ase dej? ]?e litel child 

his mayster. and nor J?is skele / he]? oure byleaue 

merite. Jamie hno }?et wel ylefj? : god grat wor]?ssipe 

He believes His hi??i de]?. alsuo ase he de]? to ]?e maraie worJ?ssipe Jet 

that is the begin- him lef]? be his simple worde. and ]?et is j?e beginnynge 

Sdng/ ^ e " t° done wel / J?et is nyeduol to alle fan / J? et wyllej? 

ham boner^e. 1 ase zai]? zainte paul. ]?et me ylefj? god 

ope his simple worde ]?et al is zo]? J?et he zay]?. onlepi- 

liche nor J>et he zay]? wy]?-oute oJ?re skele to zeche. and 

The heretics will wy]?-oute o]?re proeue zeehe. Vor J?et bye]) J?e bougres 

without good and ]?e heretiks proude norlore. nor hi nolle]? ylene 

evidence. god : wy]?-oute guod wed. ]?et is to ziggene : bote-yef 

hi y-zy kuik scele / ac hi ham hyealde]? / and zigge]? 

ase ]?e gauelere he him halt to J?e wynnynge ]?araie to ]?e 

of this disbelief simple worde ne wyle nonen ylene. And J?erof bye J? 

comes all manner n v j> I i £ • "u^i • ™^ 

of heresies. y-come alle ]?e manures ol eresye /and ol misbeleumge. 

Vor J?e blynde pronde / ]?et hare wyt wylle]? emni to 
godes wysdome / hi nolle]? y-lene ]?ing ]?et god zayj? / 
bote-yef me ne betoke ham gnod wed. ]?et is to zigge : 

True believers ober bane qnicke scele / o]?er aperte miracle. Ac we 

have a hundred i-ii/i 

times more faith J?et ]?e ri^te byleane hyealde]? / ylene]? betere an hon- 

in God' sword than ,.,..,.,. * . ■, , T , 

in any miracle] dred zi]?e him ]?et ne may na3t lye3e : panne we ne do]? 

iey may see. ne miracle / ne scele / ne him-zelue Jet we yze]?. God 

zay]? he wile deme euriwne / be his dedes. and of eche 

ydele worde / ]?e behoue]? yelde scele to him / ate daye 

of dome, fie milde Jet ]?is yher]? / hit ylef]?. and dret / 

1 bou^e ? or bor^e? 


an dep payne to loky his herte / and his moup / and 

alle his workes. Efterward pe zope milde / ponkep god The truly mild 

treweliche of alle his guodes / Jet he him hep y-do / all H i 8 gifts that 

and pet he him dej) echedaye / and pet he wyle do. of e ^ receive 

Efterward ase we habbep y-sseawed / ine pe zigginge of 

prede. Vor pe milde is ase pe poure man / pet of 

little elmesse : hep greate blisse. and yelt ponkes mid 

herte / to his guod doere. J^a/me hua^ne pe milde / ne 

for all that he re- 

yzi3p ine him najt / huer-hi he bi worpy to pe breade ceiveth comes of 

pet he et / he be-knaup treweliche / and y-zi^j? / and ^ giaee m 

onderstant / and ylefp / pet al hit is of klene grace / 

and of yefpe. and na$t of him. al pet god him zent / 

and yefp / and lenp. And nor pet he ne lefp na3t of 

him-zelue / of pe guodes of his lhorde / pet be his hand 

pasep : peruore is pe sergont trewe / ase zayp sant 

bernard. Efterward pe zope milde worp ssipep god / He prays to God 

meekly, with true 

and him byt mildeliche. pet his to zigge mid zope tears and sim P u- 
teares / pet comep of godes grace / and mid ri3tuolle C1 y ^ oh ^ r ^ 
oninge of herte. Yor hit him pingp / pet he is ase pet for it seems to him 

. -it -i i • - i i i i. that he is as the 

child pet is echedaye benore his maistre / and m^t can child( that is each 
his lessonn. Oper pet he by ase ys pe poure ine dette. miter and know- 
pet is y-ualle ine pe hand of gaueleres. and na3t ne hep f^ ot 
huermide hit may endy. Oper pet he by ase is pe pief or like a thief 
yproued / and y-nome and mid mo pamie an hondred f^a hundred 
misdedes pet hep nie 3 pe wyppe ine pe nykke. And pet £^£*£ 
he is ase pe y-maymed ate porche of pe cherche / pet near his neck - 
ne hep none ssame uor to sseawy alle his maimes to maimed at the 


alle pon pet per guop / uor pet me ssolde habbe of him hath no shame to 
pite. Yef pou wilt parcne lyerni god to bidde. and to to excite tl b ie pifcy ' 
aouri ari 3 t : pise uour hit wytnessep. pet child, he pet ^f ^ f those 
is ine dette. pe pyef. and he pet is ymaymed. 

J)H 0bER B02 OF MILDENESSE. The second bough 

, ' of meekness. 

Wone is of pe zope milde opren to herie / and The meek in heart 
praysy. and poty him uorp / an worpssipij. Praysy ine TearolhTrspraised 
herte / herie ine moupe. and be dede : worpssipe / here. and honoured - 


He is like the bee He is ase Je smale ule^e Jet make]? Jet hony. and 

flowery fields and beuly3 J stench, and zekj Je ueldes yfloured. and of Je 

floures zoucj Jane deau Imerof hi make)? Jet hony uor 

his hous to astori. pet dej pe milde herte Jet na3t ne 

Hetakethnoheed nymj hede of stench, ne of pe lackes of ojren. ac alle 

faults. n ' pe guodes Jet ojre habbej y-rewarded. and louej. and 

here]?, and prayzej and co?iceyuep pe zuetnesse : of 

deuocion. hueruore his bodi is ondo : and his inwyt 

uolueld. ' Yor-zoje zoj hit is y-bore of stones and of 

nlyntes / kan he zouke pe oly / and Jet hony :V ase ous 

tekj pe sauter. Yor he ne wille ne^ne zuo kuead / ne 

zuo hard / ne zuo zennol : Jet he ne can dra^e materie : 

He praiseth others god uor to herie. Ine his herte he prayzej ojre / ine 

for three reasons. . __ ,. .. n . 

i. Hebeiieveth Jri maneres. Yor he ylefj more ojremaraie wyt : 

more than mT Jaraie his 03en. He wile Jet pe wil of ojren bi more 

2 W He desires the 7~&o : Jamie his. He him fyej more in ojres mrtue : 

Sfonowedmore ] )SinnG ine nis - ^1 J> e contrary e dej pe proude / ase we 

than his. habbej be-uore yssewed. Efterward he here]) / and 

more in others' prayse J be ojre be speche. pe gnodes Jet ojre do]) / and 

virtues than in his 

own. habbej : he hise he3ej / and here]?, pe kueades : he 

Themeekexcuseth ;hi s excusej / and k>3ej. and lessej. pe myddelguodes : 

faults of others, he onderstant ine gnode / and went alneway in-to pe 

guode half. And Jet is aye pe Jri queade teehches of 

The proud man, Je misziggeres / Jet arerej Jet quead : an k>3e]) Jet 

delights to hear of guod. and pe middel finges ouerjrawej and mis-wend- 

defects? 611 S e J- Be dede he wor JssipeJ eurinne / and praysej ase 

moche ase he ssel and may do. wyj-oute misdo. ]>et ne 

dej na3t pe proude. ac al pe contrarie / ase we habbej 

be-uore y-ssewed. ine pe chapitele of prede. 

Of meek heart. Of MILDE HERTE. 

The meek heart 

keeps ail his vir- Wone is of milde herte. bet alle his guodes he heb 

tues hehind his . 

hack, and his de- behinde his regge. and alle his queades : beuore his 

fects hefore his 

eyes. e3en. An Jeroi com]? / Jet 01 asemoche Jet he prayzej 

[Foi. 42. a.] more ij e j> re . ij e more ixe hiw-zelue misprayseb. He 

He is like the co- Y Y Y r j y 

vetous man, he f s ase pe wel couaytouse wrechche / Jet alneway he J 


Jet e 3 e to Je guocles : Jet ojre habbej / and do J alneway. hath an eye to the 
and make]? alneway se?^blont : Jet he ne he]? na 3 t. Yor (for there is a 

. holy eovetousness 

asemoche ase Jer is an holy prede : alzuo Jer is an holy and a holy envy). 

eoueytise / and an holy enuye. Hit is ase hit is of Je 

litel childe / Jet is Je kinges zone / and eyr of Je king- 

riche Jet wepj ine Ins crete. and na 3 t ne kan of his 

hejnesse / ne of his richesse. He is ase Jet simple ssep. He, like the simple 

i ii«- i t nii i -it sheep in whom all 

me nuam al hit is guod and profitable, and wolle. and is good and profit- 
skin, and uless. and melk. and frnt. and dong. and ne fl es h, milk, fruit, 
wen), / and ne kan na 3 t. ne na 3 t ne JengJ. Ine Jise ^^^^ 
manure zayj saynt abraham Je greate patrmrche. Jet he {n e [J£ f ' mann r 
nes bote esssse and doust And saynt lob. bet wes zuo Saint Job speaks 

of himself as but 

moche grat to Je wordle. and holy ine god / Jet zayde ash, spaiks, 

«i- i < tt ^ 'iii i i flltn > stench, ver- 

oi nim-zelue. Huet am lcn bote esssse. and spearken. min, wind, sha- 
and hor. and stench, wermes. wynd. ssed. and smech. ° w ' an 8m ° e * 
Jet Je wynd berj and gaderej draye. Jet to na 3 t ne* is 
worj : bote to Je uere.' And alsuo ase Je zoje milde As the true meek, 

-.,,, i«ii /i'T ii one Praises others 

here J Je o Jre and mid herte / and mid mouje / and in a threefold 

mid dede. ase we habbej ysed. alsuo he blamej him- 6 o uTthree ways 

zelue ine fise Jri manures, he him JingJ Jet Ieromes heblameslum8elf 

zay J of himzelue. Jet yef he eth / ojer yef he drincj / 

yef he wakej / yef he slepj / Jet Je ilke orible bosyne 

}mn went to Je yeare : 'coin to Jine dome.' And Jeruore 

Je ilke Jet nele na 3 t by Jer ydemd : he ne endi neure 

hiere : him-zelue to deme and damni. wib-nyme his and condemns his 

* ^ deeds, words, and 

dedes. and his wordes. and his Jo 3 tes. and clensi. and thoughts. 
telle, and wese. and wyberwese. and wyb-nime. Yor he *? e l ee f more . 

^ ^ ' J *J i chaff than corn in 

y-zi 3 J more yno 3 of chef : Ja^ne of corn. And Jeruore his life > 

Jet he ne by y-demd ine Je cort of ri 3 te / ne he nele 

na 3 t lete ne smal ne gmt / Jet ne ssel by examened / 

and y-zed / and y-demd / ine Je cort of merci. Jjet is um^utaa^ 

ine holy ssriftte ine Jo cort. huo acounte J ari 3 t : he is g° u !j of holy 

al quit. Ac ine Je cort of ri 3 te / Jet ssel bi ate daye of 

dome / huo Jet ssel a 3 t : him behouej paye. ne neure Z^lmZTilll^ 

aq^'tti he ne may. and Jeruore ha ssel by y dammed. Court of Right at 

Yor he mot yelde : ojer hongy. A. alias huet ssel Je 


woe to the man n^ e paye . w na ^ ne ^ij k te bane nhicke y-carked 

whose neck shall r j r ? T s 

then be loaded mid zewne dyadlich ? Huo ]?et onderstode and ynelde 

with deadly sin. . . . - 

Jjise J?mges / lie him wolde hyealde / and wypd^e 

uram scornes and uram leazinges / pet he he J? yuounde / 

The sinner must aye i, e zo u e milde I j, e t god dredeb. bet nor ban hy 

shrive him gladly J Y Y I r & r r f 

and oit. wyllep ham loki clenliche / hy ssrinep ham blepehche / 

and ofte. Ac litel is worp to maky gnod dom : bote 

]?e demere ne by efterward yprayzed treweliche. and 

peruore al-zuomoche ase pe zope milde / make]? of him- 

zelne gnod dom / ine zoi^e of herte. and ine ssrifte of 

He must doom monpe. and zno dep be dede zop dom. Yor he him 

E^bbirf 1 * demjj ase ane pyef. and he him de]> zofliche to pe 

penance. gybet of penonee wyp-onte slacnesse / and wyp-onte 


Tm^ess.° U8h ^ UEI * E B0 3 0F MY[L]DENESSE. 

Hvo pet hate]? prede : he lone]? ponerte ]?et zet pe 
herte lo3e / and ]?ernore alle zo]?e milde lonye}? ponerte / 
and bye]? ponre of gost. ]?e zo]?e milde lonej? ponerte 
for three reasons : nor J?ri seeles. Vor J?e perils Jet bye]? ine richesses. 

rich°e r s , thePerilS ° f Yor f e g uodes f et h J 6 ) in g uode P°^rehede. And 
2. for the virtues uor w 0( j \ oue ^ G mo m0 che ponerte bo he^wes ine be 

in poverty, ' ° x J 

s. for God loved WO rdle / and yet hit lonep / ase be holy wrytircge wyt- 

poverty. . . 

nesse]? in nele stedes. j)mne zayp he m ]?e santere / 
God hears the J?et he y-herp ]?e benes / and ]?e wylles of ]?e ponre. and 
S'on^eVoor, ham pornay]? / and agrayfe]? hare lyfno]? zneteliche / 
and is their refuge and mid RU0( i sar , nr. and he is hire refu / and ham 

and sarety. ° ' 

God is Father to gse i sou ^ > j^ za yj, j j, e -fc g d is ]?e nader to ]?e ponre. 
and ham he]? y-yene mi^te / o]?ren to inggi. And onre 

poolf blessedthe lord ate biginnynge of his nayre sermon zay]?. 'pet y- 

ri n C h CUrSedthe hlyssed bye]? ]?e ponre: and a-corsed bied 1 pe riche / pet 
habbe]? hyer hire paradis.' Ac pe zo]?e paradys / he]? 
he y-yene pe ponre. zno : ]?et hi hit mo3e yene / and 
zelle. Ac pe wordle nele y-lene / pet god zigge zo]? / 
]?et ponerte by J?ing y-blissed. Ac pet is of J?e rede of 

poverty is blessed. god ^ uader j, eruore i esu crist zay]? ine his spelle. 

The true meek one 
loveth poverty, 

The world does 
not believe that 


1 Vayre uader ych yelde pe ponkes and heriynges. pet pirn 
pinges y-hed / and y-hole best : to pe wyse. and hise 

hest y-sseawed to pe milde.' pe milde his y-zyeb / and The meek man 

x ' loves poverty a 

wel his yleuep / and louiep / an hondredzipe more hundred times 

, ••Ti more than the nig- 

ponerte : pawne pe mpmg dep his nchesse. Ine pri gard his wealth, 

pinges ssewep pe man / pet he louep pouerte. Huawne in three ways, 

he louep and halt blepeliche pe ueh^rede. and pet lyf. 1 He loves and 

and be wones of be poure. Hire uelasrede he loueb / holds communion 

xx j r i -vvitlx the poor, as 

ase iesu crist dede per huils ha wes ine pe wordle. Vor Ch "st once did, 

kende wyle pet pe lamhren louie ham togidere / and 

beuly pe wolues. and pe children ham louie to-gidere. 

and beuly pe uela3rede of pe greaten. and pe milde 

ham louie to-gidere / and become uela3es to-gidere. Lif *"* a *f the^ra*" 

of poure man is poure. uor he ne ze^p / ne metes of grat and rich - 

p?**s / ne robes out of scele. ne non bost hi 1 ne zechep / [»*«*] 

ne ine robes, ne ine ridinges. ne ine maine. ne ine 

festes. ne ine uelairedes. Blibe he is yef he heb his : Glad is he if he 

J * d * have his susten- 

sostinowce. ac he soifrep and honger / an porst, and »«<»• 

chald and hot. and cheastes / and manye biterneses. 

and alle zuiche pinges pet pe kueade poure dep / and 

polep : wille he nolle he. j)e zope milde wilnep / and 2. He suffers and 

polep gledliche uor god. a-last hit is wone of pe poure meeWy for God 8 * 

marine / pet yef he ne hep na3t / ne na3t ne may 

, -, , . . , . S. Hehasnoshame 

wynne: he ne hep none ssame to acsi. And pe zope to ask for what he 

milde : beggep echedaye. pe benes and pe oreysons of and begs each day 

guode uolke / and of uryendes of god. huer he wenj> ™^* prayerB l0 
mest of guode. and more he be-lefp ine hare helpe : 
pa^ne he do ine his 03ene guodes. 


~ . iTir.iT i Meekness loves 

Prede / louep wel he3e stedes. Mildenesse : pe lo3e. low places. 

J}is is pe dyamod 2 of noble kende, pet nele na3t sitteine that needs not to 

gold, ac ine poure metal ase yzen. And zuo hit is of Th^rnls ever 

pe hyeape of huete y-forsse. pe comes byep benepe / chrkTt^hau <L' 

and bet chef a-boue. Ac oure lhord ssel ua?mi his corn / i* is cor ? at 

* / Doomsday. 

ate daye of dome / ase zayp pet godspel. and ssel prawe C Fol « *&• a -3 

» So in MS. 



The chaff shall go 
into the fire. 

The meek man 
prefers low places, 
and follows the ex- 
ample of Christ 
and His sweet 

Meekness is the 
mother of obedi- 

and bedeck eth her 
with all her orna- 

pet chef in-to pe uere : and pet corn in-to J?e greynerc. 
j)Q more pet / pet gold is clene : pe more hit weep, and 
pe more pet hit is heui : pe rapre hit ualp to pe botme 
And pe more pet pe man is milde : pe more he louep 
lo3e stedes. ase dede Iesu crist and his zuete moder / 
pet ous yeaue uorbisne to serui and to bo^e. n^t wyp- 
oute more to pe gratteste : ac to pe leste. and pe moro 
pie seruise ys onworp : pe blepelaker pe milde hi?^ clep 
p>erto. Jperuore wyle teche oure lhord Iesu crist / p3 
net to wesse to his poure. panne mildenesse / is moder 
propreliche / of bo3samnesse. and hire norissep / and 
tekp / an lokejj / pet hi ne by y-corumped / ne by 
ydele blisse / ne be zorje / ne be grochchinge / ne be 
03ene wytte / ne be o^ene wille. ne ine opre manere. 
Hy hise agraypej? and azet : mid alle hire ournemews. 

Of obedience. 

There are seven 
ornaments of obe- 

That is, that one 
obey, 1. readily, 2. 
gladly, 3. simply, 
4. cleanly, 5. ge- 
nerally, 6. swiftly, 
7. willingly. 
The meek obedi- 
ent one is like a 
sailor ever ready 
to obey the cap- 

He is as obedient 
as the ass is to its 

David preferred 

God's behests to 

gold or precious 


He obeys simply, 

as doth the horse 

or the sheep. 

Holy simplicity is 
the character of 


pe ournemens of bo3samnesse : byep zeuen. j)et ys : 
pet me bou3e prestliche. gledliche. simpleliche. khm- 
liche. generalliche. zuyftliche. ] and wiluolliche. pe milde 
y-zy3p beuore 2 his e3en : pet he ys poure and naked, and 
ne hep niede bote uor him-zelue. and J?eruore he is 
alneway agrayjjed / ase bye]) pe ssipmen ine ssipe. J?et 
ase zone ase he 3 y-hyerp J>ane smite of pe lodes-ma?me : 
hi yernep / hi lheapep ase wode. pe milde bou3p gled- 
liche / uor he is ase ]?e hassasis. pet ys blipe huanne he 
hep pe heste onderuonge of his maistre. Jjet ]>e perils / 
and pe pinen / an pane dyaj? he onderuangp J?erwyp / 
mid to greate blisse uor pe loue pet he hep) to pe obedi- 
ence, j^eruore zayde dauip ine j?e sautere. pet he louede 
betere pe hestes pet god him made : panne he dede / 
gold / oJ?er stones of pra. pe milde him bou3p> al 
simpleliche ase dep pet hors / oper pet ssep / pet j?e 
ssepherde let huer ha wyle / J?et ne zayp neure huer- 
uore guo ich hider : more Jjawne pider. Yor one of pe 
guode do3tren pet mildenesse hep : is holy simplesse. 

1 Zuyfihohe in MS. 2 bo uore in MS. 3 hi? 


j)e milde is wel trewe to sod I ase is a guod lheuedi to The meek man i8 

, . ° ' & true to God. 

hire lhorde. pet nele to nonen queme folliche bote to 
hare lhorde onlepiliehe. and peruore non ne bou^J? zuo 
clienliche l / ne mid zuo clene onderstondinge : ase dej) 
pezope milde. bet ne hateb bote uor to kueme be Heseeks ™tt<> 

* 3 i i i please the world, 

wordle. Efterward J?e milde is wel zuift and wel ingnel / He is swift to 

r °^ e y God, an< ^ 

nuawne mrtue of obedience and pe wyl of god / mid his slow to obey his 

ouerling him berp. Ac huaraie his 03ene wyl him berj) 

and let him. he is slac an sleuuol wel to done. Ase is 

pe sterre pet hatte satwrne make]? pet asemoche yernp He is like the 

in onelepi daye mid pe firmament ase pe firmament starSaturn - 

hine let : ase he dep ine pritti yer ine his 03ene sercle / 

and ine his 03ene yerninge. Ate laste pe milde bou3p 

generalliche oueral per he ylefp pet he queme to god / 

and ine alle pinges ase dej? pe asse of be melle. bet ase He is like the 

-uitv-i-iti i iti mill-ass that will 

blepelicne ber)? bere : ase huete. and lyad. ase ]?et corn, as lief carry 

to pe poure : ase to J?e riche. Efterward ]?e milde is areyascon1, 

wel Strang, uor he chongej? his strengj?e mid godes [Foi.4s.b.] 

strengfe. ase zayj? ysaye pe profete. J?eruore nis he na 3 t ; ^^^m?" 

pet ne may bere. Vor god berp and him and his ber- SSwrra th 
done / hueruore he D03P wip guode wille and bleuirc- 

deliche. uor he ne is neuremo weri / ne pe zoraie pet He is like the 

god let / and brengp uorp. and pe more ha leuep / pe ™^ at is never 
more him wext his stre[n]gpe. alsuo ase pe litel amote. 
'Non mi3[t] pou wel y-zy / hon mildenesse pe tekp wel to 
serui / and parfitliche boi^e. 


pe greate maister of miJdenesse Iesu crist po he Christ was the 

great master of 

hedde y-preched / and y-ued pet uolk / and pe zike / meekness. 

and pe ymamed y-held. po he ulea^ aboue pe uolk in-to 

pe helle / uor to by ine bedes / ous uor to teche to He taught us to 

, . ., avoid praise and 

beuly pet los and pe blondmgges. and peruore pe trewe flattery, 
herte milde / ase him pineb to done wel huanne he wh erefore the 

' * mild heart 

bou3p. alsuo him painep to be-uly los / of him-zelue strives to befly 
ansuerie uor pane wynd of ydele blisse / and pet 
1 MS. chenliche 



His trust is in 
a rock. 

This rockis Christ. 

Our Lord is a 
wherein resteth 
the meek heart. 

In recording the 
life of Christ, the 
mild heart forgets 
all his sorrows. 

He desires to be 
lost to, and for- 
gotten by the 

When alone he is 
with his two 
best friends, 
with God and 

He takes delight 
only in what is 
pleasing to God. 

Thus the soul 
loves solitude and 
Modesty is one of 
the fairest 
daughters of 

A maid in love 
hath great shame 
when she is 

gadere]? uor pe rage / and uor pe tempeste of euele 
tongen / ine ]>e ssede of J?e roche. ase zay J? ysaye. pe 
ilke roche is Iesu cr/st hira-zelf. J?et his reste / and 
brifjjtnesse to J?e milde. pex him reste]? pe irchouon. ase 
zayj? J?e sauter. Jet by J?e milde herten y-carked mid 
Jjornes of ssarpnesse of penonce. An J>et is ]?et coluer- 
hous / huerinne restej? and him de]? j?e colure oure 
lhord. ]?et bye]? J?e milde herten and simple uor ]?e 
U03eles of praye. J?et bye]? pe dyeulen. Hua?2ne pe 
milde herte / he]? zuo moche y-do / ]?et he is y-guo in- 
to ]?e hole of ]?o roche ase J?e colure ine his coluerhous. 
J?et is huawne he recorde]? pet lif of iesu cnst / and his 
holy passioun : uor panne he uoryet alle his zoi^es / 
and prayse]? lite al ]?et ]?e wordle he]?, and is wor]?. and 
may. Herte ]?et J?is he]? a-sayd / na3t ne willie]? more / 
panne uor to by uorlore / and uoryete to pe wordle. 
pe wordle is him prisoun. onhede / paradis. Vor ase 
zay]? J?e wyse of him-zelue. J?et he ne is neuremo lesse 
allone / bote hua^ne he is one. ne more ine niedes : 
bote huanne he is ydeL Vor he ys panne mid his 
tuaye bcste urie[n]des. J?et is mid him-zelue / and mid 
god. per trete]? he of his greate quereles hueruore alle 
o]?re niedes him ]?ingj> trufles. ]?er he him to god / and 
god to him / be holy ]?03tes / and be stedeuest wil. 
pev he uel]? l ]?e greate zuetnesse of confort / ]?et god 
yefj? ine pnue stedes / to ]?an ]?et him drede]?. ase zay]? 
]?e sauter. and panne alle speches / and alle wordes him 
tyene]? / and greue}? / bote-yef hi ne by to god / o]?er of 
god / o]?er uor god. J?ous bigin]? ]?e zaule to louie on- 
hede / and stillehede. and panne him wext ine herte 
ane holy ssamnesse / pet is one of pe uariste dofter 2 of 
mildenesse. Yor al ase a mayde ]?et be greate loue 
loue]? / he]? 2 grat ssame he]? 2 panne hi is aspid / and y- 
her]? ]?et me spekj? : of hire, alzuo he]? J?e ilke huanne 
hi y-hyer]? ]?et me spek]? of hire : and of J?e guodes }>et 
god him he]? y-do. And na3t uor ]?an hi de]? ase dej? 
1 An s has been cancelled before u. 2 So in MS. 


Je ilke mayde strongliche opnome of loue. 1 uor huet Jjefc and she seeketh 

Je wordle zigge / ojer conne speke : alneway zee]? hi Je re [Foi^a*] 

halkes and Je derne stedes. ase Je ilke Jet ne zecj bote so doth the 

uor to by y-rauissed ase wes say[n]te paul. truly meek * 


' bough of 

Of Jise aquayntonce and of Jise priuite be ilke holy meekness. 

The holy soul 

zaule be-gin J to habbe of god be-tuene hire / and an is proud of 

, , . . her acquaintance 

holy prede. Vor huarme hi is y-reaued / Jarcne to with God. 

heuene / hi lokej ope Je er Je uram uer / ase zay J ysaye / She looks upon 

. r t t • i* tne eartn from 

and hise yzy3 J zjujo lite to pe z^Jje of pe gratnesse of pe afar, and sees its 

heuene. zuo y~zicj pe ilke greate uayrhede / zuo dim / 

to pe zY$e of pe grate biT^tnesse / zuo emti. to pe ziype 

of Jo greate blisse : Jarcne onworjej and mispraysej to 

be zobe al bet he heb ine be wordle of richesses and of The world's riches 

. and honour 

worjssipe / of uayrhede / of noblesse, zuo moche him appear to her 

JiraigJ Jet hit is ase pe play of children a-midde pe 

strete / huer y-no3 hi trauaylej and na3t ne wyranej. 

Him hit bingb bet hit is al wynd / and metinge / and **& ™ win< *» 

, Y Y . l ' , ' dream, and lies. 

Iye3ynge / ase zayj Salomon. And Ja/me he be-gin J Then she begma 

a^t to sterue to pe wordle / and libbe ine god / ase world and she 

zayj zaynte paul. And Jamie is hi zuo poure of gost : f s^it. P °° r 

Jet hi ne hej na3t. Vor god him hej zuo his 03ene 

gost y-reaued and be-nome. and ayen y-ueld of his 

03ene / ase he dede pe apostles at lokes. panne him 

yefj pe holy gost ane zuo greate herte : Jet ne pros- Sh Ji are A nota ld 

perite / ne aduersete of pe wordle hi ne prazej ane 

nhote. Ane zuo greate zikernesse of inwyt : bet hardi- and prefers 

. death to life. 

liche abit Jane dyaj. ane zuo greate hope hej ine god : 

Jet Jer ne is na3t / Jet hi ne dorste nime anhand uor she is ready to 

pe loue of god. Yor hi he]? Jo byleue huer-of god spekj ™ in e g fo/thT 17 " 

ine pe godspelle. Jet is ase Jet zed of mostard huerby hi ^grelusher 

may hote to be stones an to be helles / and hi him Sfv!! 6 ^ 11 !. 1 ^ 1 . 111 - 

J ' r I This belief is as 

bou$eb. bet zed o mostard is wel smal / ac hit is wel the s rain of 

J ' mustard-seed, 

Strang / and wel bitinde. uor hit is hot ine Je uer be spoken of in the 


degre / ase ziggej Jise nsiciens. be hete : me onderstant / 
1 MS. has lorn. 



The first kind of 
love is to love 
only oneself. 
The 2nd is to 
begin to love God. 
The 3rd is to 
know God better 
and to love Him 
for his goodness. 
The 4th is to be 
so possessed with 
love as to love 
God only. 
This last love 
hath the true 
meek one. 
The poor of 
spirit are blessed 
in this world. 

Hope makes the 
meek men to be 
kings of heaven. 

[Fol. 44. b.] 
The kiDgdom of 
heaven is theirs 
by behest and 

The full posses- 
sion shall take 
place in the next 

Of the virtue 
of love. 

Dread makes the 
heart mild (meek). 

Pity maketh it 

sweet and 


It is an antidote 

to envy. 

It bestrips the 
root of envy from 
the heart. 

It produces the 
root of good love> 

from whence 
comes a 
fair tree. 

loue. pe uerste stape of loue aze zayp saynt be[r]nard 
is / hua/me pe man ne can na}t louie : bote him-zelue / 
and his 03ene gnod. pe oper hua^ne he begin]? god to 
louie. ac hit is nor his 03ene guod. pe pridde / 
huarcne he knaup betere god / and him loue]? propre- 
liehe uor his guodnesse. pe uerpe. huawne he is zuo 
ynome of pe holy loue / pet he ne louie ne him-zelue / 
ne god : l bote uor god. panne hyer let zope mildenesse 
pane man. Nou n^t pou y-wyte openliche hou pe poure 
of gost bye]? y-blissed ine J?ise wordle. Yor hi ham 
bye J? zuo moche yh^ed / and emti / pet hire gost is al 
to na3te be-come. 2 and J?e holy gost he]? J?et hous ayen- 
yueld pet is lhord of ]?e herte. and uelj? zuo moche ]?et 
hi uelp ]?e mylde. pet hi his make]? king of heuene / 
be holy hope / and be zikernesse of inwyt. And per- 
uore zay]? oure lhord j?et pe kingdom of heuene is hare / 
na3t wyp-oute more be beheste : ac be saysyne zykere 
ase J?e ilke J?et begin]? to onderuonge pet frut and pe 
rentes hou hi ssolle by y-blissed ine pe opre wordle. pet 
ne may non parfitlyche y-wyte / al-huet he is per. Yor 
herte of man dyadlich / ue may hit penche / ne moup 


pe uerste yefpe of pe holy gost : makep pe herte 
milde and dreduol. and peruore hep he pane name / pe 
yefpe of drede. pe oper makep pe herte zuete and milde / 
and piteus. and peruore he hatte : pe yefp of pite. j}et 
is propreliche a dyau / and a triacle a-ye alle kuead- 
nesse / and nameliche aye pet uenim of zeraie of enuie / 
huerof we habbep beuore y-speke. Yor pis yefpe be- 
strepp pe rote of enuie of pe herte / and hire help 
zikerliche. Jeanne pe herte pet onderuangp pise yefpe / 
onderuangp ane zuete deau / pet his makep springe / ane 
zofte rote / and wel y-tempred / pet is guod loue. panne 
per wext a trau uair and he3 and wel berinde frut. Jpet is 
1 guod ? 2 ho~come m MS, 


a guod mrtue and uayr / Jet me clepej ine latin / maw- which is called 
suetudo / ojer beningnitas. Jet is zuyetnesse of herte. heart." 
Jet make]> man zuete and milde / manhede : and 
charitable, loniinde / and louerede / nor hi dej man 
parfitliche louie his nixte ase him-zelue. ftis tran he]? This tree hath 
zene stapes / huerby hit clyfj an he 3 . Je ilke zene JMSmb 
stapes ons sseawej saynte paul / Jer he ous amonestej on high * 
and bit / Jet we do oure payne / Jet we by al on ine god. 
pet is Jet we habbe one herte / and enne gost / an one We should try to 
loue in god. pe uerste scele hueiuore we ssolle by al and spirit, 
on. and Je he3e / and Je lo^e / and Je riche and }>e 
ponre / is nor Jan / J>et we alle habbej enne nader ine Because, 1st, we 
henene / Jet is god Jet ons made alle comnnliche to his that is, God, * 
anlicnesse an to his ymage. fteruore Jawne Jet we alle i^his^wn nke" 
habbej enne sseppere / Jet ons made alle of one neS8, 
matme / and hej yssape. and to onelepi ende. Jet is 
Jet we by al on ine him / ase he zayj ine his spelle. 
Mochil is grat scele Jet we to-gidere louie. uor ech best 
ase zayj salomouns loue J his anliche. pe ojer scele is secondly, we are 
uor we byej alle cristene ine one mstenedome / and ^Christendom 
riche and ponre. Jet is Jet we byej alle y-wesse of one- 
lepi leie. bet wes mid Iesu cristes preciouse blod. and and are ail washed 

. with the blood of 

ybojt mid onelepi moneye. and asemoche costnede Je Christ, 
on : ase Je ojer. Moche ssel Ja/me Je on louie Je ojer 
and worssipie / Jet god he J 1 zuo moche yloued and y- [»MS.he£j 
prayzed / and ymad of suo greate dingnete. pe Jridde Thirdly, we ail 

" tit n it ii nave one helief, 

scele / uor Jet we healde J alle one beleaue / and we and are bound by 

byej alle ybounde mid one la^e Jet is al uolueld / ase 

zaij sainte paul ine Jise worde. * Loue Jine nixte ase 

Ji-zelue.' Of Jise dette ne is non quit / uor Jing Jet 

he dej. Juse dette ssel ech to ojren. and huo mest his Uoi. 45. a.] 

yelt : mest he ssel. pe uer Je scele is. uor we habbej Fourthly, we 

have one Lord of 

ennelepi lhord / Jet is god of Imam we hyealdej alle whom we ail hold 
and body / and zaule / and al Jet we habbej. alle he g^ 
hej imad communliche / alle ybo3t coramunliche / to 
alien porueyj coramunliche / and alle ssel deme corn- 



and by whom we 
all shall be pun- 
ished or rewarded 

Fifthly, we are 

all fellow- soldiers 

in the host of our 


and all look for 

one reward. 

Sixthly, we all 
live by one spirit, 

and are all God's 
children by 

Seventhly, we are 
all limbs of one 
body, whereof 
Christ is the head. 
We all live on the 
same meat, that 
is, the flesh and 
blood of Jesus 

Seven steps of 
love spring out of 

The boughs of 


Of this stock come 

seven boughs, 

for this virtue is 

seen in seven 


1. One limb for- 
bears and bears 
the defects of an- 

We should do to 
others as we 
would be done by. 

mimliche / and alle medi largeliehe / po pet habbep y- 
hyealde his hestes / and pos ssolle by to-gidere yloued 
treweliche. fie vifte scele is / uor pet we bye]? alle 
uela3es ine J? e ost of oure lhorde. and his kni3tes / and 
his soudeurs / J>et alle we abydep on-lepi ssepe / pet } is 
pe blisse wip-oute ende / liuer pe loue and pe uela3rede 
ssel by uoldo and y-co^fermsd / pet hier ssel by wel y- 
hote. fie zixte scele is uor pet we libbep alle of one 
goste gostliche / ase we libbep of on eyr bodylich. Ee 
pa goste we bye J? alle godes children be adopcion / pet 
is be auouerie / and children of holy cherche / broker 
germayn of uader and of moder / be ane broperhede 
gostlich / pet asemoche is worp betere : pawne pe 
broperrede ulesslich. ase pe gost is more worp : pawne 
pet bodi. fie zenende scele is uor pet we byep alle 
lemes of one bodye. huerof Iesu crist is pet heaued / 
and we byep pe lemes. pet we libbep alle of onelepi mete. 
fiet is of pe holy uless and of pe holy blod of Iesu crist 
pet ous zuo moche loue]? / and zuo moche halt ous worp : 
pet he ous yefp his blod to drinke / and his uless to 
etene. peruore zuo of te sainte paul dep ous to be-peneh e 
pise loue / pet he ous ssewep. Yor more quic scele / 
ne more uayrer uorbisne he ous ne may sseawy of zope 
louerede. Yef pou wilt wel penche to pise zeue sceles. 
pou sselt vinde. zeue stapes of loue / pet comep of pe 
yefpe of pite. 


Of pise stocke wexep zeue bo3es. Yor pise u?>tue 
him ssewep ine zeue maneres. ase me knaup pane loue 
pet is be-tuene pe lemes of pe bodye ine zeue manyeres. 
Yerst pe on leme uorberp / and lokep an oper / pet me 
na3t him misdo / ne angnsi / ne harmi / be his mi3te. 
and ine pise we onderstondep 2 pe i?moce?£ce pet we 
ssolle loki pe on a-ye pe opre. Yor pis heste is y-write 
ine pe herte of eurichen. pet pou ne do to opren : pet / 
pet pou noldest pet he pe ne dede. ne pin ri3t hand 
1 MS. M 3 order st ondeP MS. 


dede to bine left hand Efterward be on leme boleb 2 - one limb does 

* i j t no t wreak its 

zuetliche l / of Je o Jre Jet lie hi???, dej of angr/ce / and spite on another. 
na3t him ne aw[r]ec3j. ne non arizinge of wreje ne 

lL , i . , «t 11iT i [MS. zuethic?ve] 

uelj Je leme Je on aye Je ojer/ ne ne of-hyealdej. Jne 
Jisen we onderstondej to noluelle mildencsse Jet hej 
J?ri stapes. ))e uerste is Jet man him ne awreke na3t. J?e 
ojer Jet me ne hyealde m^t ire longe. ])e Jridcle / Jet 3. The limbs 

t . . o - 1 r 1 i t - obey their head 

man ne uele none arizinge 01 ire / ne 01 hate aye Jus (i. e> , the heart 
nixte nor na3t Jet he dej. Efterward Je lemes andthee y e) - 
bou3eJ alle to hare onerling. Yor hi doj alle mid hare 
mi3te Jet Je herte acsej / and Jet 03c ham tekj. Ine By ^ we under . 
ban we onderstondeb be lurtue of bo^samnesse huerof stand the virtue 

3 * J ' of obedience. 

we habbej beuore y-speke / Jet he ssel bi ine lone [Foi. 45. b. 

agrayjed / and ine charite / ase zaij zaynte peter. 

Efterward Je on leme help J and sernej Je o Jren wyj- 4. one limb helps 

, and serves an- 

onte grochmge and wyj-onte wyjziggmge / and wyj- other willingly 
onte auarice. Ine Jisen we ondersfowdej Je mVtue Jet j" tl f is a W e ge e the 
mo clepej charite. Jja/me a man hua??ne he helpj and virtue of chanty, 
him a-cordej blejeliche Je ojre mid Je helpe Jet god whereby one man 

* . helps his fellow 

Wm he J y-yeue. ojer him ret / ojer tekj / 01 ins wytte christians by his 

Jet he he J. Ojer yefj and to-delj largeliehe nor god iTis riches, or his 

Je gnodes Jet he hej. Ojer he ehastej and *li3t Je foles authorit y- 

be Je antorite Jet he hej. Ac Jawne zayj me Jet lie is 

uol of charite. And Jous hit hat zaynte peter / Jet Je 

gnodnesse Jet god ons hej y-lend Jet we hise di3te to 

oure nixte. panne tulles Je hlozofe zayj. ' we ssolle The philosopher 

, , . . , -n I, ii-i- Tully saith we 

Jenche Jet al Jet is me Je wordle and wext : al hit is should an seek 

i j 1 i * j. i i 1 / 1 the " common 

ymad man to helpe. an Je man uor to helpe Je on / Je profit » 

ojren. byej beyete.' 'do we Ja7zne' zayj he / ' Jet : hner- 

nore we bye J ybore / and Jet kende ous tekj. and as Nature teach- 

zeche we alle Jet coram un profit.' Vor ase zayj zaynte 

panl. c we byeb alle lemes of onelepi bodye.' Efterward / 5. ah the limbs 

1 J r x 'feel what is done 

alle Je lemes nelej / and dra^ej to ham Jet me dej to to one of them, be 

echen / by hit guod / by hit knead. b} r hit blisse /by 

hit zor3e. huarme me smit Jane not : Je mouj zayj / 

bou me blechest. Be ban we onderstondeb be n/rtue By this we under- 

r , « stand the virtue 

10 * 


of pity, that hath of zope pite / bet we ssolle habbe communliche / bet 
two offices, r r i r / y 

hep tuaye offices / ase zayp zante paal. Blisuol sselt 
otrr^et J> ou W t0 > e g™^ pet o>re habbep / and do], 
rowfuuor others' Zor 3 uo1 sselt P°[ u l ^J I to f e kuedes pet opre uelep and 
woe. dob. EfWward / yef be on leme is zik / ober y-wonded : 

6. If one limb is . 

sick the others alle pe opre hi?^ helpej) to pet he by held. Ine pise we 

in this we under- on dersto[n]dep pe mrtue of dom / and of amendement. 

oSomlnf 116 wi > oute nuani / P et body of holy cherche ne may 

amendment, yleste. Yor pe leme uorroted ssolde ssende pe hole. 

Huo pet wile pa?me eonne hou he ssel his broker chasti. 

and we learn how his nixte / oper his seriont wypnime / and punissi : nime 

rec^andpunLh nede to Inm-zelue / huawne on leme is zik / oper y-wonded. 

lnothe U r! tSOf ° ne hou moche zor 3 e ne J> > e kerte and grat compassion 

y-uelp. and be pe greate loue pet he hep ine him / he 

him dep pe hand wel zueteliche. And aze zayp senekes / 

ase of pe bodye / alsuo of pe herte me ssel zueteliche pe 

rorrll1C be WOnden agra ^ L Vor of zo f e loue / and of ^rat eom- 
10 a V ssion dCOm " P assioT1 ssolle J> e amendes by y-do. and mid greate 
First, we should drede he ssel be honden do berto. Verst he ssel berto 

apply the plasters t * ' 

of sweet admo- do pe smeringes / and pe piastres of zuete warningges. 

nitions, -^^ 

afterwards the Etterward yef pet ne is na3t worp : pe poudres efter- 
rXkT ° f SharP w ard and prekiinde / of harde wyjmiminge. Efterward 
Aching? deedsof pe dedes of techinge. and yef he ne dej> wyp-oute 
Then, if these fan, emparement : paraie behouep come bet zuord hit uor to 

must come the ■, , , , . . 

sword of excom- aele / oper be manzmge / oper be hotinge out of con- 
traye. oper him do uram him-zelue. Efterward pe lemes 
«l", n " worssi P e f ^ on / pe oper. and uorberep. uor ase zayp 
and have a kindly zay[n]te paul. we ssolle bere ech opren worpssipe / and 
[Foi. 46. a.] reuerence. and nameliche po / pet habep mest nyede : of 
feeling for each uorberinge. p byep pe meste foles / and pe fyebleste. 
The good man zuiche me ssel mest uorbere. baraie be guode man and 

hears patiently * ° 

with fools, pe wyse bere]? / and uorbere]? alneway pe foles / and pe 

thVlMer^r ^^ / ^ ^ hU ° UeS bere > J> e tendre uleSS ' and > e POs[t] 

pet hous. Jpis is aye pe missiggeres pet zuo moche 

gredep blepeliche pe kueades / and pe defautes pet hi 

L^Sther" zye * ine °t ren ' Efte ^ard pe on leme werep pet oper 



ate nyede / and him zet uor Mm. uor ate niede me 

y-zisb huo is urend. Huanne be on not slyt : be ober when the one foot 

i.ii * i i i • .i i slips the other 

mm nelpj?. An haste nna^ne me wyle smite J>et lieaneo. : helps it. 

be hand hire deb be-uore. Ine bisen we onderstonde]? / in this we under- 

stand pure love 

noluelde / and clene louerede. }?eruore zayj? god in his and friendship, 

spelle. ' J?et more louerede ne may by : J?a?me zette his 

zaule uor his urend.' bise urendrede ous ssewede Iesu This friendship 

Christ showed for 

crist j?e zo]?e urend fet uor ous layde his zaule and his U8 . 
body to J?e dyape. and pet dede he ous uor to yeuene 

uorbysne. ase zayj? zaynte peter / and sain Ion zay]?. wherefore we 

yef god layde his zaule uor ous : and we ssolle legge ing to give our 

. £ souls for our 

oure zaules uor oure brofren / J?et i% uor oure nixte. yef brethren. 

we bye]? a 113 1 leme of pe bodie / huerof is J?et heaued. 

Huo Jet j?ise uiHue hedde / ich wolde zigge openliehe 

Jje[t] he ssolde by pe rijte yblissed. Jpis is pe mrtue Jet This ^ueChrist 

oure guode maister Iesu crist ous k>3te / Jo he zede. said- 

1 Yblissed byeb be milde : uor hy ssolle by in sayzine of " Blessed be the 

J y f J T mild, for they 

be erbe.' bet is to onderstonde ine bri nianc/*es. Yerst / shall possess the 

. earth." 

of Je londe of Je libbinde Jet is god zelf / Jet is 1. They shall have 
woniynge of Je libinde / Jet is of J)e ha^en / and of M ^ 

guode men. Ase Je erje is woniynge of bestes and of 
men. And beruor bet god bet is be land of be libbinde : who is the land 

r r ° r r r of the living. 

he he)) his y-blissed in his say sine, uor hi ne make)) 
none stre[n]g Je Jet quemej god ine hire sayzyne / ase zay J 
Je sauter. fie milde zay J / he ssel habbe Jet land ine None shall have 

, , this possession 

kende. and saynt augustm zuo zayj / pet no?i ne ssel un i ess they are 
habbe god ine possession. Vor hi bye]? ^tuolliche h ° e r a rt S . 
Lhordes of hire herten. ac ire / and felonie his 
amaystrej. fie milde amaistrej Je queade Jeawes. And The meek man 
betere is worj / j?et zay J Salomons / huo pet ouercomj habits, 
wel his herte : Jarzne Je ilke Jet nimj be stre[n]gje / 
casteles and cites. Efterward / be milde byeb lhordes 2. The meek are 

' r d T lords of earthly 

of pe erje / Jet is of erjliehe guodes. Vor yef hi hise goods, 

lyezej : hi ne wrejej ham na}t / ne ne troublej. Ac po The y g™™ not 

Jet ham wrejej huawne hi hise lyezej J hi ne ne bye]) them, 

na3t lhordes : ac rajre Jrelles. and Jeruore he zay J / hit and are not slaves 



have heaven, 
and the meek the 
land where the 
;J bitter and fell 

to worldly pos- is ri^t / pet po pet habbep hier pe timliche guodes and 
gostliche / and ham-zelue ine possessioun. pet hi habbe 
ine pe ende : pet land of pe libbinde / pet is god him- 

The poor shall zelf ine possessioun. Ac nou onderstand and loke / 
pet / pet god yefp to pe ponre pe heuene. and to pe 
milde : pet land / huer ssolle by pe bitere and pe felle 

shall be unknown, wypoute / ine pe zor}e of helle. 

[Fol. 46. b.] 
The first step of 1> E UERSTE STAPE 0F MJTUOLNESSE. 

The lsTgift^f the j)Q uerste yefpe of pe holy gost / makep man milde / 
maketifmtn and dreduol. j)e oper him makep zuete / and pitons. 
the^nd iteous $ Q pridde him makep brijte to zyenne / and uol of 
and the 3rd mi of wytte. and peruore hit hatte : pe yefpe of wytte. 
Yor he makep man wytuol / and wys. and ame- 
This last gift cast- surep alle ping. ))es yefpe huaraie he comp in-to pe 
ofire Ut the r ° 0t herte : bestrepp and kest out pe rote and pe ze/me of 
that driveth a ire / and of felonye / pet troublep pe herte / and makep 

man out of his 

wits. pane man al oute of wytte. zuo pet he no ping ne yzi3p. 

tms gift eniight- ne uor him / ne uor opren to lede. Ac pes yefpe ah^t 

tTauusno't be- pe herte of ech half / zuo pet hi ne may by y-gyled of 

gmled * nonen. Ase pe yefpe of pite him makep innocent : zuo 

pet he nele gyly nenne. J)amie saint Ion zayp ine pe 

boc of zi3pe ine goste. j)et pe holy man pet wes uol of 

pise goste / wes uol of e3en be-uore and be-hinde. And 

The good men an angel ssewede to zacarien pe profete ane ston huer- 

sights." i ne werin zeue e3en. pet byep pe zeue zi3pes pet pe guode 

For they see into men habbep. Yor hi zyep bri^tliche / and ine hare 

ahaboutthem! herten / and al abo[u]te ham. pet is to zigge. be-nepe/ 

and aboue / be-uore / and behinde / and of ri3t half / an 

tms gift is the of left half. j)es yefpe is pe maister of workes. pet is to 

zigge / of pe u/rtues of man. uor he dep al to wylle. and 

it is the line, rule, to pe line / and to pe reule / and to pe leade / and to 

lead, and level. . 

pe leuele. He mmp uerst his pncke. and his boune and 

pet is pet pe wyse zayp. ' Of al pet pou sselt beginne : 

loke pane ende. and to huet heauede pou sselt come.' 

it makes the line Efterward / he halt his line, uor he ne hep beuore be 


ri3te way / and be ri3te onderstondi/zge. na3t ase fe of conduct to be 

eddre / of er ase f e uox. Efterward. he def al be reule / 

fet make]} fane wal emne / and man be fe commune 

lyue of f e guode / wyf -oute vinde newe hedes. Efter- 

ward he prouef ofte his work mid lead, uor he nimb lt makes the lite 

of the good even 

hede Jjet his tour / ne hongi / ne stoupi / ne ari^Ltjhalf and uniform, 

be prosperity : ne alefthalf : be aduersite. pes yeff e is and upright 

pr/our ine f e cloystre of f e zaule. f et lokef f e ordre / T^dZ™^ 

and deb hi loki oneral. Verst ine be herte fbetl heb tuo This gift is the 

* t \-j a t prior in the 

zides. fe onderstondinge. and fet wyl. fe skele / and cloister of the 

fe affeccioun. Hua??ne fise tuo ziden / acordef : hi The heart hath 

l ■ tw0 si(ies : 

make]? wel zuete melodie / and moche uayr seruice. pet 1. The under- 

is huaraie wyl wyle / al Jet onderstondinge tekf of 2. The reason and 

guode. and guod wil uelf : pet scele onderstant. nou when uiese ao- 

onderstand wel fise tuo ziden / fet bye)? ine f e zaule / t^™ x ^ ere 

hou hy ssolle acordi. Ine f e one zyde byef uour lokes / In each sideare 

four locks. 

and ine f e of re : uour. Vor j?e skele he J? uour offices. Reason hath four 

_. T , _ _. offices : 

fet is uor to acsy. v or to deme. vor to bef enche. 1. To question, 
And to ssewy fet hi onderstant be worde. And f e ilke 3 ] to bethink, 
yeff e tekf fane scele / fet hi sse] lyerni / and acsy. LuglTbywords. 
and ine huyche ordre / and ine huiche manere / and to ™? ^ (doom) 

^ ' I teacheth reason 

huet ende. And bet is wel grot nied, Vor to misdo what t0 learn and 

1 n to ask, 

ine zuiche finges / is wel perilous. He def fane sck[e]le 
onderstonde / and to lverni bet /bet is nieduol and jnd what is need- 

' " tit ful, profitable, and 

profitable / and oneste. and hire wyfdra^f of fe con- honest. 

trans. A. god hou me lyest fane time and costni[n]gge [Fo1 - 47 - a -J 
uor to lyerni fing fet m^t ne is worf bote to ydele 

blisse / ober to zewne Ac be holy gost be bise yefbe By this gift the 

1 r r J & r J r Holy Ghost teach- 

tekb lhtliche. and makeb man lyerni ordeneliche / bet eth man what is 

1 ? T ' T most needful for 

is mest nyed to fe zaule to Ipe loue of god. and al thesouitoiearn, 

make]? to clone ine ri3te onderstondinge / and to ri3te 

ende / bet is be worssipe of god. and uor be profit of for the honour ot 

1 > * x o r r (3 0< j ail< j its own 

his zaule. and uor to helpe his nixte. Efterward he P roflt - 
def fane skele wel to zeche fet zofe of finges. and 
nameliche hou hi ssel beleue. Wel beleue is hua/me He teaches the 

soul right belief, 

mo beleff simplcliche al fet god made. zayf. and hat/ that is, to believe 



without doubt 
whatever God has 
made, said, or 

True belief is not 
hasty or slow. 
It examines and 
desires right judg- 

It does not meddle 
with matters that 
do not belong to it. 

This gift enables 
reason to distin- 
guish between 
good and evil, 

between little 
goods and the 

It causes man to 
remember all 
needful things 

To understand 
things present, to 
see the things 
to come. 

It makes man to 
speak or to be 
silent in season ; 

so that each word 
is of its right 
weight, neither 
too much nor too 

Throw not pearls 
before swine. 

wyj>-oute to moche acsi / and wyj-oute to zeclie Je red 
of god / and Je dyepnesse of his domes / and Je 
he^nesse of his mageste / and Je skele of his opes. Wel 
beleue is / huamie me ne lef J ne to raje. ne to late, ne 
to alle / ne to nonen. uor Je on and Je ojer : zuo is 
uice / ase zayj seneke. Efterward wel acsi : wile wel 
deme. Wel to deme be-longej Jet me na^t ne anfermi : 
bote me hit habbe wel of-acsed. and panne bote-yef me 
by ziker : Jet me ne entremetti to deme Jing Jet na^t 
to him ne belongej / ase bye J) Je Jinges anhyalde. fie 
onderstowdinges of herten / of Jinges pet ne mo^e torni 
to Je ri3thalf / and to Je lefthalf / Jet me his onder- 
stonde ari3t ine pe guode half, fi&nne pes gost / be Jise 
yefje / make]? fane scele wel to deme / and knawe 
ari3t. and to destincti be-tuene pe guode Jringes and pe 
kueade. be-tuene pe greate kueades and pe lesse. be- 
tuene pe little guodes / and pe more. Yor he dej ech 
ping praysy / ase hit is be ri^te worj. Efterward he 
dej Jane scele bejenche. uor he be-jengj to pe mawne / 
al Jet him is nyed / ase god zayj ine his spelle. fie 
Jinges Jet byej y-pased / he hise dej bejenche. fie 
Jinges Jet byej present / he dej his onderstonde / and 
to y-zy. pe Jinges Jet byej to comene : he dej poruay / 
and ordayny. and Jise byej Je Jri deles of Je u?Hue of 
prudence be Je filosofe. Efterward he makej Jane 
scele be mesure speke / and blejeliche by stille. and 
speke onneje. zuo Jet Je speche come rajre te Je uile : 
Jamie to Je tonge. Jet hi by y-we3e ase guode moneye 
and y-proued. ase zayj. Salomon. Jet is Jet hi by of 
guode matire / ase of guod metal, and of guode ssep Je / 
Jet is of guode manere y-speke. and hi habbe his ri3te 
wy3te / and his ri3te tale. Jet is Jet Jer ne by ne to 
moche / ne to lite / and Jet hi by wel bezet. uor guod 
moneye / ne guod word / me ne ssel na3t y[e]ue uor 
na3t. Huerof zayj ous god ine his spelle. Jet we ne 
Jrauwe na3t oure pre-ciouse stones to-uore Je zuyn. fies 


yef pe acordej? / and ordeynej? / pe oJ?er half of ]>e herte. This ? ift governs 
J?e[t] is J?e wyl / huerof per bye]? uour deles. Loue. The win hath 

T~\ 1 T\l 1 /Till 1 ^° Ur f** 011 ^ 68 * 

Drede. Blisse. and zoi^e, J?et is/ J?et he habbe pet he love, dread, bliss, 

i / -1 i i / i i i and sorrow. 

ssGl / and ase he ssel / and asemoche ase me sseL when these four 
and pet me yleue alsuo pet me ssel / and ase me ssel f^^ tiTenthey 
and ase moche [ ase me ssel. Huarme pise uour are " tem P ered " 
deles bye]) atamed / panne zayp me pet pe man is 
attempre. Ase me zayp of one rote / oper of one herbe / 
pet hi is attempre / hua?me hi is ne to chald / ne to 
hot / ne to wet. Alsuo ase to pe bodye of man / come]) [Pol. 47. b.] 
alle eueles uor pe destempringe of pise uour qwalites / As ail bodily evils 
oper of pise uour humours : alzuo of pe herte of pe « distempering" 
maraie come]) alle pe uices / and alle pe zewnes be pe humour^ 
disteraperance of pise peawes. Hua^ne pise tuo ziden !° all t T ic 1f IP! 1 "^ 
of pe herte byep acorded and y-ordayned. pet is pe perance " of these 
scele and Jet wyl. p&nne is pe man ordine wyp-inne 
hira-zelue. )3et byep pe tuo roten of pe rote of ane wel The roots of the 

tree of " right- 

uayre trawe. pet is 01 ane wel uayre mrtue pet me fulness "are a 

clepej? ^tuolnesse. Ri^tuolnesse is prflpreliche / pet 8 on and a subdued 

me dep be dome ri^tuol and trewe / ne to nesssse / ne to W1 * 

hard / wyp-oute bou^inge to pe one half / ne to pe Rightfulness is 

opren. Huawne me gep uor]? onlepiliche / and a-ri3t ase conduct. 

line. Vor 113 tuolnesse ne is o]?er J?ing bote oninge / it is nothing else 

. , . , than union and 

J?et is trewj?e. Huo J?et he]? J?ise mrtue : he is guod truth. 

,. t ^ 1 , 1 • i i i • j i , He who hath this 

mstise and wys. uor he ne dep no]?mg bote hit by wel virtue is a good 
ofacsed and y-trid / ase ssel do J?e guode demere. and W18e judge * 
Jpa^ne J?e uerste stape of pise mVtue is / ]?et pe The first step of 

x. j 1 p -u* x. _x i_ i this virtue is that 

man by guod demere of his 03ene herte. uor he ssel a man be a good 

guo in-to lum-zelue / and ysy his inwyt and wel ex- heart. 

amini his £03 tes / and his wylles J?et hi bi guode : oper 

kueade. and al ordayny to pe lokinge of scele / zuo J?et 

pe wyl and pe scele : by of one onynge. Vor ase zay]? virtue, saith st 

•I j , . , . - , . I,, Bernard, is the 

sam bernard. 'u^rtue ne is non o]?er pmg : bote pe union of reason 
onynge of scele /and of wille/ J?et is hua/me wyl com]? andofwm « 
wyJ?-oute wypziggmge. speke / and maky / and do to that is, when the 
worke J?et scele zay J? / and ssewe]? / and tekj?. m ° " y8 reason * 


The second step p® obER STAPE OF RI^FtIuOLNESSE. 

of rightfulness. . . 

The second step Of pise mrtue pe oper stape is. pet me by ri^tuol dem- 

body in proper ere / and healde ri3tuolliche / pe line of ri3te. betuene 

subjection. ^ . ^ ^ ^ onder j^ ^ ^ ^ bodi ^ he j^J, 

to loki. huich lie ssel zno norissi : pet lie mx^e serui / 
Reason should be and zuo teche / and chasti : pet he wyle bouje. Vor 
tween ^spirit p e sce ^ e sse l "by as© a trewe arbytres be-tuene pe goste 
and the flesh. and ^ u i esse j, et ^j, a i new ay stnuinde. Jjet ssel loki 

So that the spirit pet ri3t / of one half : and of opre. Ine zuiche manure 

be lord of the , 

body. pet pe gost by guod lhord / and pet body : by guod 

„ . . sergont. Nou is hit grat nyed to hyealde in pise half 

For there is great ° ° J J J 

need that moder- oue ral rbtuolnesse / and mesure / ine mete / and ine 

ation should be J ' ' 

observed in meat, drinke / and ine clopinge / and ine hosiynge / and ine 

drink, and . . _ . 

clothing. ssoinge. and ine alle pe pmges pet / pet bodi acsep. 


Yor hit wel ofte bou^p more to / to l moche : parnie to 
The five' wits of pe litle. Eftarward hit behonep pe vif wyttes of pe 
under the author- bodie wel lede / and rede, be scele / and be rit3uol- 
ity o reason. nesse j Z1I0 j, e t qq^ se rui of his office wyp-oute zewne / 

and wyp-oute wypniminge. Ase' pe e3en : to zye??ne. 

pe yearen : to hyere. pe nase : to ssmelle. pe moup : 

to zue[l]3e / and to sspeke. pe honden / and al pet body : 
when these five to vele. Hua?me pise vif wyttes byep wel y-loked 

wits aie well . . 

guarded, then is pawne is pe eastel ziker / and ysset. pet byep pe gates 
forthe'yarTthr' of j> e zaille - f et D y e > P e wyndowes huerby comp in / pe 

onhe a s n ouT indOWS d y a f ° fte t0 t e Zaule / aSe Za ^ f e P rofete - 

The third step of )?E J^RIDDE STAPE OF RI3[t]uOLNESSE. 


[Foi. 48. a.] pe pridde stape of pise mVtue is. pet pe man by 

The third step of guod demere. and hyea[l]de ri3tnesse be-tuene him : and 

manYudgeg 1 be- a J an P e ^ * s heuore him. pet byep pe pinges of time / pet 

anTtiw things destruep ofte and bodi and zaule / huawne me dep perto 

thaUs^'ween ^° mocne / ase dop f e nipinges and pe couaytous. and 

himself and tem- a n e f, w ije wordle louieb to moche. bet habbeb zno 

poral possessions. j j j j j j 

The covetous are pe herten engrmed ine pe dyeules nette / ase zayp lob. bet 

ensnared in the # ' 

Uevii's nets. to ti?ftliche [eyse] l / and to nyedes wyp-oute / pet to hare 

1 cyse or lost seems wanting here to complete the sense. 


herten hi ne mo3e giio in / ne hare lif ordayny. Jeanne 

hit yualp pet hit is zop / pet senekes pe wyse zayp / pet ah sin who take 

we be fan zene3p alle / and foruions pet of pe parties of thi^ofufethan 

pe line eeh penche / and is soignens. ac of al pe line to for the life itself - 

ordayny non ne pencp / ne studep. ISTou is panne wel 

grat nied pet me ne do na$t to moche pe herte ine pise jset not the heart 

fringes wyp-oute. Vor hno pet him dep to moche perto : w^rd tttngt test" 

he ualp in pe hate / and ine pe couaytise of pe wordle / £^^2^ 

pet is J?e rote of alle nices / ase we habbep be-uore ^llLT ^ ° f 


J)E UER))E ST APE OF RI3TUOLNESSE. The fourth step of 

pe uerpe stape of pise mrtue is. J)et man clierhche The fourth s ' tepof 
yzi ane his mthalf. bet is bet he nime hede to ham bet t 00 ? is to take 

' T r * heed to those who 

byep guode / bet bye J? ase ane his rht zyde. and bet of are £° od > and fo1 - 

. * ' low their ex- 

pe gnode / and of pe wyse / he nime wyt / and uorbysne. ample. 

Ac ine pise zide hit be-houep hyealde mtuolnesse and discretion is here 

t. . TX , very needful. 

discrecion. V or al nolc ne mo3e na3t guo be one waye. ah folk ha<-e not 
ne alle pe gnode / ne alle pe wyse / ne habbej) n^t one- norw^hf 68 ' 
lepi grace, alsno ase J>e lemes of Jje bodie / ne habbep ^n^office. 130 ^ 
najt onelepi office, and perof byep uele herten nonices 
of fan / ase zay]? pe boc of collacions of holy uaderes / 
pet dra3t of pe perfeccion of mrtue. Vor huarcne hi 
yzep ane man wel y-mad pet wyle profit! ine on stat / some novices en - 
oper ine one grace: anon hy willep / and him y-lyche tlZl^lZ 
wyllep by. And huaraie hi eft yzyep anoprene / pet ° noom ™y™™> 
ine anoper stat / dep manie guodes : alsuo hi wyllep 
and yernep efter. an alsuo to pe pridde / and to pe and so attain to 
uerpe / ne to nonen ham ne zettep. ])o byep ase is. pe They are like the 
yonge grihound / pet is yet al nouis / pet yernp efter ^S^T* 
eche beste / pet yernp beuore him. and ne make]) bote Ss^^ 
him weri and his time lyese. Jjerof zet ysopes pe fable [exempinw.] 
of pe little hounde and of pe asse, pe hond at eche time Thefabieofthe 
pet he yhyerp [pet] his lhord comep horn, he yernp to-yens ^ "he a s T d a " d 
him / and lhapp aboute his zuere. and be lhord him Theh <>undwei- 

* comeshismaster's 

makep uayr chiere / and hi???, frotep / and makeb ' him home-coming by 

. . . ^ rr , fawning and rub- 

maker m MS. 


bing and fair greate feste. j)e asse him be-Jjoite / Jous ssolde ich 


do / and zuo wolde mi lhord me louie. Betere he ssolde 

me maki ioye / Jet ich serai eche daye panne Jise 

The ass attempts hoimde bet him serueb of nast ? hit nes na^tl longe efter- 

to follow the dog's r . 

example, ward Jet Je asse ne jze^ his lhord come horn : he begin]? 

and throws his . 

feet about his to lheape / and jem]) to-yens him. and mm JrauJ Je 

and is well beaten uet aboute his zuere / and begin]? zinge grat-liche. j)e 

is pains. gergons ]?et hit y-ze^e / nome steues / and byete Jane 

asse ri^t to J?e uolle. And ]?erof Jet he wende habb[e] 

By such fables wor Jssipe / and guod : he hedde ssame and harm. Be 

[Foi. 48. b.] zueche fables wes y-woned J?e wyse man teche his 

taugh^niThouse- mayne / and be J?ise uorbisne / he ham ssewede ]?et hi ne 

not to desire vir- ss °H e na 3^ wylni to ]?e graces huer hi ne mo3e na3t 

y rnVttekTowers. come ta and J> et ilke zelue tek J> Salomon. < zone ' zayj? 

whprefore take ^ I t ne arere na *t J?me e^en to richesses ' / bet is to 

heed of whom ' J r ? I r 

thou takest pat- graces J?et Je ne inijt na^t come to. j)eruore hit is grat 
nyed to habbe discrecion ]?et me zi of huam me may 
uorbysne nime. 

The fifth step of h E yiFTE STAPE OF RI2TUOLNESSE. 

rightfulness. J 

it is necessary Alsuo hit is grat nyed Jet J?e man yzy bry[3]te ane his 

see clearly right left half and bet is be vifte ioyel / and be vifte stape. 

and left of him. J * d ' r r 

on the one side he uor he ssel yzy Je foles and ]?e kueade / J?et bye]? ase 

sees fools of whom » i pj i in -i i , , •■>,-, 

he should have a P e iett na ^- uor hy by]? a ]?e worse zide. to ham me 
pity ' ssel nime hede uerst / uor ]?an J?et he habbe pite an com- 

and should avoid passiouii. Efterward uor bet me be-ulyst hire folye / and 

their follies. *. . r J > J ' 

Solomon took hire uorlyezinge / ase zayj? ]je wyse Salomon. c Ich wente' 

note of the slug- , . . . 

gard and his he zayj be J?e mne / and be ]?e ueldes of ]?e fole sleu- 

omgs * nolle, and ize3 Jet al hi weren uolle of nettlen and of 

Jornes / and of ]?ise uorbisne ich habbe y-nome wyt / 

and po[r]ueyonce.' uor me kan zigge : Jet zofte he him 

chaste]? : Jet be ojren him chastej. Efterward / uor 

Discretion is here Jan Jet me louej more god / be huam man is quit of 

necessary. - 1 

zuyche zewnes. Ac moche hit behouej ine Ja zyde / to 
we must pity and loki rfctuolnesse / and discrecion. Vor huarcne ich vzv 

not deride fools J J 

and sinners. Jane fol and Jane zene3ere / ich ssel habbe pite / and 


mid Jjolyinge. and na^t niaki ferof bisemers an scornes. 

Ich ssel alneway hatye pe zenne : and louie pe kende. Let us hate sin 

and wel me behouejj to loky J?et ich ne wille ine mine ner. ™ 

herte nenne deme. ne me anlicny to nonen. uor pa,$ lie 

by kuead to day: he may by guod to mone. and zuich The bad man may 

is to day gnod : ha may by kuead to moi^e. Efterward row. 

ich me ssel ase moche ase ich may wy b-oute misdoinge Try by kind 

, it actions and words 

a-yens nam paye. and cowdecendre ine dede /and ine to win the sinner 
speche /ham uor to wynne to god. and wy]?-dra3e uram 
ze/me. Yor ase zay]> senekes / and saynt gregorie. ' we 
ne mo^e na 3 t / J?o J>et biej? yualle : a-rere. bote-yef we 
wylle hou pet hit by to ham bo^e.' 

pE ZIXTE ST APE OF RMUOLNESSE. The sixth step of 


Jpe zixte stape is / Jje zixte e$e : J?et habbej? pe guode The sixth step is 
men. >et is Jet hi yzy bri^tliche be-hinde fe grines and E^S^"* 
p Q dyeules ginnes / >et bye)) ous ase be-hinde. Yor Jm Se^^SS. 
vyend ous y-zi3t / and we him ne more 1 ysy. Oure 
vyendes : J?et bye]? pe dyeulen / J?et bye p wel stronge Our enemies are 

i / j ,.-, , , the devils, that are 

and wyse / and sotile and soigneus ous to gyly. Yor strong, wise, sub. 
hy ne zuykej neure irijt ne day / ac alneway biej> ine E£5£ bu '* U8t0 
way tinge uor ous to gily be hare crefte / an by hire TUe y never cease » 

, , ' * but are always in 

gmnes / huerol hi uzej? more panne a Josend maneres. wait to deceive us. 

and ase zayj? saint gregorie. j)e dyeuel jzi^p wel sotil- 

liche be stat of be mawne / and his manyere / and his The devil knows 

' ' J I what is man's be- 

complexioun / and to huet rice he ys mest bou^inde. settin & 8in - 
oj?er be kende / ojjer be wone. and of j>o half him Some he assails 
asayle)? stranglakest. j?ane colrik : mid ire.: and mid IftT*^™^ 
discord. J^ane sangwmien : mid ioliuete / and mid tSi^™ 
luxurie. jpane fleumatike : mid glotonye / and be andwithen vy- 
sleaujje. 2 }>ane melaneonien : mid eniiie / and mid jroi. 49. a.] 
zor^e. And feruore him ssel eurich more defendi of po 
half huer ha yzi^J? Jjet his castel is mest fyeble / and mus^defen^e 
aye J>e ilke vice ui^te / huer ha zi 3 J> J>et he is mest STSuT* ' 
asayled. ine zuyche guod / pet he / ne spari newne. uor 

1 ? mo$e = may. 
2 At bottom of page are the catch words and mid sleu\>e. 


lie is hardy / and bold, ase pe ilke J?et assayle]? godes zone 

his lhord Iesu crist. ' Yef ]?ou [wosf] l / zede oure lliord to 

iob / ' ine liou uele wyzen lie him desgyzef ' / alsuo ase 

The s hits of ^ ^ e ze( ie non ne wot bote ich. Yor ase zayj? saynt 

men and angels d e nys. * al|T|e be angles and be guode and be kueade / and 

are a spiritual J Ljro r o r I 

mirror. a n e j, e gostes of men bye]) ase a ssewere gostlich. 

The soul receives ]3a?me ase a ssewere onderua[n]gJ? anhaste alle J?e ssepjes 
jects be it sleeping an d p& prientes Jet come J? him be-uore : alsuo dej pe 
orwa mg. ^^ ^ ^ e mawne / by hit slepinde by hit wakinde. 

one mirror will ]sToii n im panne ane mirour and zete hine to-ayens an 

reflect the forms 

seen on another, ojren. an haste alle pe ssepjes pet bye J? ine J?e onen Jou 

sselt yzy ine J?e ojren.' Ine zuyche wyse me zayj pet 

Divers forms are pe dyeuel ssewej to pe goste zuiche , sseppiwges and 

reflected from the -in i -i i n n • > , i , i i 

devil upon the zmche ngures ase ne wyle huaraie god hit JoleJ / and 

soul oi man, ^ zau i e j^ nderuangJ al a-ye his wyl. and ojerhuil hit 

just as one re- * s ase ^° ]> e Jo^te / ojer ase to Je ymaginaeion ase a-ye 

ofob^cts P in S the nS mi ^T 1 / me ^e-houej to zyercne and o[n]deraorcge ine pe 

pearl of the eye. p er l e f p G e ^ G p e ssepje of pe pinge Jet is him be-uore. 

ISTou is hit a wel grat grace of god / and a wel grat 

yefje of pe holy gost / onderstonde wel pe speches alle / 

of pe dyeule / and knawe wel alle pe uisages. Vor ase 

it is a difficult zayj saynt bernard. hit is wel sotil Jing / and Strang to 

guish between 1 the cowne / distincti be-tuene pe Jo3tes Jet pe herte JengJ : 

hearf andlhose aild J>° f et > e vieild : f eriime ze t- Hua^ne he COIllJ 

devii herebythe ase ue -^ a 3 e / °f er ase ™ en( i / °Jer ase chapman, and 
They may easily ssewe b be zeraies / hou hi byeb likinde. and lostuolle / 

recognize some of 

the devil's lbtliche me may hit knawe. Ac huaraie he comb ine 

thoughts, ■? J Y 

but others are gyse of angle / and ssewe J) Jet guod : uor to dra3e to 

more subtle and .. 

dangerous. kueade. panne is pe temptacion mest Strang. And 

Jereuore zayj saynt Ion. J)et me ne leue na3t pe gostes / 
ac bet me hise prouy erban bet me hise onderuonge. zuo 

One must try the T / T ° 

"ghosts "ere one do J Jo /Jet make]? hire srifteuader guod / and holy 

receive them. , , /-it i • . , . 

man / and wys / and wel yproued me zuiche Jmges 

timliche / to Imam hi ssewe p ofte / and grat / and smal / 

alle pe Jo3tes Jet to pe herte come]) and guode / and 

1 This word is necessary to the sense. 


kueade. Tor ase zayp Solomons. ' y-blyssed he is : pet " Blessed is he," 

.,,,,,. saith Solomon, 

ameway is dreduol. and me an opre stede zayp he. 'Do « that always is 
be red al pet pou dest / and efterward hit ne ssel pe 


of rightfulness. 

J)e zeuende sfcape / is pe zeuende e3e. pet hit behouep The seventh step 
habbe pet wile habbe pise mrtue. pet is pe ilke pet an eye that one ought 
he} lokep / pet hep god alneway to-uore him. Of pan and which hath 
zayp onre lhord ine his spelle. 'Yef pine e3e is simple fore ft* ay8 
and clene : al pi bodi ssel by elver and bmt. And yef r f the e y e is dim 

r J J ? * thy body will be 

pin e3e is wycked and dym : al pi bodi ssel by pyestre dark. 

and dim.' J)et is to zigge / yef pin onderstondinge of l^^tf" 

pine herte is clen ] and simple / and gep uorp pane ri^te ^pie, 

way ase streng al a-midde pise stapes alle / pet we 

habbep y-nemned / pe hyap of pine workes ssel by uayr * h . y wo ^ ks win te 

and clier / and lykinde to god. And yef pe onder- 

stondi[n]gge is wrong, oper yef hy tuystep oper wypwent £ Po1, 49 - b -J 

ay en ase deb be Quarteus al be inwyt ssel by biestre / Withoufc ri & ut 

J . . . understanding 

and pe hieap of m'rtues. Yor wyp-oute ri3tuolle onder- aims become sin. 

stondinge : elmesse be-comp zercne / and virtue vice. 

j)e onderstondinge is simple / pa/me pe maw dep gnode 

workes mtuolliehe uor god. Hy is wrang / huawne he The understand- 

' ° ° ° ' ing is wrong when 

hise deb nor pank of be wordle / ober nor ydeleblisse. it tries to please 

1 / r ' T J the world instead 

Hy tuystep ine tuo : huawne me wylnep of one half to of God. 
god : and of operhalf to pe wordle. Ac hi went ay en : 
ase dep pe cerceaus huanne pe man zekp his 03ene note 
in al pet he dep. Nou hest pon y-herd pe zene stapes 
huerby pis trau clifp an he3. 

OF J?E BO3ES OF RI3TUOLNESSE. Of the boughs of 


})e bo3es of pise trawe : byep pe zenen principals There are seven 

n/rtnes /pet ansueriep 2 to pe zeue vices, ase dep bo3sam- 1. obedience, 

nesse a-ye prede. Loue : a-ye ennye. Mildenesse : 3; Mildness, 

a-ye felhede. Pronesse : a-ye slacnesse. Largesse : a-ye f- ?^ e ^' 

scarsnesse. Chastete : a-ve ]echerie. Sobrete a-ve glo- 6 - chastity. 

J J 7. Sobriety. 

1 Written clene in MS. 2 Written an&uerie)? in MS. 


These seven vir- tounye. j)ise zeues mVtues lokep and ledep wel ri3te 
aright the ghost and wel zikerliche pane gost of wytte pet hise let be pe 

of wisdom. . . 

waye of r^tuomesse. ase zayp salomow. be nuicne waye : 
Discretion is the discrecion and scele / pet is pe cartere of mVtues. ase 
and the rudder of zayp sant bernard. and pe roper of pe ssipe of pe zaule 
the soul' a 1S ' n ^ s ^ an( i brengp uorp. pet hi ne guo na3t amis ari3tlialf 
ne alefthalf. and pus hi profitep and wexep and berep 
frut to pe uolle. Jperuore parane pet pe mrtue of ri3tuol- 
without dis- nesse / be discrecioun him ssewep ine alle pe workes of 
comes vice. opre mrtues. and wypoute pise / alle pe opre m'rtues 

These seven vir- lyezep pane name of mVtue : and becomep uiees. Zigge 

tues before men- . . , - 

tioned are the ich wel / pet m on wyt / pise zeue mrtues be-uore yzed 
and g they produce byep pe bo3es of ri3tuolnesse and al pet frut of guode 
worS! it0fg0 ° d workes pet of ham wexep / belongep to pise trawe. 

Nou onderstan[d] wel hou pegreate maister of uzVtues ous 
"Blessed be spekp of pise m'rt[u]e / uor hi ne is na3t ine his reule. 

Christ, " who in * Yblessed byep po pet ri3tuolnesse hiealdep oueral / and 
discretion." ine alle pinges habbep discrecion and mesure wyp-oute 

misnimynge.' Vor we ne habbep hire onneape y-wonne. 

Yor non ne is pet ne misnimp ine uele maneres. And 
He does not say peruore ous conf oiteb wel zueteliche oure zuete maiste[r] 

blessed be they 

who sin not, Iesu crist huawne he ne zayp na3t. 'y-blissed byep po pet 

ne zene3ep ne misnimep / ac dop al be ri3tuolnesse / and 

but " blessed be be lingne.' Ac he zayp wel cortaysliche uor to confovti 

they who weep," 

pe zenuolle. ' Yblissed byep po pet wepep / uor hy ssolle 

by comforted.' pet is to zigge : po byep yblissed : pet 

that is, who see yzyeb and onderstondeb and knaweb wel hire defautes : 

andknow their J J r r . r 

faults, ine alle pise zeue poyns of ri3tuolnesse pet we habbep 

and are sorrowful n j er y-nemned / and beruore wepeb and byeb zormol 

because of their J I r r r J r ? 

sins. pet hi uindep zuo ofte on^t / huer hi ssolden healde 

The world is call an( j ninde ristuolnesse. Yor beruore is be wordle 

ed the vale of ' r ' 

tears, y-cleped pe dane of tyeares. and non ne may ine pe 

wordle libbe : wyp-oute tyeares pet hep onderuonge pe 

because none may yefhe of wyt / huerof we habbeb yspeke. baraie be- 

live without tears, J r J ' r J r j 

that hath the gift houeb ase zayb Salomon, uor huo bet mest can / and 
of wit. T s T „ ' 

mest zy3p pe zor3es and pe kueades of pe wordle : pe 


more hep zoi*3e to his herte / and tyeares / and wepinges. [Foi. 50. a.j 
And bus beginb bis wordle to tyeny. And be more bet sorrow causes 

rorr JJ r r man to dislike the 

tyenej) pis lif : j>e more me wylnej) pet ojjer. And world, 

perof wexej? ojjre tyeres uor pe wylninge of pe opre Hue. and to desire the 

JNTou sselt J?ou Jms J?enche. Zix maneres of tyeres J>et six manner of 

pe holy man he)? ine pise wordle be pe yefpe of wytte. S heddeth. ° m&n 

]>e uerste come]) of pet me zy^t pet me he]? god ofte 1^^*^? 

ywreped be p03te / be speche / and be dede. ]5e oper * n °^- nd 

com]) ferof pet me yzi^p pe greate tormer^s hidouse come because of 

an eurelestinde of helle. Huerof ech man ssel habbe ofheii. 

grat drede. ])e J)ridde wexej) of pe kueades / ])et me 3. The sufferings 

of the good. 

yzi3]) pe guode polye. pe uerpe come]) 01 pe ze/mes pet 4. The sins of the 
Jje kueade do]). \)e vifte uor ))ise liue pet tyenep / and ™ weakness of 
uor pe ofre ])et de]) auerst. }?e zixte com]) of deuo- ^fof the 
cioun and of grat plente and of blisse of pe presense of ° th D £ votion and 
Iesu crist / and of be uelinge of be holy gost. and bise bliss cau&ed b y 

1 T ° * " ° ' the presence of 

byep ari3t yblissed ])et zuo wepej) / uor hi ssolle by Christ and the 

. Holy Ghost. 

y-conlorted ase zay]) pe writinge. Alsuo ase pe nonce as the nurse com- 
confortej) ])et child pet wep]). uor hi wypej) pe e^en. / theeymofthT 
and him kest / and hi dej) him le^e be strengpe. alsuo wee P in £ child » 
ssel do oure lhord to ham bet wepeb ine bise wordle ase »<> out Lord com- 
ich habbe yzed. Yor he wyle zuo wypi hare e3en / J)et era. 
neuremo ne ssolle wepe / ne ne ssolle yuele kuead ne Evermore shall 

r ' J they be with God, 

zoroe. Ac euremo ssolle by myd god ine paise and ine inpeace, laughing, 

* and bliss. 

Ie3inge and ine blisse wyp-oute ende. 

OF j)E YEFj^E OF STBENGjjE. Of the gift of 


Nou we habbe}) yspeke of yef))es and of mrtues / we have spoken 

already of the 

J)et gouemep ])o J?et me pe wordle libbej) mid pe lo3este virtues which 
of pri states / huerof we habbe J) beuore y-speke. Nou fhe worid° Se "* 
ssolle we mid be helpe of pe holy gost speke of pe Nowweshaii 

speak of those 

yeffes and of pe u/rtues ])et more propreliche belonge]) virtues which be- 
to ham Jet pe wordle onworpep / and to pe he^e helle that despisTthe 
of perfeccion wylnef. Of fan zayf propreliehe lob. Lifeofmanon 
bet lyf of man ope be erbe : is ase knyhlthod. Vor earth is as knight- 

* * lit <* ljj hood or as citizen. 

ma?mes lyf ine pe erpe : is ase borgeysye. Nou yzi3 *Mp- 




Much has the one 
of new and diverse 

and strives to be 
rich and esteem- 

The knight de- 
sires to act court- 
eously and liber- 

and to purchase 
fame and high 

Some men keep 
from great sins, 
do penance, &c«, 
and it sufficeth 
them if they may 
be saved at last. 

Others are dis- 
gusted with 
worldly perils, 
sins, and pains, 
and have no peace 
of mind. 

[Fol. 50. b.] 
They see no 
treasure to be 
compared to God's 

and had they 
God's love, peace 
of heart, and joy 
of soul, they 
would think them- 
selves more than 

When God gives 
man the gift of 

He gives him a 
new, noble, and 
hardy heart, 

that enables him 
to endure all the 
world's threaten- 

He only is wise 
who despises 
harm for his 
friend, i. e. God. 

ane yongne boryeis and ane newene kni$t. Mocliel 
habbe]? }?os of uele fortes newe diuerses and wylnolle. 
fie borgeys wylnej? to chapfari / an to wynne and to 
gaderi. and pe ende of bis wylle is al J?erto : Jet ba by 
ricbe ine guodes. and ine bis tonne y-wor]?ssiped. fie 
kny3t newe / gep al anoperne way. Vor be wilnej? 
corteysyes to done / an largeliche yeue / and kny|j]thod 
to lyerny and guo to armes. kneades to polje / ssewy 
pronesses. porcbaci los / and ine he3e stat cliue. fiise 
tuo states we zjep apertelicbe ine tno maneres of uolke. 
huerof pe on is / Jet wel bam wylle J) nram greate zeraie 
loki / do penonce. yeue elmesse. hyealde godes hestes / 
and of holy cberche and wel bam hit were yno^ / yef hi 
mi^te ate ende be 1 zno moche by y-bo^e. pise bye]? ine 
gnod stat / and wel bam mo3e soui. fie o]?re bye]? to 
huam J?et pe wordle anoyj? uor pe pmls and pe zeraies 
and de 2 pinen/ huerof hi is al uol. zuo ]?etnon ne may 
habbe pays of herte / ne stedeuest inwyt. Hi yzef of 
oj?er half J?et pev ne is no tresor J?et mo3e 3 by worj? to 
godes loue. no zuyetnesse zuo grat : ase pays of herte. 
no blisse of pe wordle pet by worj? / to J?e blisse of 
klene inwyt. zuo ham pingp and wel hit is zo]? / J?et 
huo J?et Jise J?ri J?inges may winne : he ssolde by more 
J?araie empe?*our. ae J?et is zuo grat J?ing ]?et ueawe J?er 
bye]? zuiche / pet dorre ]?ise niminge maki. ac huaraie 
god yef)? to ]?e maraie Jise grace, and pe ilke yefj?e ]?et 
me clepe]? pe gost of strengj?e. he hym yeff ane newe 
herte / ane noble herte / and hardi. Noble : uor to 
onwor]?i al ]?et J?e wordle mai bebote / and yeue. 
Hardyesse uor to J?olie alle pe kueadnesse j?et pe wordle 
may J?reapni. And of J?ise hardiesse spek}? oure uader 
huaraie he zede. fiet ' yblysse]? bye]? ]?o Jet habbe]? 
honger and ]?orst / of rijtuolnesse.' Salomon ]?et 
< he is rijtuol / ]?et onwor]?e]? his harm / uor his uryend' / 
J?et is uor god / ]?et is ri3t urend. And saint bernard 
zay]?. ' he ne is na3t ^tuol / ]?et ne yzi^p na3t ine his 
1 bo MS. 2 g oin MS> 3 more? 


herte : and uelp / and onderstant / pet he is yeldere. 

and a-yens god of treupe / toppe alle ping.' Jpe ilke pet Man is a debtor 

zopliche wylnep mid al his herte to yelde pise dette to 

gode / pe ilke is of pan / huerof oure lhord spekp 

hua^ne he zede. J)et J>e ilke bye)? yblissed / Jjet habbep Blessed are thoge 

honger / and porst : uor ri3tuolnesse. he ne zayj) na3t / th * fc hun s er and 

' y-blissed hi byep po pet habbep / oper pet do]? l^tuol- eousness, 

nesse : ac po pet habbep honger and porst.' Vor Jjis 

^tuolnesse ne may by yhyealde / ne pis dette ne may Th i S rightfulness 

by uoffiche y-yolde / ine >ise wdle. Ac ine ]rise ^^ml 

wordle hi is y-wylned / and ine pe opre / y-payd. ^°. rld * . 

pevnovQ ne zayj) na3t oure gnode lhord and mayster. and got in the 

' J?o byep yblissed pet pise ri3tuolnesse ssolle do / and pet Christ does not 

pise dette ssolle yelde.' Ac he zayp wel eortayslaker / SsSiwto have 

ase he pet wot dure pouerte. 'Yblissep 1 byep pe ilke n ^ ghteous " 

pet of pise ri3 tuolnesse / habbep honger / and porst.' 

Yor he ne aksep na3t pet we him yelde hyer his dette / 

ac hit is him yno2 / yef we habbeb guod wyl to yelde. out those are 

J ' ; J r ° J J blessed who desire 

])is wylninge huanne hi is zop in herte / behouep pet he it in their hearts. 

hit ssewy be dede. Vor ase zayp Salomon. ' non ne may 

bet uer ine his bosme hede / bet his robe ne berne.' bis Thi8 desire ex " 

r . . hibits itself in 

ssewynge ne may bi wyp-oute uirtxie / and wyp-oute virtue and in 


prouesse. Vor be wytnesse / ne by playtinge : me ne 

prouep na3t pet he by guod kny^t / ac be moche dede T ^4th hWif 

of armes / and be moche poliynge / and to y-leste. 8Uch bv Ms deeda 

And pet is pe uerpe mrtue / pet pe holy gost yefp to 

be mawne uor to strepe of al : in al. be uerbe vice. Prowe f 8 8tri P 8 

x x f * man of sloth and 

pet is pe zenne of sleawpe and of onlosthede. )?is idleness. 

mVtue is of zuo greate dignete / pet amang alle pe opre 

ui'rtues / pis one berp propreliche be him-zelue pane 

name of / luVtue. Vor uzVtue / and prouesse is al on. hifser^anTs 8 * ° n 

bise mrtue / god yefb to his sorsons / huarane he his ash© did at 

' / d «/ x o / Pentecost to His 

wile maki kin^tes / ase he dede to his apostles at lokes. apostles, 

of huam we redep / pet hi weren zuo dreduol / pet hi 

ne 2 dorste <mo out of hare house / alhuet hi weren mid who nevertheless 

° ' were timid and 

1 So in MS. * no in MS. 

li * 



[Fol. 51. a.] 

J?ise uf/'tue yarmed. Ac more hi yeden ledinde blisse / 
huawne me dede ham ssame and hardnesse. 

The division of 
virtue (prowess). 

The old philoso- 
phers divided 
this virtue into 
six parts. 

Our Lord added 
a seventh point. 

1. Magnanimity. 

2. Affiance. 

3. Security. 

4. Patience. 

5. Stedfastness. 

6. Magnificence. 

7. Hunger and 
thirst of right- 

Magnanimity is 
highness, great- 
ness, nobleness of 
will, and of great 

[i deles Pf 
The first division 
of it is prowess — 
a noble contempt 
of difficulties. 

The second is 
rational enterprise 
of difficult things. 

He who has this 
virtue thinks but 
little of the cares 
of the world, 

counting them 
no more than a 
spider's web. 

Solomon truly 
said, "All is 

The world is 
vanity, and full 
of vanity. 


fie filozofes J>et of j?ise tt&Vtues dro3en / hi to-delden 
Jrise mrtues ine zix deles. J?et bye]? ase zix stapes / 
huerby j>ise mVtues cliuej? / and profitep. Ac oure 
master J?et made pe filozofes / and filozofie. pet is Iesu 
crist : he zet / J?ane zeuende poynt. j)e uerste poynte 
of prowesse / hi clepiej? / magnanimite. fie ofer : 
fiaunce. fie jjridde : zikernesse. j)e uerj?e : Jolyinge. 
fie uifte : stedeuestnesse. fie zixt : magnificence, fie 
zeuende Jet onre mayster zette : hatte honger and J?orst 
of ri3tnolnesse. fiise w'rtues me ne may na^t propre- 
liche nemni ase onderstondinge hise to-di^t / ine latin. 
Magnanimite is he^nesse. gratnesse. and noblesse of 
wylhede / huerby pe man is hardi ase lyon / and of 
greate niminge. fiis uirtue help tuo delles. l greate Jjinges 
onworfi. and wel grater to nime an hand / and to 
chiese. Of pe uerste dele : zayjj zaynt austin. Prowesse 
is / huawne corage onworfej) / al Jet ne is na^t in his 
pouer. fiet is al }?et he may lyese / wylle him nolle 
him. And seneke zayjj. ' amang wordleliche finges / no 
ping ne is grat / bote herte / J?et greate Jjinges onworjej?.' 
Of pe o)?re dele zayjj pe filozofe. J)et i magnanimite / is 
renable niminge of he3e J?ynge / and dreduol.' Huo J?et 
fise u^Vtue hej? : he jzi^p pe wordle uram uer. ase zayj? 
ysaye. pe profete. And )?us him pmgp al ]>e wor[d]le lite / 
ase a sterre hit Jjincj) to ous. Jpa/me al pe wordle / and 
alle pe bisyhedes / and pe greate niedes of pe wordle 
him Jringj> ase na^t. and Jjeruore hise ne prayzej? na3t / 
bote ase pe web of pe spifre. fi&rme Salomon huawne he 
hedde al pe wordle y-went. and of alle J?inges / and of 
foles / and of wyse ystrmed. he zayde his dom ine zuiche 
manere. ' ydelnesse. ydelnesse. ydelnesse. and al pet ich 
izi : is ydelnesse.' Jet is to zigge / pe wordle is ydel- 
nesse. and zuo hi is al uol of ydelnesse. And pe man 


hi??i-zelf uor huam be wordle is y-mad : zuo is al ydel- This life flies as a 

r . " J J shadow. 

nesse. uor ine him is alle manure ydelnesse / ase zai J its cares are as 

Je sauter. ydelnesse / be steruinge. Yor his lyf UH3J 

ase ssed. ydelnesse / be bysihede. Vor Jise bysyhedes 

bye]? ase me teles. Ydelnesse / be kueadnesse. Yor The first step then 

, . , . . . of this virtue is 

zenne mm makej more na 3 t / Jarcne Jing Jet is me Je to despise the 

worddle. jS"ou is Jawne Je uerste del of Jise iwVtue. 

J?et hiwa dej pe wordle onworji / ase habbej ydo ine 

ariere and Je iilozofe payen. and Je holy cmtene man. 

pe ojer del is zuo / Jet hi make)) Jane way of perfec- The second is to 

cion to nimene. and Jet lyf pet zuo moche ssewe J ssarp / the way of per- 

an dreduol to chiese. J?et is pe way Jet let in-to pe ethtothehiiiof 

helle of god. Jet is ine Je stat of p^feccion. J)et is Je 

way of pnue red / of oure lhorde / Jet he ssewede to 

his apostles ine Je helle / huerof Jis bok spek J. peme This way choose 

way ehy[e]zej Jo. to huam ne is na3t yno 3 to loki / Je only keep God's 

hestes of god / huerto hi byej y-hyealde. and wyllej behe8t8 » 

uoluelle his redes / huer hi ne byej na3t be dette y- 

hyealde / ase byej Jo / Jet lete J al Jet hi habbej : uor but forsake an 

god. and y[e]uej ham to sterue / uor Je loue of him : Jet sake, 

starf uor ham. ojer ine Je londe be-yende Je ze / ojer [Foi. 51. b.j 

ine anojre stede. And ase doj Jo / Jet uorlete J / and both goods and 

friends and them- 

al onworjej uor god. and guodes. and uryendes. and selves. 
ham-zelue. and make J ham-zelue Jrelles of ojren Jet They become the 

Blaves of others, 

weren vry. and makej ham-zelue poure : Jet weren and endure 
riehe : ojer my^ten by. hy doj ham to Jolye grat poverty ' 
ssarpnesse / Jet hedden ine be wordle : greate lostes. The y put them- 

J * selves to great 

ase byej manie /Jet byej ine religion, and of herte / hardships, 
and of bodie. Yor litel is worb to by ine religion / * s many do who 

J have entered a 

ojer ine ssarpnesse of penonce / yef Je herte ne is na3t religious order. 
Jerto. Yor Je clojinge / ne makej na 3 t J:ane monek. m X fhTknight, 
ne Je armes Jane kny 3 t : ac Je guode herte / and Je but the good 

llC8»rt BTiCl til 6 

dedes Of prOUeSSe. deeds of prowess- 

bE ObER STAPE OF PROUESSE. The second step 

* ' of prowess. 

be ober stape of bise urrtue is : beleaue. Yor huo The second st* P 

1 * r T ^ is to believe. 

bet hej Jane guode way ynome / hit be-houej Jet he Belief enables 



man to pursue 
the good path, 

and to withstand 
the assailings of 
the devil, world, 
and the flesh. 

The flesh says, 
I cannot forsake 
my old habits. 
The world pur- 
sues him like an 
escaped thief. 
The devil says, 
"Wretch, what 
wilt thou do ? " 

God's new knight 
undergoes these 

By stedfast belief 
he fears not, 

for whom God 
will help none 
may harm. 

him hyealde vestliche ine his wylle / and pet he habbe 
guode beleaue ine god / pet he him uoluelle J>et he he]? 
agonne. J?ise uirtue hi clepiep / beleaue. hi is wel 
nyeduol a-ye pe asaylinges of pe wordle / of pe ulesse. 
and of pe dyeule. Jet stranglaker asaylep pane man ate 
a-gynnmge. j)et uless him zayp. ych ne may polye pis 
lyf / ne mine ealde wones lete. ])e wordle zekp efter / 
uor pan to wypd^e / ase me zekp ane pyef huawne he 
is ascaped of pe pn'sone. j)e dyeuel him zayp. ' wrechche 
huet wyltou do / hueruore pe yelst pe zuo. Vor pou 
mi3test pe operlaker wel wytye.' J)ise byep pe uerste 
asaylynges / pet godes newe kny^t polep : pet pengp to 
wynne pe regne of heuene. Ac huawne he him yefp to 
god be guode an stedeueste be-leaue / he ne hep none 
hede. Vor he is pe treweste urend / pet may / and 
can / and wyle / his o^ene loki. and huam pet god wile 
helpe : no ping him ne may derie. 

The third step of 

The third step of 
prowess is se- 
curity (or confi- 
whereby one 
dreadeth not the 
perils before one's 

The Holy Ghost 
causes man by 
this gift to under- 
take great tilings. 

He makes him 
confident as a 

As the new 
knight desires 
tournament, so 
does he desire 
peril and death. 
St Agace went 
to torment as 
joyfully as if to 
a wedding. 


j)e pridde stape of prouesse : is zikernesse. zyker- 
nesse ase zayp pe filozofe is a mVtue / huerby me ne 
dret na3t pe kuedes / ne pe perils / pet biep beuore hare 
e3en. And pet is pe pridde guod / pet pe yefpe of 
strengpe dep. Vor pe holy gost / huawne he hep y- 
armed his kny3t of his mVtue : uerst he him yefp noble 
herte / greate pinges to nimene. Efterward he him yefp 
ane greate hete / and a grat wyl to uoL^y / and gwt 
hope uor to uoluelle. Efterward he makep him ziker 
ase lyoun. zuo pet he ne hep drede / ne of perils / ne 
of pinen / ne of dyape / ne of torment, ac he his 
wilnep / ase dep pe newe kny3t pe tornemews. an suo 
dede pe martires ase hit pingp ine hare liue. huer-of we 
redep of zaynte agase / pet mid greate blisse hi yede 
to torment alsuo ase hi yede to feste / oper to a 


J)E UERj)E STAPB OF PROUESSE. The fourth step of 


Ase Je holy gost make]? his kny3t ziker uor to ahide 
Je tormens and Je zorjes Jet bye]) to comene. Alsuo The Holy Ghost 
he him make]? Strang and J?olyinde. uor to J?olye ™ong an*d ™ g * 
hua/me hi come]?, and Jet is ]?e uer]?e stape pet hi patienfc ' 
clepiej? / pacience. be ]?ise u/rtue / Je guode ouercom]? 
alle his uyendes. ]?ane dyeuel. pe wordle. and Jjet uless. so that he may 
and al Jet hi mo 3 e zigge and do. Vor Jet is ]?e sseld ~ allhis 
of gold / to him ]?et uor godes loue ]?oleJ? / )?et him £ Fo1 - 52 - a -3 
wxi 3 ]? of eche half / ase zay]? pe sauter. zuo Jet no 
strok / ne may him breke pe herte. Jpise mrtue non ne 
he]? : J?et ne he]? bi uonded. Vo[r] trzbulacion : make]? Patience must be 

. acquired by trial, 

pacience. Ase zay}? zaynte paul. ase ]?et uer : make]? for the fire hardens 

pe te3ele / hard. WyJ?-oute |?ise tuVtue non ne is y- 

proued. ne Jet gold ne may by wyJ?-oute uer y-clensed. and gold is puri- 

wyj-oute pacience : non ne he]? uictorie. Vor huo Jet 

lyest pacience : he is ouercome. wyj-oute pacience : 

non ne com]? to perfeccion. J)erof we yzej? uorbisne / Patience is ne- 
cessary to per- 
ate leste me alle J?e mestyeres }?et me de]? mid hand, fection. 

Moche ]?ole]? pe coupe of gold of strokes of yzen / er]?an The cup of gold 

hi by yzet ope Jet bord of pe kinge. and pe chalis er iron ere it is set on 

ha by yblissed / and y-zet ope Jane weucd. Moche the khlg ' s board ' 

JoleJ pe tonne of greate strokes / er me do J?rin Jet 

guode wyn. Mochel is defouled mid Je uet of uolleres T he scarlet robe 

Je robe of scarlet / erjan Jet Je kuen his do an. And [h^^nto 7 

ase uele mht Jou to ban vinde uorbisnes ; ase ber byeb fu,lers ere the 

. queen puts it on. 

workmen at paris of alle mestyeres. Be Jise mVtue is 

Strang Je man / ase Jet ysen Jet alle metals a-dauntej. By tins virtue is 

f\o , • iii/ • - man strerigth- 

Ol gmt ipris ase Jet gold / Jet Je more hit is me uere : ened, 

Je more hit is clene / and clyer / and tretable. ase Je 

salamandre Jet leuej ine be uere. and ase be viss bet as the salamander 

, , .,. n i • i , . in the fire, or the 

me Je trauailmde wetere : him bajej and nonssej. fish in the water. 

J?E VIFTE STAPE OF PROUESSE. The fifth step of 

be vifte stape of bise ufrtu is ycleped Constance. The fifth step is 

* ^ r called constancy, 



by which man is 
established as a 

and by which he 
secures victory, 

and overcomes 

The devil over- 
throws man by 
adversity or by 
idle bliss. 

Virtue consists in 
following a mean 
between good and 

The sixth step of 

The sixth step of 
prowess is mag- 

This virtue Christ 
calls persever- 

by which the good 
knight endures 
to the end. 
All other virtues 
fight, but this 

[Fol. 52. b.] 

He who perse- 
veres to the end 
shall be saved. 

The virtue of the 

\)et is a iwVtue Jet makej? J?e herte Strang and stedeuest 
ine god ase a tour yzet ope ane stronge roche / and ase 
a traw yroted ine guod land / J?et hit ne ssake uor 
neraie wynd / ]?et may come ne blawe / Jet is ine no 
cas J?et mo^e come / ne guode ne kueade. wy]?-oute. 
]?ise mrtue / no^ ne com]? to ui[c]torie. uor hua^ne godes 
kny3t he]? ido zome prowesse : J?araie him asaylej? J?e 
dyeuel be ydele blisse. and panne is pe batayle ine J?e 
herte pe stranger uor him-zelue to ouercome / J>et he ne 
ualle be ydele blisse : panne alle pe uerste uondinge / 
ne wes. Huerof dauid zajp ine pe sautere / ]>et pe 
dyeuerouerfrauj? pe wel stronge of lefthalf be aduersite / 
and pe wel stronge a ri^thalf : be ydele blisse. pise 
uirtue preysej? moche seneke J?et zayj?. J?et per ne is 
luVtue bote pe ilke pet gep uor]? proudliche be-tuene pe 
one auenture and pe o]?re / ]?et is be-tuene pe guode 
and pe kueade. and grat onwor]?nesse of on an of 


pe zixte stape of prouesse / hi clepie]? / magnificence. 
]>ise uirtue hi desm'uej? ]?ous. Magnificence is hi 
ziggep of he3e nyede y-bhssede bleuinge. J^ise uirtue 
oure greate filosofe Tesu crist clepe]? / perseuerance. be 
huam pe guode godes kny[j]t JoleJ? pe kuedes / and ylest 
al to pe ende ine J?o he^e waye of perfeccion J?et he he]? 
ynome. Of ]?ise mVtue zay]? zaynte paul. pet alle pe 
uirtues yernej? : ac J?is wyn]? J?et zuord. alle hy vi3tej? : 
ac pm hep pe uictorie and pe coroune. Alle werchej? : 
ac ]?is berj? away ]?ane ssepe aneuen. Vor ase zayj? oure 
lhord. huo ]?et blefj? al to J?e ende : he ssel by bor^e / 
and non o]?er. More uor]? ne cou]?en pe filosofes lede 
pe mVtue of prow r esse. Ac pe deciplis of oure mayster 
Iesu cnst / guop yno^ more uor]?. Yor ase zayj? 
Salomon, huaraie hi habbej? al asummed / panne uerst 
ham }>ingj? / Jet hit is al to aginne. pe uirtue and pe 


prouesse of be filozofes wes al uor be uiees to ouercome / old philosophers 

g was to overcome 

and to zeehe pe inVtues. Ac pe prouesse of hal^en nor vice, 

. -it hut the prowess 

to ouercome pe nices and pe mrtues to zeche. and Jjerto of the saints 
praicipalliche uor to healde ri^ftjuolnesse / an tren]?e hold righteous- 
auoreye Iesu cnst. He ne is na3t r^tuol / Jet ne yelt ness and truth - 
Jet ha ssel : be his nri^te. And uor zo Je mochel is we owe our lives 
ri^tuol Jing / and sceluol / Jet ich yeue mi lif / and mi died for usV° 
dyeaj / uor him Jet his lif and his dyeaj / yaf uor ous. 
And asemoche ase he is worj betere Ja?me ich: zuo and his life was 
moche ich am yeldinde be ri3te ^tuolnesse. ase zayj thaToura? 0118 
saynt anselm. Jjise ri^tuolnesse ' ich may wylny / ac ich / w e may desire 
ne non ojer / ne moje hier hifc yelde / ne uolliche hit bufSe^aMe to 
paye ' / ase we habbej be-uore y-zed. And Jeruore is pe do so * 
zeuende stape of Jise mVtue / pe ilke Jet oure mayster 
Iesu crist dej Jerto / huerto Je filozofes ne nri^te come / 
Jo he zede. ' yblessed hjep Jo : Jet habbejj honger and Blessed are they 
Jorst of ri^tuoLaesse.' panne bye]? Jo ari^t y-blissed / tinrst after^ight- 
Jet pe zix stapes of prowesse byej ycliue / and habbej anTwho have 
honger / and Jorst / and grat wyl pe zeuende stape / 
be hare my3te cliue. 

climbed the six 
steps of prowess. 

J3E BO3ES OF FROWESSE. The houghs of 


Ine Jise trawe ase ine pe ojren / we vindej zeue In th is tree are 

•t -xr • r> seven boughs, 

bo3es. Vor me zeue maneres of vi3t : Jer come}) zeue for in seven 

_ . i i « • . battles there are 

maneres ouercomemges. and be Jise zeue ouercominges : as many victo- 
hi wynnej? zeue maneres of corounes. ]?et bye]? zeue which gain seven 
medes. huerof saynt Ion spek]? ine pe apocalipse. Yor crown8 ' 
ase zay]? saynt bernard. * Mochel is he fol / and ouer- He is a fool who 

• j/*-j_ 1 1 • ,., -,, thinks to have the 

wenmde / Jet wyj-oute ouercommge abit to habbe pe crown without the 
coroune. and huo wy]?-oute vi3t : wen]? habbe pe vlctory ' 
maystrie.' huerof zaynte paul zay]?. Jpet neure to 
coroune ne ssel come : J?et trieweliche ne vi3t. trewe- 
liche / Jet is to zigge : be pe fye of J?e uelde of pe y- The custom in 
prouede / Jet wes y-woned to byenne }?e ealde manere S^TwI^&if :- 
at rome. j)et pe ilke ]?et to pe uelde him dede / uor to He who desired 
habbe los : ouercom aUe J?o )?et Je mayster of Je uelde / "o™"; 



all whom the 
master of the 
field sent against 

This master is 
Christ, and he 
knows the might 
of each, 

and suffers us 
not to be tried 
above our 

They that over- 
come shall have 
seven kinds of 

The first fight. 
[Fol. 53. a.] 

The first fight of 
the Christian is 
against deadly 

The bold heart 
finds it an easy 
task to gain the 

He that fallethin 
this fight hath 
more need of 
than he that is 

As the fish goe3 
into the net will- 
ingly, so man 
goes into sin, 

but lie may not 
go out of himself. 

The arms of pen- 
ance enable man 
to overcome in 
this fight. 

Three points to 
be observed in 
true penance. 
1. Repentance of 

dede come ayen him. fie mayster of Je uelde / 
is Iesu cnst / Jet asayj his newe kny3tes ase hit is 
y write ine Je boc of kmges. fies mayster is wel trewe 
ase zayj zaynte paul. and kan nol wel Je nn^te of 
echen / he ne JoleJ Jet no vyend ous uondy ouer oure 
mi^te. ne now aduersari ous asayli / Jet we ne 111030 
ouercome : yef we willej mid his helpe. fiet ine Je vi^t 
ous wext oure strengje / ase zayj zaynte pauel. Saynt 
Ton ase we habbej yzed / toparte J zeue ouercomei[n]gges. 
and zeue corounes. Jet is to zigge : zeue maneres of 
medes / Jet god be-hat to Jan / Jet ouercome J. 

J)E uerste V13T. 
fie uerste ui3t Jet Je cristene habbej : is a-ye 
dyeadlich zenne. ine Jis vi3t neure ne is ouercome : Jet 
nele to sewne cowsenti. he ouercomj Jane vi3t / Jet is 
wel li3t to ouercome to Je bolde herte. and lang and 
riotouse to Je sleauuolle / and to Je onlosti / Jet bye J 
slacke to godes seruice. Jet ne byej ne wel chald be 
poer. ne wel hot : ine Je loue of god / ase zayj saint 
Ion. fie ilke Jet ualj an is ouercome ine Jise vijtinge : 
hej more strenger to done him-zelue to do arere / and 
him-zelue to werie. Jamie Je ilke Jet is stondinde. uor 
he ne hej none nri^te him-zelue to arere : bote god 
him hyalde Je hand be his grace. Yor ase viss gej in / 
be him-zelue and be his wille in-to Je nette : alsuo Je 
man gej in / be him-zelue and be his wylle in-to 
zenne. Ac out ne may he na3t guo : wyj-oute oure 
lhordes helpe / Jet him yef J huawne he wyle / and Je 
armes of penonce / huerby he may ouercome his y-uo. 
fiet is Je armure Jet Je apostel zainte paul het to nime 
ine Jise vi3tiwge / uor man on-armed : ne is na3t worj 
ine vi3t. Nou sselt Jou conne Jet to Jan Jet Je man 
by wel y-armed uor to ouercome parntliche zeraie. hit 
behouej Jet he habbe Jri Jing Jet byej ine zoje penonce. 
fie uerste Jing is : uorjenchinge of herte. fie ojer : 

king david's repentance. 171 

ssrifte of moupe. J)e pridde : is yncttamendement be 2. shrift of 

11 A/> •• - 11 1 1 1 /» m0Ut h. 

dede. Of pise pn pmges is y-hol : pe hauberk of s. Amendment in 
penonce. Yef pe on of pise pri pinges faylep : pe if one of these 
armure is al uals / and he pet hit berp : ouercome. thHiSouf if ll 
Vorpenchinge : acsep grat zorje and greate zykinges of ^ ntancede . 
herte / nor bet he heb y-wrebed his sseppere. And be mand eth great 

< * * * J H * sorrow and deep 

more pet me him he)? y-wreped : pe more gratter ssel by sighing of heart. 
pe zor3e. 

OF pE UORjjENCHINGE OF KYNG DAD!)?. Of the repentance 

of king David. 

}}ous uorjju^te pe kyng dauip ase he zayp ine pe sauter. David says in the 
' Ich zny nke and trauayli ine min e zykinges. and wille wesse wash my bed 
eche ni3t mi bed and mine couche mid mine teares.' j)e ilke 
pet god he]? y-wreped be dyadliche zerme : he ssel zoi^y The sinner cm 
mid dyepe herte / zuo pet pe herte melte al in-to tyeares / so sorrow that ins 

-,., , j-j j • i • i heart shall melt 

and m-to greate zor^es. and mid greate zikmges me ssel into u&rSt 
grede to god merci / ase his pyef / ase his mansla3pe / and cry mercy to 
ase his bezuykere : pet he J? ofserned pet gibet of helle. a mur derer! e * n 
J)e zene^ere is godes pief. uor pe guodes of his lhorde The sinner is a 
pet ne bye)) him bote ylend nor to wynne. J?et byep 
pe gnodes of kende / and of grace / and of hap. hnerof because he hath 
him behoueb / rekeninge / and scele yelde wel strayt- eviiiy spent the 

gifts and graces 

liche. He hise he)) folliche y-spewded ine enele wones / of God. 

and al ylayd to an hazard. Efterward he is moyrdrer He is a murderer 

of the king's 

of J?e kinges do3ter. pet is of his 03ene zanle pet wes daughter, that 

godes do3ter be grace. pet he hep ysla3e be dyadlich so ' ul# 

zeraie. Efterward he is godes bezuykere. nor be castel He is a traitor to 

_ , , ii-i t God > for n « h ath 

of his herte / and of his bodye / pet god him hep ytake so id his soul to 
to loki : he he)) yolde to his yno dyadlich / pet is pe the devl1 * 
dyenel. Wel Jamie he ssel grat zo^e habbe J?et is in 
zuich poynt. and ofte mid his teares his bed wesse. pet wherefore the 

_,».,. sinner should 

is his inwyt. hnerof pe nenimonse eddre ot helle seat wash Ms bed, that 
geus. zueche tyeares driuep pane dyenel nram pe herte : 18 ' 
ase pet hote weter cachep pane hond out of pe kechene. After repentance 
Efter pe uorpenchinge ssel come pe ssrifte pet is pe guode the go^dcham" ' 
chomberier pet clenzep pet hons and kest out al pe uelpe t Fo1 - 53 - b -3 


berer that cleans- mid pe besme of pe tonge. huerof spekp dauid ine pe 
sautere. $• meditatus sum cum co[r]de meo $ excercebar 
fy scopebam spwitwn meum. 

Of Shrift. Q F J^ E SSRIPTE , 

There are six con- ]STou onderstand wel hier hou me ssel by yssriue / 

ditions of shrift. _ • n -, , i i a i 1 , 

perto pet be ssrifte by worp to pe helpe of zaule. perto 

1. That it be behouep zix ccwdicions. pe uerste is pet hi bi ymad 

(a) to take heed wyslyche. ))is wyt is ine tuo ping, pe uerste : pet me 

makes°shrift e , nime hede to huam he ssel him ssriue. Efterwar[d] 

huerof. Saynt austin zayp. nor Jet me dep uor te bevly 

pane dyap of pe bodie : me ssel do nor to askapie pane 

dyap of pe zanle. j)e zike nor to be-nly pane dyap / 

and uor to habbe helpe / zekp blepeliche pane beste 

fisician and pane wyziste pet he may habbe. Alzuo 

zayp saynt augwstin / pet hou pet wille wysliche him be 

and to seek a good rede / and grace auoreye god uynde : he ssel zeche 

confessor, " . 

zuych ane ccwfessour : pet conne bynde / and onbynde. 

J)et is pet he conne wel y-knawe zenne / an pane zene3ere 

one who hath wel rede. And pet he habbe power him to asoyli / and 

power to absolve 

and enjoin pen- him penonce to anioynj be pe zenne. Qui wit confiteri 
peccata sua ut inueniat gracia,m : querat sacerdotem qui 
sciat ligare fy solueie / fyc. 
(6) who that win Efterpan huo pet him wisliche wyle ssriue / he ssel 
wm^mwrtthink m ^ wylle penche and his zeranes auore pet he come to 
of m s sins before gsr ift e / and al his herte zeche / and his inwyt / hou he 

he comes to con- ' ' ' 

fesa them. fop g d j an d lii s yblyssede moder / and his ha^en 

ywreped. and mid greate drede al his lyf bepenche / ase 

dede pe guode king ezechie / pet zayde pus. ' Ich wylle 

bepenche alle mine yeres / ine biternesse of mine zaule.' 

The sinner shall pe zene^ere ssel guo in-to his house / pet is in-to his 

fhaUs° hiTheart, herte. na3t pasindeliche ase pe iogelour pet ne blefp na$t 

blepeliche in his house, uor he ne hep no worse hous 

and there he shall paraie his o^en. Ac per he ssel bleue / and ysy alle 

anhTs^efects, his defautes huerof he ssel yelde rekeninge /and skele 

to god / an to his preste. pet is to his ssrifteuader. An 

and shall think of ssel penche of him-zelue ase pe ilko pet hep day uor to 


rekeny of his onderuongiy^ge and of his spewdinges the account to be 
beuore his lhorde. j)a,nne he ssel him diligentliche 
Jjenche beuore / and izy J?et writ : of Ms inwyt. J?et he 
ne faly ine his rekeninge. Vor yef he failej? at his 
rekeninge : god nele na^t faly at his. Hua/me me hej> when he hath 
diligentliche y-Jo^t of his zewnes / and yzo3e hou / and ways he hath 

i i t_ii_j i_jjt_ wrathed God, and 

me hou uele maneres he hej? god y-wre]?ed. and hou how wickedly 
uelezyfe. and hou kueadliche he hej> yzene3ed. and hou ^^ g he hath 
loftge ybleft ine be zewne. banne ssel he him of al * hen 8ha11 he 

° J ' ' hastily shrive hirn 

hastehche ssriue. , ofaii. 

And J>is is pe ober condition ]?et ssel by ine ssrifte. 2. r>o not delay 


])e kyng dauid aros at midni3t him uor to ssriue ase he 
zayj> ine pe sautere. Onneafe abod he ane mon))e / ne 
alhuet half a ' yer. And pe wyse ine ojre stede ine pe 
writinge zayj? Jus. * Ne abyd m^t J>e to wende to god / Delay is very 
ne zech na3t to lenge / ne beuly. and na3t ne uerste reasons, 
uram daye to daye / uor J?e abidinge is wel perilous uor 
manye skeles.' Non tardes conuerti ad dominwn neque 
differ as de die in diem, Subito. n\am\ ueniet ira illius I 

M t t L J ' [Fol 64. a.] 

<$• in tempore uindicte peidet te, Yerst uor pe con- (a) sin is a burning 

fire, and can only 

dicion of ze^ne. uor zenne is a uer berninde )>et ne may be quenched by 

na3t by y-kuegt bote be tyares of ssrifte. And mochel 

ssolde he by fol J?et ze3e his hous berne : Jjet nolde an 

haste yerne to be wetere. Efterward zenne is wel grat W sin iB a s reat 

sickness, and 

ziknesse : and pe ssrifte is pe medecine. And uoxzope shrift is the medi- 
he praizej) lite his heljje / J?et him-zelue yzi3j? zik al to 
pe dyaj?e / and na3t ne wilnejj zone to by hoi. Efter- 
ward be dyab bet is yredy / and oueral aspib bane («) Death ma y 

r J r r J J I ^ r r r overtake the sin- 

zene3ere / him ssel sterie zone him to ssrive. uor ner before he has 

shriven himself. 

he not ne Jjane time / ne )>ane day / ne pe oure : 

huanne pe dyeaj? ssel come. J?et ofte ondernimj) Jane 

zene3ere huer he ne nimj) none hede. And uorzo]?e huo 

Jet wyste huet day he ssolde sterue : he nine wolde 

agraypi ase zone ase he mi3te. Efterward yef pe zene$- W) The Binne 5 is 

ere y-znb wel bet peril huer hit is : uor he is ine be the prison of sin, 

, o # in the throat of 

pr/sone of zenne / ine pe Jrote of pe lyone of helle / theiionofheii. 


and of pe dragoune J?et him wyle uorzue^e / he wolde 

( e ) Delay may oc- grede to god be ssrifte aze zone aze he nrijte. Efterward 

everlasting life, yef he yze3e pe greate guodes Jet he het 1 uorlore be his 

[i he\> ?] zenii Q I j3 6 guodes eurelestinde / and pe guodes gostliche / 

his time / and him-zelue / Jet al may habbe ayen be 

ssrifte : mochel ssolde he by fol bote yef he him hastede 

if) The mercy of te habbe hit ayen. Efterward Je merci of god Jet him 

Sfsinn^r'fdoOT abyt / and ssofj at his dore / aze zayj Je apocalipse : 

shrift. ten him t0 na ssel nim nasti to ssrme - Vor azemoche aze god abyt 

more fane zene3ere : Je more he him smit Je more 

fellaker : huaraie he him yzi3 J onlosti and sleauuol. Ase 

Je ssyetere / Je more Jet he dra3t his bo^e : Je harder 

he smit. And uorzoje he hej his 03ene bo3e y-bent and 

adra^e / ase zayj Je sautyer / uor to sla3e Jane zene3ere / 

(g) He who delay- "bote yef he him ne wytye. Efterward be ilke bet late 

eth shrift oft J J J / 

forgetteth his ham ssriuej / uoryet ofte his zernies / zuo Jet onnyeaje 
hit beualj Jet he by wel y-ssriue. uor he uoryet manye 
zeraies / huerof he neure him ssel be-Jenche. and zuo 
him ne ssel neure uorjenche / ne neure by ssriue. and 

s. shrive openly, w j s ^ him wel grat peril. Efterward huaraie he is 

clearly, and •* ox 

nakedly. beuore his ssrifteuader / he ssel him ssriue openliche. 

Jet is to zigge Jet he ssel zigge his zercnes clyerliche and 
nakedliche / zuo Jet Je ssriuere izi openliche Je herte / 
As the sick man and Je onderstondmge of him Jet him ssrif J. Yor Je 
known his sick- zike ssel onwri his ziknesse. uor ojerlaker Je fizicien ne 
Soianifhewouid may na3t wel werche. ne Je leche ne may na3t werche 
recover, ^.^ ^ zike j ^ ^ G _y G f ^ j Z { j^g WO nde. And Jeruore 

zayj boeice Je wyse / Jet ' yef Jou wilt Jet Je leche Je 
hele : hit be-houej Jet Jou onwri Jine wonde.' fanne 
Je truont Je ssel teche to by ssriue / Jet ssewej hare 
pouerte and hare ziknesse /and do]? Jetuo[u]leste beuore/ 
so must the sin- UO r to habbe be elmesse. Alzuo ssel Je zene3ere onwri / 

ner show his sins ... 

for to have mercy, and sseawy his zercnes : uor to habbe merci. an pis is Je 

Jridde ccwdicion Jet ssel by ine ssrifte. Efterward Je 

4. shrive wholly, zene3ere him ssel ssriue yhollyche / Jet is pe uer Je con- 

greafand small! dicion. Yor he ssel zigge alle his ze/mes / and greate 

[ioi.54.t>.] ^^ smale / and pe aboutestondinges of pe zennes. 


J)awne ssel he uerst yzy pe zeue dyadliche zeraies / of Tell first the 

huychen we habbep aboue y-speke. and yholliche of 8even deadly 8in8 * 

echen him ssriue be pan pet he him y-uelp gelty. no ping Excuse not thy- 

to hele / no ping wypzigge. na^t him to defendi. ne otherT acc ° M 

nercne oprenne wraye. And pus him ssrof dauip pet 

zayde ine pe sautere ' Ich wylle me ssriue and ich wille 

zigge alle mine zennes aye me.' na^t of opren / ne ayens 

opren ase do]? pe ypocrites / pet dop pet uayreste wyp- Be not as the 

oute / pet tellef hire guodnesses / and wryep hare h^he"* 

kueadnesses. and wrayep pe opre / and perof pet hi 

byep mest ham-zelue gelti. pet y-zyep pet mot ine pe that see the mote 

opres e3e / and ne yzyep na3t pane refter ine hire 03ene bu°set™ouhe 

e^e. Zuyche weren pe farizeus of pe godspelle /pet ^ s erlntheirown 

zayde his guodnesses / And onworpede pane publycan 

pet mildeliche byet his bryest ine pe temple / and him- 

zelue demde beuore god / and zo3te merci : and zede. 

' Lhord god haue merci of me zenuolle.' And pus him 

ssel deme pe zene^ere be-uore l god / nast uor to lessi his The sinner shall 

/ , . , not try to lessen 

ze/mes / ac uor to mon and we3e wypoute lyeasinge. his sins before 

Efterward pe ssrifte ssel by yhol / na3t to-deld ine uele 

ssriueres. Vor me ssel zigge al to onen. na3[t] o del to 0ne mu »t confess 

/,,.,,,. , , _ to one shriver, 

onen / and pet oper del to an-opren. uor god ne takp none and not to many, 
hede of zuiche tales. Eftervvard me ssel zigge na3t Confess not only 
onlepiliche pe zeraies / ac pe aboutestondinges alle pet circumstances 

_ i_ t tt i • , . . th at increase 

morep pe zeraies. Vor pe zeraie is gratter me one maraie : them, 
pawne ine anopren. ase ine man of religion : parane ine Sin is neater in 

, , . * one person than 

ane seculer. and me ane pre! at : paraie ine ane lojer. another-more 

i h i . , . heinous in one 

me ane greate Ihorde : panne in ane simple ma?me. place than in an- 

Efterwuard / hit is more zewne ine one stede : parcne ° ther ' 

ine anopren. Ase in holi cherche / oper ine oper holy 

stede. Efterward ine one time parcne in an-opre / ase in 

lenten / oper in ane he3e messedaye. Efterward huarcne and worse at one 

me zene3ep wy tindehche / me zene3ep more yno3 / paraie ot™r. 

onknawyndliehe. Efterwar[d] me ssel zigge pe condition Tel1 tne condition 

o t ., . . of the sinner, 

ol pe zenne. uor nit is more zenne me wyfman yspoused / 
paratie in ane sengle. oper ine man / oper ine wyfman of 

1 bo -uor e in MS. 



and whether the 
sin be an unnatu- 
ral one. 

Say how often 
thou hast fallen 
into sin, andliow 
long thou hast 
remained therein. 

Confess whether 
thou hast resisted 

and relate the 
cause, the man- 
ner, and the 

Afterwards one 
shall pass on to 
the limbs where- 
with one hath 

(Shrift must be 
made of " ghostly 
and fleshly 

[Fol. 55. a.] 

Take heed first 
to the head, 
whereon one set- 
teth great value, 
as do ladies who 
curiously deck 
themselves out, 

who make great 
horns of their 

and who wash, 
comb, and pore 
into mirrors. 

religion, ine ane preste o]?er in ane dyakne. nor J?e 
he3ere Jet bye]? J?e nodes : pe gratte[r] is pe zeraie. 
Efterward yef pe zeraie is a-ye kende / o]?er kendeliche. 
Efterward. hon ofte lie he]? ynalle into zeraie / and hou 
longe lie he]? y-bleued ferine. Efterward me ssel zigge 
yef lie ne lie J? na3t yuo3te aye J?e uondinge. ofer yef he 
he J? y-porchaced pe zeraie. o]?er yuo3te ine J?e nondinge. 
Yor Jjer bye]? some ]?et ne abide]? na3t ]?e nondinge / ac 
his porchace]? / and zno hi nalle]?. Efterward / J?e 
cause and J?e nondinge J?et com]? to do zeraie. me ssel 
zigge and alle ]?e o]?re causes / and J?e aboutestondmges 
]?et mo3e mori ]?e zeraie. 

Efterward me ssel zigge and yerne by ]?e lemes 
huermide me he]? y-zene3ed. Verst me ssel guo to pe 
herte / and zigge his J?03tes huyche J?et hi by / o]?er 
ulessliche / oJ?er gostliche. Gostliche : ase aye ]?e 
byleue / o]?er of ydele blisse / o]?er of enuie. o]?er of 
wre]?e. o]?er of o]?re manere huerof ]?er is to moche. fie 
ulessliche belonge]? to lost / an to wylninges. zuo me 
ssel wel loki ine alle J?ise ]?03tes yef ]?er is ccwsentinge / 
o]?er lang bleuinge ine J?e lostes / ]?et is o]?erhuil ase 
moche wor]? : ase to ccwsenti. And of alle zuiche ]?03tes 
he ssel him ssriue. 

Efterward / me ssel nime yeme / yef me he J? y- 
zene3ed be ]?e lemes of ]>e bodie. uor me kan zene3i ine 
uele maneres. Yerst be ]?e heauede. hueran me zet ofte 
grat cost / ase do]? J?ise leuedis / J?et zuo curiouseliche 
agray]?e]? hire heaueden mid preciouse agray]?inges uor 
klene ydele blisse. uor to liki. and uor to dra3e zeraie. 
Hueruore hi zene3ej? ofte kueadliche. and nameliche ]?o 
]?et make]? zuo greate homes of hare here / oJ?er of o]?ren / 
J?et hi semble]? wel fole wyfmen. Yno3 ]?er is of ydel- 
nesse aboute hire heaued / to kembe / to wesse / ine 
trossinge / an ine sseweres pouringe. huerof god mochel 
him wreje]?. Of pise ydelenesse / ne bye]? na3t quitte 
pe men J?et do]? zuo grat payne ham to kembe and to 


pouri ine sseaweres and ine hare here wel to croki an to wholly free from 

it i j / t-111 1-1/ tnis vice > ^ or the y 

bleue be strengpe / to pan pet hi habbe uayr donlot / also pore mto 

pet is ine tokne of kueadnesse / and of zuiche ydelenesse great pains to curl 

hi SSolle ham SSriue. their hair. 

Efte? , ward me ssel yerne to pe vif wittes of pe bodie / Look to the five 

hnerby me zene3ep l wel ofte. oper be pe e3en ine fole zifle. ™£lrJtyo^L 

oper be pe yearen ine folliehe to liiere / and y-here blepe- neth: 1 by . 1 *f eye 

liche be misziggeres. and be blonderes. and be scorneres. tne ears in foolish 

1 °° r T hearing, by,the 

and pe lye^eres. and opre folyes. Oper be pe nioupe / ine mouth in evil 

folliehe to spekene. ine to moche ethe / and to moche the nose in de- 

drinke. Oper be pe nase / ine to moche \i\m to liky in 8rae iis, 

guode smelles. Oper be fole takinges and inhoneste- by foul handling, 
liche / oper ine him-zelue / oper ine his wyne. pet he hep. 
oper ine opren J?et wors is / bi hit man / bi hit wyfman. 

Alsuo he him ssel ssriue of mochel hede pet me dep Also shall one 

ine ssredinge to bedde and to regge / and hosiinge and great regard to 

ssoinge. and of alle opre Jnnges fet he bepengp. And S^5££g. 

pous is pe ssrifte y-hol hua/zne me zayp alle pe lackes shoein s- 
greate and smale. And pis is pe uerpe condition : pet 
ssel by ine ssrifte. 

pe vifte condition zno is pet me ssel by y-ssriue 5. shrift 

mildeliche. uor pe zene3ere spekp to god pet yzi3p his meetly* made 
herte. Joanne pe ssrinere ne is bote Jet yeare of god. 
and p et ha yherp /he not na^t ase man : ac ase god. 

And peruore ssel pe zene3ere him mildi ase moche ase The shriver is an 

ha may beuore god / and zigge his ze??nes mid greate Therefore shall 

drede. and ssel his zernies alle keste out touore him / «je sinner confess 

/ his sins with great 

ase zayb be wvitinge. Ase me helt uol a pot of wetere. dr€ f d ' J , ,, 

J r r ° L and as water shall 

huawne J?et weter is y-sset : per ne blefp no colur. ase ine he cast them out - 

melk. ne smel ase ine wyn. ne smac : ase ine hony. 

Alzuo me ne ssel ofhyealde of pe zeraie zeppe he hit hep 

yzed ine ssrifte / ne pet colour / pet is pe kueade manure He must let no*. 

. . , . . , thing remain that 

pet me hep yhet / oper me speche oper ine zrjpe / oper has the colour of 

ine kueade uela3rede to uoL^y / oper ine opre pinge pet Afterwards he 

hep colour of zenne. Efterward me ssel lete pane smak ^smack^of sin! 

1 MS. tyneyp 



and never think 
pleasantly of Ms 
past sins. 

[Fol. 55. b.] 
He shall think of 
his sins with great 
dread, sorrow, and 

He shall after- 
wards fly from 
the " smell," and 
listen no more to 
sinful speech. 

6. Shrift must he 
made often, for 
many reasons. 

a. To ensure 
greater purity of 

b. For the abso- 
lution of "venial 

c. To drive away 
the devil. 

d. To learn to 
shrive well, for 
practice makes 

e. To prevent for- 
getfulness of our 

/. Because one 

knoweth not 

whether shrift 

has ever been well 


g. To get greater 

meed of God. 

h. To bethink of 
sins unconfessed. 
[ Vif j)inges[dest or- 
&ep ssriftej] 

Five things de- 

of zeraie. yef he ofhalt fane smak of ze/me Jet J engj 
of Je zeraie Jet he lie]? y-clo / and him lykej wel ine 
Je Jo3te and is ypayd. Ac he ssel Jenche of his zemies 
mid greate drede and mid great e zoi^e of herte / and 
him-zelue ssende ine him zelue / and habbe greate 
ssame to-uore god / and uest wil Jet neuremo to zemie 
ne ssel wende ayen Ja^ me ssolde hine al to-heawe. 

Efterward me ssel lete and be-nly Jane smel. fiev 
byej zome Jet wel uorletej Je zewne : ac blejeliche 
hi herej Jerof speke. Ac he Jet him wel uorjingj : 
he ne ssel na^t Jerof yhere speke / Jet he ne ssolde 
habbe wlatiinge. 

fie zixte condition Jet ssel by ine ssrifte is / Jet me 
ssel ofte by yssriue nor manie skeles. Verst / nor to 
zeche Je more grace of clennesse / ase Jet line cloj Jet 
is y-huyted be ofte wessinge. Efterward nor Je ze?znes 
uenials huerine me nalj ofte. and lino Jet ofte him 
benelj : ofte he him ssel wesse. Alsuo ase hit behonej 
ofte Jet ssip lhade ont Jet weter Jet alneway gej in. 
Efterward nor to cachie and nerri Jane dyuel nram him. 
fie no3el him uerrej blejeliche nram Jawnes hner me 
brekj his nest, and nram Ja?^nes huer me hi?^ benimj 
his eyren. Efterward / nor to lyerni him wel to ssriue. 
uor wone : makej maister. ase hit ssewej ine Jise ojre 
creftes. Efterward / nor Jet me noryet ofte Je zewnes / 
Jernore me ssel ofte by y-ssrine and telle. Efterward / 
nor Jet me not yef me hej wel yby yssrine / ojer nor- 
Jenchinde. zno me ssel ofte wiraie ayen / Jet me hej 
lesse yno^ y-do. Efterward / him-zelne Je more nor to 
bon^e / and nor to habbe Je more mede of god. J?ernore 
me acsede ane abbotte / hneruore he him ssrof zno ofte. 
and he ansnerede / ' Jernore ' he zede / l Jet ich habbe 
alneway drede / Jet ich ne am na3t wel y-ssrine. Efter- 
ward / ich me bejenche ofte of some Jinges Jet ich ne 
habbe na^t yzed. and Jeruore Jet be Je ssrifte ich me 
arere alneway Je more milde.' 

Non hest Jon yherd hon me ssel by y-ssrine. non 


Jon sselt y-wyte fet vif f inges specialliche destorbef stroyeth true 

. .«., shrift. 

zof e ssrmpe. 

fie uerste is ssame. fet he ne dar na3t zigge his 1. shame, which 

. . prevents confes- 

zeraie uor ssame / and fet def f e dyeuel / fet him zet sion. 
beuore be ssame / him uor to ssette bane moub. ase deb The devil acts 

' ' ii,,. like the thief who 

f e f yef fret f rauf fane httle bal m-to f e hondes f rote throws a little 

fet he ne ssel na3t berke. Vor of zuyche kende is fe hound's mouth, to 

ilke litel bal : fet makef fane hond domb huarane me barking™ r ° m 

hit frawf in-to f e f rote. Ac f e zene^ere ssel f enche 

fet f e ssame fet me hef ine f e ziggenge of f e zewne : is The shame of 

grat del of f e amendinge. Efterward he ssel blef eliche gre at part of 

drinke a lite of ssame : uor to beuly f e greate ssame. amen men ' 

fet f e zene3eres abidef ate daye of dome huaraie ech of 

f e wordle ssel yzi his 03ene zennen. Jpet of er f ing is 2. a wicked fear 

wycked drede uor to do greate penonce. Jawne f e dyeuel ance! *** 

deb in-to be eare of be zene^ere : * bou ne mht nast lete some sinners are 

, / • , 1, • ,. i 1 111 like the horse 

f me wones / zuich uolk is y-lich f e horse fet hef drede that is afraid of 
of his ssede / and uorzof e hit ne is bote ssed al fet me 
may do of penonce ine fise wordle / to fe zi3fe of f e 
pine of helle / of er of pwrgatorie. fie f ridde / kueade 3. wicked lovepf 
loue / fet f e dyeuel hef zuo fane zene3ere uorzoke / the sinner to sleep 
fet he louef zuo his lost / fet he hit nele lete. zuo ^nelnhis'mth. 
f engf fet uor na3t he him ssriff . zuo he slepf ine his ^ ol 56 a -j 
zenne : ase def fet zuyn ine pe wose. fie uerf e f ing 4. Hope of long 


is / hope of lawg lif. feruore f e dyeuel zayf. 'fflu art 

yong man / f ou sselt libbe longe / Arere f e / and do 

fi wyl / fou sselt wel come fer to fe to ssriue.' Ac he whereby the sin- 

ne zi3f na3t fane dyaf fet him waytef / and fet hine dea th, 

wile nime : raf re f atme he ne wene. Yor god fet ^/Ihafhe 

behot uoryeuenesse to him fet uorfingf : he ne behat weeneth. 

him na3t to-mor3e / ase zayf saynt gregorie. Jjeruore 

f e dyeuel playf ofte mid f e zene3ere ase def f e cat mid The devU p la y s 

f e mous f a?ine he his hef ynome. and huaraie he hef as the cat doth 

.rt. with the mouse. 

mid hire longe yplayd : f a?ine he his eth. fie Yilte 5. Despair, 
f ing is / wanhope huerine f e dyeuel def fane zene3ere. 
Ac he ssolde f enche fet god uoryeff li^tliche to ham / think that God is 



pet uorpingp. and more is blepelaker uor to yeue uor- 

more willing to 

forgive than we , . -, • 

to ask. yeuenesse : panne we uor to aksi. 

Of amendment 
Amending must 
be made by fast- 
ing, alms, and 

He must obey the 
shriver, as the 
sick man his phy- 

The sinner has 
to fight against 

1. And first 
against the death 
of sin, 

which may be 
overcome by pen- 

2. The second 
fight is a wrestling 
with one's own 
heart, as to pen- 
ance and what 
life to lead. 

Some are over- 
come in this 

for they are as 
the weather-cock, 
that turneth with 
the wind. 

3, The third 


After pe ssrifte com]? yn^bote / pet is pe amendinge 
pet me ssel do bi pe wille / and bi pe rede of pe ssriuere / 
pet ssel deme pe amendes be pe geltes. oper ine uest- 
inges. oper ine elmesse. oper ine benes. oper ine opre 
pinges / ase be pan pet pe ze/me acsep. And pe zike 
ssel blepeliche bou3e to pe fisicien uor to habbe helpe. 
And pet guode chi[l]d dep blepeliche pe heste of his 
uader gostlicb uor pe guod of his zaule. 

JS'ou hest pou yherd pe pri pinges pet helep pet 
hauberk of penonce huermide god armep his newe kny^t 
uor to ouercome pet vi3t pet he he]? aye zeraie. And he 
ssel ouercome pise vi^tinge : he ne hep hede of pane 
oprene dyap / ase zayp sayn Ion. ])q uerste dyap of pe 
zaule is pe dyap of zenne pet me ouercomep be penonce. 
huerby me askapep pane oprene dyap pet is pe dyap of 
helle pet sterue ne may. Jpet is pe uerste bo^ of pe 
trawe of prouesse. Huo pet ouercomep pane vi3t / he 
ouercomp ane oprene. Hua?z pe man him uorpingp of 
his ze/me : pane com[p] per a newe'wrestlmge to his 03ene 
herte huet penonce he ssel do / and huet lif he ssel lede. 
and ilele per byep zuyche pet ine po vi3t byep ouercome. 
Vor ase god zayp ine his spelle. nou [h]y leuep / nou hi 
misleuep. nou hi wyllep / nou hi ne wyllep. nou hi pro- 
posent / nou hit is betere. Jjeruore hi byep ase pe 
wedercoc pet is ope pe steple / pet him went mid echo 
wynde. Ac huanne pe man seruep god and strengpep 
his herte ine his guode wille. paraie if pe ilke vi3t ouer- 
come. an panne makep him god Strang and stedeuest 
ase a pos[t] ine his te?nple / pet is holy cherche / ase 
zayp saint Ion. pis is pe oper ouercominge and pe ssepe 
pet he him kepp. 

Efter pise wrestlinge comp pe pridde / pet pe man 


hep to his o^ene ulesse / pet inochel him playnej) and wre , 8 8 tl ^ h is with 
grochep I hua?me hi 1 begin]) to uele pe harnesses and pe l l her\ 
smertnesses of penonces. and mochel ha vi3t nor to 
come ayen to his yealde wones. j)et nles is pet kueade which res{8teth 
wyf huerof spekp salomo. pet hno pet mest dep hare ^ n&nce - 
wil : be worse him is. and be more hi is ayen him. r , 

J r J [Fol. 56. b.] 

And hno pet him let ouercome be his nlesse. he is ine He who is over- 
a wel zo^uol preldome and wel vil. And pet wes is in sorrowful 
betokned ine samson pe stronge / pet uor-pan pet he anVthat wis be"^ 
let him onercome be ane wyfmawne : he norleas his lonXeVtrongT 
her of liis heauede huerinne wes his greate strengpe. ^^f a^b* 1 * 
and pe e$en of his heanede : and pe strengpe of his th^trenethoT 
bodie. and nil into pe honden of his yno / pet his body. 
him deden grinde ate querne ssamnolliche. Al pis dej> 
pe dyeuel gostliche to pan pet him let ouercome be his 
ulesse. Huo bet perne vist ouereomb ' god him behat be r , ,,„ 

r r ? Y & y V MS. ouercom^} 

huyte robe of chastetee and of innocence / ase zayp pe 

Efter pise ui3tinge comp pe wordle and dame 5. After this %ht- 

ing cometh the 

lo rtune mid al hare hue3el / pet asaylep pane man a world, and dame 
113 1 half and a left half / pet byep tuo wel greate wheel# 
vi3tinges huer moche uolk is ouercome a ri^t half and a 
left half / ase zayp pe sauter. Yor more is Strang pe 
uondinge pet comp of worpssipes / of richesses / of 
lostes : pet pe dyeuel byet / and dep beuore : pawne by 
pe ilke pet comp be aduersete / ase of pouerte / of 
zycnesses pet god zent. And pe ilke pet ouercomp pane He overcometh 
uerbe viat : bet is huo bet ulbb and onworbeb mid despiseththe 

' ? ' J-?r j t world's honour. 

herte pe worpssipe of pe wordle. god him behat worp- 
ssipe and b^nesse ine heuene. Yor he him wyle do 
zitte mid him ine his trone / ase zayp pe apocalipse. 
To him pet ssel ouercome pane vifte vijt pet is aleft- ^J^^!? 1 
half : pet is aduersete of pise wordle : god him behat pe sit y» 
ma?me pet is y-hed. pet is pe greate zuetnesse an pe ^J}^ e pi J£ at 
greate likinge of paradis / pet non ne him may benyme. sweetness of Para- 
Yor be pe manne pet wes zuo zuete / pet ech uand 


zuych smac : ase lie wolde. is onderstonde / pe greate 

zuetnesse / pet greate lost / pet god horde]? / and 

wytep / to ham Jet ouercomep pe aduersetes of pise 

6. The sixth fight wordle. j)e zixte vi3t pet is wel Strang / is a-ye pe 

wickedneL^of the kueades pet byep ine pise wordle / pet byep pe lemes of 

world ' anticrist pet werrep pe guode men be hare strewgpe / 

ase deden ine ealde time pe tyrans pe martires / pe 

eretiks : pe guode cristene men / and ssolle do ine pe 

against the limbs ende of pe wordle. pe lemes of anticrist pet ssolle werri 

of Antichrist, mQ ^ gU0( j e cr i s t en e / pet onneape ssel by eny pet dor 

by-knawe pet by cWsten / uor pe strengpe of anticrist 

the destroyers of and of his lemes. J)et is pet best pet sayn Ion yze3 pet 

ciSian^en. werrede pe ha^en huerof we habbep beuore 1 yspeke. 

Th^nmbsTf this # e lemes of f ise ^ este nam sseawe ]> nou ine kueade 
beast (Antichrist) pn - nce8 / an d i ne kueade ouerlinges / pet be hare greate 

are wicked princes r > ° ' J ^ 

and rulers. couaytise / defoulent and be-uleap / and ethep [h] are on- 

derlinges / zuo pet pe guode men pet byep onder ham 

habbep yno3 to polye / and yno3 of zo^es / and of 

greate misual. Ac pe ilke pet al nimp ine polmodnesse 

He who trusts in a se dede iob. and him lefp al ine god : ouercomp pis 

comethls fight, ^3*- and t0 > an J> et Ut ouercomjj / god him behat pet 

and all his foes, foe ]^ m wjIq y eiie m i^te / ouer his yuo / ase zayp zaint 

Ion ine pe apocalipse. Efter alle pise vi3tinges comp 

[Foi 57 a] t e ^ as ^ e f e * mes ^ ^ s s ^ ran g- ^or f e dyuel pet mochel 

The devil assails * s kueduol / and sotil huaraie he yzi3p pet pe man is 

vani F tytnTp n re b - y y cliue °P e J> ane hel of perfeccioun. and he hep alle pe 

sumption. ui3tes beuore yzed ouercome. paraie he asaylep him be 

ydele blisse and be presumcion. Vor him pingp pet he 

is a wel guod man / and wel mid gode / uor pet he hep 

zuo moche y-do / and ypoled uor him. Hueruore he 

Lucifer fell low ua jj, oberhuil uram zuo he^e : zuo lose / ase dede 

on account of his J * J ' ' 

P ride - lucifer. And peruore hit is grat nyed / pet pe man by 

shouidbrcau^ 1311 w ^ s / an( ^ y wer n * m uor ^° werie uram ydele blysse pet 
tious, makeb be efterwarde. Yor ine be ende / lib ofte be 

fortheshipis T T r i r r 

often destroyed accombringe. and nyxt pe hauene : spilp ofte pet ssip / 
haven. pet gep zikerliche ine pe he3e ze. Jperuore hit behouep 


Jet he agrayji his zayl / Jet is his onderstondinge to Je 
hauene of helje / Jet is to lesus crist / be Je wynde of 
stedeuest loue / arid of grat wylninge of god. bis is be Let the soul be 

guided by the 

ende of ^tuolnesse / huerof we hahbej) aboue yspeke / windofsted- 
Jet com)? of Je yefje of strengje / and of Je u/rtue of ** 
prowesse. aze Je guode kni^t and orped / Jet hej guod 
herte and hardi / and hej y-by ine uele Jrestes mid The good knight, 

,.,,, ,, , , . , _ . desiring to exhibit 

grat wil / and grat honger to ssewy his strengje me his skin and cour- 

. ,. ... it- i i i age, obtaineth re- 

tornemews o Jer me v^tmges / him uor to alosi. and n ° wn i n the tour- 

uorzoje huo Jet he)) grat loue of god and grat honger / nament - 

and grat wilninge of his helje. he ouercomj li3tlyliche 

Jise laste vi3t. Vor he nele ne na3t ne wylnej ine Jise 

line bote Jet is to Je worjssipe and to Je bhsse of god / 

and helje of his zaule. And hno Jet Jis ui^t ouercomj / He who over- 

he winj Je mede huerof saint Ion spek / huer Jet oure fight 

lhord zayde ine Je apocalipse / ' fc to him Jet ssel ouer- 

come. ich wylle him yeue to ethe of Je trawe of hue 

Jet is amidde paradys.' Jet is Iesu crist Jet yefj lyf shall receive the 

eurelestinde / huerby alle Je hal^en libbej ine Je bhsse ufe, 

of paradis and bye J alle uolle and uolueld. And Jet 

is Je blissinge Jet oure guode mayster behat ine his 

spelle to his guode kih^tes huaraie he zede. 'yblissed 

bye J Jo Jet habbej Longer and Jorst of ^tuolnesse' / 

Jet is of god to serui and to louie / uor hi ssolle by and be filled with 

uolueld of Je frut of Je trawe of Hue. ])et is Je ende tr g e J'j^ 

and Je guodnesse of Jise utHue Jet is ycleped prowesse 

huerto ous lede Je yefje o strengje. 

Of j)E YEF)PE OF RED / AND OF ULRTUE OF MERCI. Of the gift of 

counsel and o f the 

Ase Je holy gost yef J strengje and wyl of greate virtue of mercy. 

Jinges to onderuonge : alsuo he yefj red / huerby me 

comj to guode heauede and to guode ende of Jet me 

nimj an hand. \)Gt is a grat grace Jet Je holy gost The gift of coun- 
sel is a great 
yefj / Jet is ycleped Je yefje of red. huerby Je man hej grace of the Holy 

grat bezyinge / and grat bejenchinge in Jet he nymj itguidethman 

an hand. And Jet he ne by to hastif ine his niminges. aright ' 


Vor ase zayp pe filozofe / ' greate pinges byep y-do / na^t 

be strengpe of bodie ne be armes : ac be guod red.' 
Hasty counsel is AM anoper zuo zayp pefc hette soerates / pet ' of bastif 
™ n ™;? e by re " red : bit uorpingp efte[r]ward.' andperuore zayp salomo?2. 

' ISTe do na^t wyp-oute guod red. and efter pe dede bit 

ne ssel na3t pe uorpenche.' 
This grace show- j)is grace him ssewep ine man ine pri maneres. 

ways. 86 m ^ Yerst to zeche blepeliche guod red. ftous redde tobye / 
adv^ eekg00d nis zone - ' Vayre zone ' zayp be / < zech euremo red of 

wyse men.' And Salomon pus zay p. 'per no guod red 
Folk fail, says ne ys : pet uolk to-ualp / and is al onzauwed. ac bi is 

Solomon, for . . , 

want of counsel, wely -bolpe huawne per is mocbe guod red wypr/me. 

'Ac loke' pe zayp pe wry tinge ' uram kueade rederes. and 

Beware of false ne akse no red at foles / uor bi ne louiep / bote pet 

advisers, and ask 

no counsel of ham likep. na3t pet payep god. Alsuo tekp pe 
seek'adviceofthe writinge / pet me ssel zecbe red ate yealden / and na^t 
en d C e a d. d 6Xperi ~ mid J> e Y on S G J> e ne D y e J> na 3 t yproued ine nyedes. Ac 
mid pe yealde pet babbep yzo3e and yproued pe pinges / 
Rehoboam lost a pet is pet wyt / and pet red. Yor pan pet roboam 
kingdom through salomoraies zone / uorlet pane red of pe yealden guode 
advice^ * men / uor pane red of yonge : be uor-leas pet gratteste 

del of bis kingdome. 

He who hath this Efteward / buo pet hep pise yefpe / he onderzekp 

pe redes pet me him yefp / and pengp mid greate 

is not easily led bepencbinge : pet is grat bezyinge : yef me him ret 

counsel of others, we l / and treweliche / na3t ^tliche yleue to pe rede / 

oper to pe ziggenge of one mawne / ne of tuaye / hou 

mocbe pet hi by his priues / and his urendes. Huerof 

seneke zede. pet 'wys man examenep pe redes / and ne 

ylefp na3t ^tliche. uor pe ilke pet ylefp h^tliche : uint 

but foiioweth only ofte pet me him gylep / and misret.' Efterward / huo 

pet pis yefpe hep / he bo3p to guod red paraie he hit 

hep yuounde. Yor na3t he zekp red / pet ne hep no 

wyl to do la3e. Huerof Salomon zayp. pet 'hit pingp 

to pe fole pet he is ine ri3te waye. Ac pe wyse zayp. 

on red is to zigge. uor pe wyse bou3p to guod red / pet 


pe foles onworpep.' Jpe meste profitable red pet me may which fools de- 
habbe / is pe red of oure guode maistre Iesu crist pet is The most profit- 
pe wysdom of god pe uader of Imam com]) al guod red ofou'J^dM^' 
[and] ous brengp uram heuene / pe ilke pet is pe angle of ter ' Cllri8t, 
red / ase zayp pe writmge. pet is pet red pet lie ous yefp 
ine his spelle hua^ne lie zede. ' yef pou wylt by parfit : 
guo and zel al pet pou best / and yef hit pe poure uor 
godes loue. an com efter me / and pou sselt habbe grat 
hord ine heuene.' Yzi3 and pench huo yefp pane red. 
uor pet is ase zayde pe wysdom of god pe uader. pe He is the angel of 
angel of red / pet is zop god / and zop man / pet com t^Sdand true 
ine erpe pe uor to rede / and pe uor to teche pane way XLneon to 
and pane ri^te pep to guonne into paradis. bet is be the e T h t0 teach 

J x j r man the way to 

pep of pouerte / huerby let pe holy gost po pet he ali^t Paradise > 

of pe yefpe of red. Zop hit is pet ine opre msmere / 

and be opre waye hi mo^e ham soui. ase be pe waye of 

pe hestes of oure Lhord Iesu crist loki: ase ine 

spoushod / oper ine wodewehod / and ine richesses of 

pe wordle huarcne me his uzep wel. Ac pe holy gost be 

pe yefpe of red / let and dra^p uorp more ri^tuolliche 

and more zikerHche be pe pepe of zope pouerte' / huer- by the path of 

by meonworpep and dep onderuot pe wordle and alle truepoverty ' 

couaytyse / uor pe loue of god. 

j)es yefpe of red bestrepp be zenne of auarice and of This gift of coun_ 

. , -, , sel destroyeth 

couaytise / and zet a wel uayr trau / pet is pe mHue of avarice and covet- 

• / , , . tit ousness, and pro- 

merci / pet is zo^e and polemodnesse of oprema/me motes sorrow and 
kuead / and of opremaraie misdede. ftet trau hep zeue TheTet" of mercy 
stapes huerby hit wext and profitep. 1 Jjet byep pe zeue ^Z'S"' 
pinges pet moche ledep man to merci / and to habbe ^SETwhw, 
polemodnesse of opre mawne kueade. J)et uerste ping lead to mercy ' 
pet ssel man sterye to merci ; is kende. uor ase zayp pe 1. Nature, 
boc pet spekp of kende of bestes. ' no uo3el ne eth of No fowl eateth 
opren yef he is of his kende.' Efterward pe ilke zelue »™£ er of iteown 
boc zayp. pet 'on mere dra3p uorp pet colt of anopre 
huanne hi is dyad.' Efterward me hep moche yzo3e and 
1 MS. por/iteb 



The wolf protect- 
ed 'for-cast' chil- 
dren from other 

wherefore a man 
should pity the 
sin of another of 
his own kin. 

2. Grace. 

We are all limbs 
of one body, and 
one limb natural- 
ly bears with an- 

We are all bought 
with one price, 
with the blood of 

We are all child- 
ren of one Father, 
by belief and by 

3. The Scriptures 
exhort us to be 

The oil feeds the 
fire in the lamp. 
The lamp is 

As the oil up- 
riseth in the 
lamp above all 
other fluids, 
so does mercy 
above all other 

When mercy fail- 
eth the love of 
God faileth. 

yproued / and is ine Jo boc yuonde. Jet Je wolues 
dra3e]? uorj Je children Jet byej uor-kest / and werej 
his uram ojre bestes. Wei ssel Jawne a man habbe 
pite / and Jolemodnesse of Je kneade of Je ojre Jet is 
him anlich ine kende. pet alle we byej of one kende / 
and of one ssepje. and to one uorbisne ymad / ase we 
habbej y-zed be-nore. pe ojer Jing Jet ssel man dra^e 
to merci / and to Jolemodnesse of ojre maraie kuead / 
Jet is grace, nor alle we byej lemes of o body / Jet is 
of holy cherche be grace, and o leme hej kendeliche of 
anojren : Jolemodnesse. Efterward alle we byej wij- 
bo^t of one zelue pris. Jet is mid Je blisnolle blode [of] 
Iesu crist Jet he ssedde nor ous ine Je rode / ous nor 
to wij-begge nram Je dyaje enrelestinde. Huaraie 
godes zone wes Janne zno reujenol / zuo nol of merci 
auoreye ous : wel ssolle we habbe reuje / and Jole- 
modnesse Je on of Je ojre. helpe / and sonconri Je on 
Je ojer. Efterward / alle we byej children of [on] nader 
and of moder be byleane and be grace, nor we byej 
godes c hil dren and of holy cherche. and Je on brojer 
ssel helpe Je ojren : Jawne he yzi3j his niede. nor ate 
niede : me yzi3j huet Je nrend is. pe Jridde Jing Jet 
ssel moche man sterie to merci : is Je heste of Je holy 
writinge. Jet redej and hotej Je workes of mersi abone 
alle ojre workes. Huerof Je wise Salomon zayj / 'y- 
wyte Je' zayj he / 'Jet Jin henedne by na}t wijonte 
oyle.' Vor be oyle is y-norjed Jet ner ine Je lompe. 
and ine lompe is onderstonde merci Jet ssel by euremo 
ine Jine henede / Jet is ine herte. And al ase Je oyle 
op arist ine Je lompe / alle Je ojre woses : alsno merci 
alle Je ojre ui'rtues. An alsno ase Je oyle norissej and 
lokej Jet ner ine Je lompe. and hnanne hit failej : Jet 
ner is y-knenct. alzno huaraie merci faylej : Je loue of 
god failej : ase saynt Ion zayj. ' Huo Jet yze^e his brojer' 
zayj he ' habbe niede and mezayse / and he [ne] him yef Je 
[sset] Je dore of his herte ' / Jet is to zigge / 'huo Jet ne 


heb reube and him ne helpb yef he may / hou is' he God's love is not 

. in him that help- 

zay]) / ' godes loue ine him *? ' / ase yef he zede / J)et ne eth not his 

ii Tr , in •• nii. brother in his 

may na3t by. Yor pe oyle of merci is y-faled me pe need, 
lompe of his herte. 

Efterward pe guode tobie to3te his zone / and zayde The good Tobie 
Jus. i Vayre zone bi merciuol as pe rrnjt. yef Jou hest be merciful and to 
yno$ of guode : yef largeliche. and yef J)ou hest lite : guew gy * 
of Jo litle yef gledliche.' And oure Lhorde Iesu mst Christ said, « Go 
zayf ine his spelle. <guo zay]) he and zel al Jjet J?ou hast, and'give™ 
hest /and yef hit pe poure.' Jet is J?e mVtue pet pe holy to the poor '" 
writinge ret. more generalliche. Vor Jet is J?e m'rtue 
pet god mest is mid ypayd ase zayj> pe writinge. [Foi. 58. b.] 
Huer-of god zay J) be pe profete. ' ich wille he zayp As God saith, «i 
merci : and na3t sacrifice.' and saint austin Jus zayj? / and not saTrS." 
Jjet ' pev ne is no ping J>et make)) man zuo by beloued 
mid god : asepite.' Vele men make J? to god sacrefices / 
of uestmges / of peregrmages / of ssarpnesses of bodye / S( ?™ e men are 
ac uor to do elmesse / hi byeb straite and wrechchen. f ast and perform 

. pilgrimages, but 

Efterward )>er bye]? manie men to Imam god he J) large- sparing of their 

liche y-yeue of timliche guodes. and make]) sacrefices 

nast to god : ac to be dyeule / ober to be wordle / in Man y men so 

? b r J I r r I foolishly spend- 

J)et hi despende]) folliche hare guodes ine ydelnesses ing their money 

uor bost of J?e wordle ac uor to yeue uor god : hy bye)) the devil, 
harde ase an [di] aymont. 

Efterward ase merci like J) to god alsuo hit ne like J) Merc y is dis - 

. ill Phasing to the 

noting to pe dyeule. Yor pet is J?e armure huer-by he devil, 
is be rabre ouercome / ase zayb a glose ope be sautere. for H is the 

* r ' J r ° 1 r armour whereby 

Vor he ne may na$t polje J?ane guode smel of J?e ilke he is soon over- 

smerieles namore panne pe boterel Jja/me smel of pe He cannot endure 

vine. Zuych smel ne nrijte na^t Judas Jjolye Jo pe ointment of 

magdalene smerede Iesu cristes uet mid pe precious such smeii Judas 
smerieles. Vor him Jo^te ))et hit wes ping uorlore. and 
he betere louede Jet zeluer ine his porse be his couay- 

tise. Of zuiche uolke is lhord a dyeuel and mayster. ^j^ f £^ e 

Jjet is ine helle. Jet is y-cleped : ssette-pors. Jet an devo, who is a 

hermite y-ze3 / Jet zede J)et he hedde Jet mestier uor to purse." 


4. The liberality 
of our Lord. 
God giveth liber- 
ally to all, 
for the sun shineth 
upon the good 
and the evil, 

wherefore we 
should be kind 
and courteous to 
one another. 

The son should 
be like the father. 

The merciful are 
God's sons. 

5. The honour of 


He who honours 

God will do good 

to the poor. 

The poor are the 
little household 
of our Lord. 

He who honours 
the poor, honours 

as was seen by 
St Martin, who 
gave his mantle 
to a poor man. 
[Fol. 59. a.] 

6. The dread of 


Doom without 

mercy shall be to 

those who do not 

the works of 


ssette J»e porses of Je wrechchen / Jet hi ne ssolle "by 
open to do elmesse. 

j)Q uerje Jing Jet ssel man sterie to merci / is Je 
greate largesse of oure lhorde / Jet yef J largeliche to 
alien / be Jet / Jet hy byej. ase zayj saint Iacob. and 
makej Je zonne ssine ope Je guode / and ope Je 
kueade / ase he zayj ine his spelle. Vor JaTzne huo 
Jet is zuo large to ous. nor he ous yefj al Jet we 
habbej of gnod : we ssolle by large and cortoys / Je 
on / a-ye Je ojre / and helpe Je on / Je ojre. uor Jus 
he ous hat ine his spelle Jo he zede. i byej nol of merci 
ase youre uader is.' Je zone ssel by ylich Je uader ojer 
he is onkende be zaynte peter. And Jeruore zayde Je 
wyse ine Je writinge. 'by mercinol and reujeuol to Je 
uaderlyese / ase hire uader / and hire moder. and Jous 
Jou sselt by godes zone.' 

j)Q vifte Jing Jet ssel man sterie to merci / is : worj- 
ssipie god. Yor ase zayj Salomon. j)Q ilke worjssipej 
wel god oure lhord : Jet dej guod to Je poure. uor Jet 
me ham dej : me hit dej to god / ase him-zelf hit wyt- 
nessej ine his spelle. ' ])et Jou hest y-do he zayj to 
onen of mine poure : Jou hit hest y-do to me.' j)e poure 
byej Je little mayne of oure lhorde. yef Jou worjssipes 
Je pouere Jou worjssipes god. Yor huo Jet worjssipej 
Je mayne : he worssipej Je lhordes sergont. and huo 
Jet dej ssame to Je maine : he dej ssame to Je sergond. 
Of Jisen we habbej uayre uorbysne ine mine lhorde 
sant martin to huam god him ssewede Je ni^t efterward 
Jet he todelde his mentel to Je poure / and wes beue- 
alde ine Je mentle / and zede. to his angles. ( Martin 
yet nou y-primsened me he J yssred mid Jise cloje.' 

])e zixte Jing Jet ssel nroche sterie ane man to 
merci : is Je dred of dom. Yor ase zayj saint iacob. 
' dom wyj-oute merci / ssel bi do to Jan : Jet ne dej 
workes of merci.' Yor ase god zayde in his spelle. 
' Huaraie me comj to Je dome / Je dom ssel by yeue aye 


Jo pet ne habbe J y-do Je workes of merci.' uor god God win turn the 
ham wile do Jet dyaue eare. and Jerof hit ne is no unmerdM. 
wonder / to Jan Jet anhaste makej ham dyaue to Je 
poure / ase hit ssewej ine Je godspelle. ine Je uorhisne This Christ show- 
of Je riche manne / Jet onworjede Jane lazre. uor Jet abieof n Divef and 
he him wernde his elmesse : god him wernde ane drope Lazaru8, 
of weter / Jer he wes ine uere of helle. Alsuo to Je 
fole may denes Jet ne hedde non oyle ine hire lompen / 
god ham ssette Je gate of Je sposayles / and ham zede. 
ieh not huo y[e] byej. zuo Jet hy bleftew wyj-oute. })us The covetous 
he ssel do ate day of dome to wrechchen and to Je ^^ pSSS* 
couaytous / Jet ne ssolle habbe Je ledinge of me[r]ci / &a ° om «^> 
Jet let Je zaules in-to paradis / and ham make J way to 
comene to-uore god. ase zayj Je wry tinge, ase me 
makej way and ondej Je gate blejeliehe to Jan Jet 
brengj uayr present. Vor-zoje a^t acorsed ssel by Jet but cursed shall 
urara reuje went Jane reg at Jo daye. Vor god ssel edYheTr ^taT™ 
yeue dom wel dreduol / Jet ssel by zuo uest and zuo mercy ' 
stable / and uor alle time y-conf ermed / ne neure ine Christ shall give 
none time wyjcleped. J)es dom yzed beuore / ssel he ° 0m M & mg ' 
do ase king. Ja?ine ssel he keste his greate manzinge 
as Je he^e bissoj) an souerayn pope. Yor king he is : and cursing as a 
and bissop / ase zayj Je writinge. Vor he nom kende sove^igt^opef 
of man of kinges ke/md / and of bisssoppes. j)e ilke for He took the 
amanzinge sel by ope alle Jo uolke / Jet ssole by a left- Mn&lndof "' ° 
half /non ne worj uorbore. \)et ssolle by Je kueade ThiTeursing shall 
huiche he ssel miszigge uor hare on-trewje. and Jus he }^£™ d allonthe 
ssel ham zigge. ' GuoJ ye acorsede in-to Je greate uere "Go/'heshaii 
eurelestinde ine helle Je stinkinde / and Jyesterness of StoeverSng ' 
ssed / Jet is agrayjed to Je dreduolle dyuele / and to SCTSS^ 
his uela^es / Jet habbe J ymad his messages.' A. alias / fellows -" 
Jes dom Ja$ hit by wel ssort : uor-zoje hit ssel by wel This doom shall 
zorjuol and hard. Hua/zne lie his ssel wreke out of his rowfui. 
uela3rede. Mochel is to drede zuo harde to-delinge. 

\)q zeuende Jing Jet ssel moche man sterie to merci : 7. The seed of 
*is a zed Jet betere makej frut ine lhene land / Jarme hit good fruit. 


Mercy muitipiieth d ine uette. Hou merci multipliep pe timliche guodes. 

temporal riches. _ . . 

hyer-of we habbep uele uayre uorbisnen. nuerot lcli 
wille liier zome telle. Me ret of saint germain of 
st Germain had ancerne. pet po lie com uram rome / ate out-guoinge 
money to the of melane he acsede at onen of his diaknen yef he 
poor ' hedde eny zeluer. and he ansuerede pet he ne hedde 

bote pri pans, nor say[n]t germayn hit hedde al yene to 
except three pence pouren. bawne he him het : pet he his ssolde yene to 

retained by one 1 r . 

of his deacons, be ponre. nor god hedde yno3 of gnode hueroi he nise 

who was told to -. * i • -i , j 

give them also to nedde nor pane day. pe dyacne mid greate pine and 
The P de°acon gave mid greate grochinge yeaf pe tnaye pans / and ofhild 
away tW ° PenCe f ane J>ridde. ])& sergont of ane riche kni3te him 
bro^te ane his lhordes haf tno hondred pans. j)o 
st Gemahi dis- clepede he his dyacne and hiin zede / pet he hedde 
"ivtgtwf Genome pe ponre ane peny. and yef he hedde yene 

h ;;SlS J> ane & iMe p en ^ t0 f e p° ure : f e kni ^ him hedde 

pence from a rich y Zen t . J^i hondred pans. 

Efterward me ret ine pe lyne of Ion pe amoner pet 
wes zno ycleped nor pe greate elmesses pet he dede. 
a rich gentleman A riche ientilman wes y-robbed of pienes / zno pet him 
thievTs of a/that na^t ne blefte. He him com to playni to pe uorzede 
andhe' complain- marcne. and he him zede his cas. he hedde greate 
Aimonw who 6 reu J 5e P GT0 ^ ancl ^et his desspendoure pet he him yeaue 
ordered his stew- uv ft ene p0 nd of gold, be spendere be his conaytise ne 

ard to give lum J r » ■> x 

fifteen pounds of y ea f hote V y£ An haste a gentil wymman wodewe 
hut the servant zente to pe nore yzede Ton / nif hondred pond of gold. 
i a gen°tie y wiaow ])o he clepede his spendere / and him acsede hon moche 
hun\re dpo fi u V n e ds, he hedde y-yene to pe kni 3 te. he ansuerede : vyftene 
pond. pQ holy man ansnerede : pet nay. he ne hedde 
bote vyf. and huarcne he hit wiste / pe ilke zelue pet 

and he told his J ' J 

servant that if he his hedde onderuonge / zno zayde to his spendere. pet 

had given the _ , , , , 

15 pounds, our yef he hedde y-yene pe viftene pond pet he hedde y- 

sen r thhn U i5oo aVe hote : oure lhord him hede yzent be pe gnode wyfman : 

g3 woman' a pouzond and vyf hondred pond. And linage he 

acsede ate gnode wyfman po he hedde hise ycleped 

hon moche hi hedde him y-lete / hi andzuerede / pet 


uerst hi hedde y- write ine hare testament / Jet hi him 

let a Jousend and vyf hondred pond. Ac hi lokede which™ the sum 

efterward ine hare testament and hi yze* be bousend Mm in her win, 

17 y T * but the 1000 

pond defaced of hire write / and zuo ylefde Je guode pounds was after- 

, tit * i • o wa rd found de- 

wylman / Jet god wolde Jet hi ne zente bote vil faced, 

Efterward saint gregori telj Jet saint boniface st Boniface show- 

. , , i -t i / x •, , , i ed great kindness 

nram pet ne wes child / he wes zuo piteuous : Jet he to the poor, for 
yaf ofte his kertel and his sserte to Je poure uor god. oft< ! n beaten^y 
J?a3 his moder hira byete ofte Jeruore. Jjawne be-vil on ^occasion, 
bet / bet child yzei manie poure bet hedden mezeyse. h ) s m ^ her bei t n g 

* i * «/ 7 r r J absent, he emptied 

he aspide Jet his moder nes na$t Jer. an liaste he yarn the gamer for the 
to J>e gerniere / and al bet his moder hedde y-gadered and his mother 

was nearly out of 

uor to pasi Jet yer : he hit yaf Je poure. and Jo his her wits, but sud- 
moder com and wyste Je ilke dede : hy wes al out of prayer of the 
hare wytte. J)et child bed oure lhorde : and pet gernier ^came fun?""* 
wes an haste aluol. 

Efterward Jer wes a poure man ase me zayj. Jet ^Xr^'ftT" 
hedde ane cou / and yhyerde zigge of his preste ine his G ° d is requited 
prechinge / Jet god zede in his spelle Jet god wolde 
yelde an hondreduald al Jet me yeaue uor him. j)e 
guode man mid Je rede of his wyue / yeaf his cou to gave his cow to a 

rich priest, who 

his preste Jet wes riche. Je prest his nom blejeliche / took it home with 

. lTiifi- hira, and placed it 

and hise zente to Je o Jren Jet he hedde. po hit com among his other 
to euen : Je guode marcnes cou com horn to his house At eventide the 
ase hi wes y-woned / and ledde mid hare alle Je prestes Sme bT^brSg- 
ken al to an hondred. ])o Je guode man y-ze$ Jet / j ng wit £ her a £ 
he Jo3te Jet Jet wes Jet word of Je godspelle Jet he longing to the rich 
hedde y-yolde. and him hi weren yloked beuore his 
bissoppe aye Jane prest. }}ise uorbisne ssewej wel Jet Mercy is good 

, , i«i, ij-Ti chaffer and mul- 

merci is guod chapuare. uor hi de J wexe : Je timliche tipiieth temporal 

, goods. 


OF ])E GUODNES OF ELMESSE. Of the goodness 

of alms. 
. [Fol. 60. a.] 

ISTou best Jou y-hyerd Je bo3es of Je trawe of merci. Many bestow 
ac uor Jan Jet moche uolk byej / Jet hare elmesse Jet an a uselessly. 


Aims should be hy dob : hi lyezeb / and hare obre guodes. uor hi ne 

given to the need- J r J r I r & 

fui, and should do J na3t ase hy ssolde. Jeruore ich be wyle sseawy 

be made pleasing 

to God. ssortliclie / hou me ssel maky elmesse : to Jan Jet hi 

by behofsam. and Jet hi liky god. 
in almsgiving J^awne huo bet ssel do elmesse : hel ssel loki Jri 

three things are . 

to be considered. Jmges. verst : huerof he dej elmesse. uor he hit ssel 

1. a man must do of his 03ene / and na3t of oJrema?me. and Jerof Jet 
fongsto hi h m!aM he he f of g uode wynnynge and trewe. god ne he J hede 
tatning^tfan- 1 " of kueade yefjes. ac he his lone]? trewe and guode. 
other. Elmesse bet is y-do of byef be. of tol. of robbinge. of 

Alms given of Y J YJ Y o 

theft, toll, rob- ganelynge. ojer of ojre kueade gaderinge : hit ne like]? 
not pleasing to nojmg god. Huerof Je writinge zayj. 'Joune sselt 
na3t maky none to god of oxe / ne of ssep / 
Jet by spotty, nor god hej grat wlatiynge / of zuych 
Hewhomaketh sacrefiee.' and Je wyze zayj in Je writinge. i Je ilke Jet 
the goods of the makej sacrifice to god / of Je gnodes of Je ponre : he 
^ as he who slay- dej ase Je ilke Jet ssk^t Jet child be-nore his nader.' 

mrehfstttfer. 6 " And Sa y nt aUstin J> US Zai J>- ' hnet J G fy Q is f et ' he m l\ ' 

That is not gift <w i, e on n i m j, gledliche / and be ober hit lyest 

which onetaketh * * Y & ' Y Y J 

readily and the wepmdeliche : % ' and beruore ssel ech loki hnerof he de J 

other loseth 

weepingiy. elmesse. 

2. Look to whom Efterward he ssel loky to hnam he hit dej. Jparaie 
good. Je writinge zayj. Loke to hnam Jon sselt do gnod. 

do guod to Je gnode. Jet is to Jan : Jet Jon wenst by 
Give to the good gnod. and ne yef na3t to Je ssrewe. ne ne loke na3t 
shrew and the Jane zene3ere. j)et is to zigge : Jet Jon ne sselt na3t 
sinner, y eue j. Q ^ Q k uea( j e j }y e j, e sce le of his kueadnesse. ase 

doj Jo Jet yenej Je ribans / and menestrals / nor hare 
that is to say, as wykkednesse. l ne o Jerlaker hi nolden ham yene naat. 

thereward'oftheir . 

wickedness, Jet is wel grat zeraie ase ziggej Je haljen. Ac hno Jet 

as one giveth to , n , , n .. . 

ribalds and min- ham yet J / na3t nor hare kneadnesse : ac uor renje / 

and nor Jolemodnesse of hare ponrehede / and of hare 

Nevertheless aims wyues / and of hare children, yef hi hise habbej. ojer 

them on account of hire uader / o Jer of hire moder. o Jer nor ojre guode 

aeir P o\ery. s ^ e i e j age jjj g uor ^ Q W yjj(j ra ^ e uram zewne : he dej 

1 MS. wylkednesse. 


wel. j?araie elmesse y-yeue to be poure. and more to Give aims to the 

, poor, and especi- 

nam pet bye]? r^t poure of herte / and of wyl. pet au y to the poor 

habbep ylete uor god pet hi hedden / oper pet hi mi^te to the fatherless, 

habbe. ])et po pet ne byep na3t poure of wylle : ac other ^ce^tous 

poure of nyede : wel ich habbe pe eft / y-zed. And per80n8, 

alneway me ssel ham blepeliche yeue / and nameliche 

to pe poure ssamueste. and to pe uaderlease. an to wyf- 

men wodewen. and to opre nieduolle / panne me yzi^J? 

pe nyede / and me hit rnx^e do. and zuo me is y-healde 

to be oncoube / aboue alle obren me is y-hyealde : to Above al1 8ha11 

/ r ' r J J one help his 

uader and to moder / huanne me y-zi^J) hare nyede. parents in their 
Vor pe kende hit tekj> / and god hit acsep / and hat. need * 

Me ret of pe heyrone pet he dra^Jj uorp his uader [.auorbisne.] 
and his moder huanne hi bye]? ealde / and ne mo3e Nature teacheth 
ham na3t porchaci. Jjeruore kende tekp pet me ssel our father and 
guod do to uader and to moder. and huo pet hit ne dep : mother - 
he is onkende. and zene^ep a-ye kende / and a-ye god. 
pet hat to worpssipie uader and moder / and peruore [Foi. eo. b.] 
hit is wel ri^t pet hit misualle to him and to hare 
pet dep harm uader oper moder / ase hit is manye zipe 

Efterward me ssel ysy hou me ssel do elmesse / s - consider how 

" 'to give alms, and 

and pe manere his uor to yeuene. Vour condicions be the manner of 
pe writinge ssolle by ine elmesse. ])e uerste is pet me i.S gladly and 
hise yeue gledliche and mid guod herte. uor god lokep wllUngly - 
more pe herte : panne pe honden. Huerof saynt gre- 
gorie zayp. bet god ine his sacrement ne lokep na2t hou God looketh not 

4- t.* / j \, v v x 1.--L i. to the gift, hut to 

grat ping me yeue / ac mid huet herte. ase hit ssewep the heart of the 

wel in pe godspelle of pe poure wyfman pet ne hedde glver ' 

bote tuaye uerpinges pet hi offrede to pe temple. Huerof 

oure lhord zayp / pet hi hedde more y-layd : panne alle 

pe opre pet hedden y-layd greate pinges. Vor more 

likep operhuil to god an alfpeny pet a poure yefp gled- *** He is hetter 

liche uor god : panne a riche man yeaue an hondred poor man's haif- 

,.,,., i-i /», i penny than the 

marc grocnindeliche and mid zoi^e of herte. and peruore rich man's nun- 
zayp pe wyse ine pe writinge. ' make ' he zayp ' uayre chiere ' re max 8 * 



There are some 
so discourteous to 
the poor, 

that they accom- 
pany their alms 
with many twit- 
tings and up- 

2. Give thy alms 
soon and hastily. 

Say not to thy 
friend, "Go, and 
come again to- 

Make no delay, 
when thou hast 
it in thy power to 

" Nothing," says 
Seneca, "is so 
dearly bought 
as what one hath 
by delay." 

Give thy offerings 
to God while thou 

for death waiteth 
for none. 

Give thy alms 
for the love of 

and glede ine alle pine yefpes.' And zaynte paul zuo 
zayp pet ' god louep moche pane yeuere pet is gled and 
corteys.' And zome per byep zuo uyleyne to pe poure 
huaraie hi ham yeuep enye elmesse / an haste his 
misziggep uoulliche / and his clepyep truons / and ham 
ziggep zuo uele atuytinges / and of folyes er pan hi ham 
a$t yeue / pet wel is worp pet zeluer. pe ilke elmesse / 
ne payp na3t god. and pereuore zayp pe wyse ine pe writ- 
ings. ' bou3 pin eare he zayp < to pe poure / wyp-oute 
zor^e / and him ansuere mildeliche. , 

pe oper ping pet behouep ine elmesse is. pet me hit 
do zone and hasteliche. fterof Salomon zayp. 'ne zay 
na3t to pine urende / guo / and com ayen to mor^e / 
and panne ieh wylle pe yeue : huawne pou him n^t an 
haste yeue.' And ine anopre stede he zayp. ' ne leng 
na3t pine yefpe uram pe nyeduolle.' pet is to zigge / 
' ne make him na3t abyde : huarme pou im^t 
an haste yeue.' ftet is aye uele riche / pet makep 
grede pe poure pet hebbep to done mid ham. and 
zuo moche his dop abide / zuo uele zipe hit behouep 
ham bidde and bezeche / beuore er hi wyllep a3t do / 
pet to moche hy ham zellep pe guodnesse pet hi 
ham willep do. Yor ase zayp senekes. ' No ping ne 
is zuo diere y-bo3t : ase pet me hep be biddinge.' And 
pis is pet me zayp ine atwytinge. ' Dyere ha bayp : pet 
byt.' And pous ssel ech man wel do zuyf [t]liche uor his 
zaule perhuyle pet ha leuep / and hoi. j)aame pe wyse 
zayp ine pe writinge. l Yayre zone ' he zayp * do guod of 
pinen: yef pou hest huerof. and offre to god worpi 
offringe perhuyls pet pou leuest. Yor pe dyap ne abyt 
na3t.' And ine anopre stede he zayp. ' do guod to pine 
uriende : to-uore pe dyape.' pet is to pine zaule / to 
huam pou sselt do guod to-uore pine dyape. oper to 
pine trewe urende / pet is Iesu crist to huam pou sselt 
guod do to-uore pine dyape / doinde elmesses uor pe loue 
of Iesu crist to his poure. Yor pet me dep pe poure : 


me dep hit to him. ase he zayp ine his spelle. Jjawne CFoi. «i. a.] 

pe elmesse pet me yef)) ine lyue / and ine helpe / more Aims given in 

is worp : pa^ne pe ilke pet is y-do efter pe deape. Alsuo more worthy than 

ase pe lanterne pet me berp be-uore pe manne / him let 2S. givenafter 

bet / and more zikerlaker / panne pe ilke pet me berp a lantern carried 

■iii, a i -. . . - . before a man is 

beirynde pe regge. And peruore ous amonestep samte better than one 

paul pet we do guod / perhuyle pet we libbep. H[u]anne ^ behind his 

a riche man ssel come to ane toune / oper to ane cite. 

he zent his messagyers be-uore l uor to nime guod in. [i ms. bo-uore-] 

oper operlaker he mi3te wel fayly : guod in uorto habbe. 

])e guode forriers pet nimep and agraypep pet hous of Ouraimsareour 

paradys to be riche ma/me : byeb be elmessen bet ha tnat prepare for ' 

i , • i . i . , , \ -> « u« the house of 

dep me his hue. pe elmessen pet byep y-do efter pe Paradise, 
dyape : byep ase pe hewe recreyd pet late comp horn, 
zuo pet pe lhord is operhuil euele y-herbei^ed. 

\)e pridde c<mdicion pet ssel by in elmesse is / pet »• Give m>eraiiy. 
me ssel yeue largeliche be pan pet me hep huerof. pe 
wyse zayp. 'yef to god / be pan pet he hep pe y-yeue.' if thou hast 

much, give 

And thobye zayp alsuo. ' be pine imjte by reupeuol / abundantly ; 

and merciuol. Yef pou hest moche guod : yef large- but if little, give 

liche. and yef pou hest lite : yef perof blepeliche / and teousiy. 

corteisliche.' J?araie ech ssel yeue efter his nrijte / and « after his ^^ 

be pet /pet god him hep y-yeue. Me vint of ane Sander gave a 

kinge. to huam a poure acsede ane peny. he hym city to one of his 

° r r j v servants, who 

ansuerede / pet zuich a Hte yef pe ne wes na^t uor ane would refuse it 

t nnn . / on account of 

king. And 01 ahsondre me ret. pet [he J yat ane cite / to the greatness of 
onen of his sergons. an huanne pe ilke hise wolde uor- The king said to 
zake. uor pet / grat ping him p03te / to nime zuych 5^hati?^I 
yefpe. Alisondre ansuerede and zayde. < Ich ne loky j^forme tf'' 
na^t pet belongep pe to nimene : ac me to yeuene.' give -" 

pe uerpe condition is / pet pe elmesse by y-do mid ^^S^SJ 7 ' 
wille / and mid condition, pet me ne zeche none ydele mind - 
blisse / ne pet me ne onworpi pe poure. to huam pet me 
hit yefp. ne uor elmesse pet me dep ine dyadlich zenne. 
me hep presumpcion uor to by v-borce. Zom uolk per some folks give 

* . . alms and desire 

byep / pet yef hy dop elmesse : hi willep pet alle hit that ail should 
13 * 



hear of their 

Christ hath com- 
manded us to 
give our alms 
secretly and 
without ostenta- 

Good works may 
he done before 
the folk, for good 
example's sake, 

so that God may 
be glorified. 

The alms- giver 
must not despise 

[Fol. 61. b.] 
the poor reci- 

Some folk despise 

the poor, 

and speak largely 

and proudly to 


[a tokne \>et iob 
wes king.] 
Job was not 
ashamed of poor 

The fellowship of 
the poor 

wyte. Ac Je wyse zayj / Jet me do Je elmesse in-to 
Je greade of Je poure. Yor ase zayj saynt gregorie. 
' hit is y-no3 to Je guode maraie / Jet yef he hit zent / of 
huam he onderstant his ssepe to habbe.' And Jeruore 
zayj ourelhord ine his spelle. ' Hua?ine Jou dest elmesse. 
ne wyte na3t Ji left hand: huet dej Ji ri^t hand, zuo 
Jet Jin elmesse hy y-hed. and Ji uader of heuene Jet 
izy3t Jinhedinge : hit Je halt.' J>et is to zigge. Jjaraie 
Jou sselt do elmesse : loke Jet ydele bhsse. Jet is to 
onderstonde be Je left half, ne by na3t y-mengd. Ac 
do his in ^te wone / and i^te onderstondinge. Jet is 
onderstonde by Je ri^t half. Ich ne zigge na3t Jet me 
ne ssel do Je guode workes ojerhuil to-uore Je uolke / 
nor to yeue guode uorbysne / hneruore god by yhered : 
and y-Jonked. Vor Jus him zayj oure lhord ine his 
spelle. Jet we maki oure gnode dedes to-nore Je uol- 
kerede / Jemore Jet god by y-hered and y-glorefied na3t 
uor Je los of nolke ase dej Je ypocrote. and Jeruore 
zayj saint gregorie / Jet me do his workes aperteliche / 
Jet Je onderstondinge bi ri3tuol bezide. 

Efterward lino Jet wyle do elmesse / he hit ssel zuo 
do / Jet he na3t ne onworji Je poure to huam Jet he 
hit dej. Jperuore zayj Je profete. ' ISTe onworje na3t ' he 
zayj ' Ji uless. Jet is Je poure Jet is ilich Je / and of 
zuiche kende of uless and of blod ase Jou art. and of 
zuiche wose.' Zom uolk bye J Jet onworje J Je poure / 
and ne daynej na3[t] to speke to ham. and yef hispekej : 
gratliche and proudliche hi speke J. Zuo ne dede na3t 
iob / Jet zede / Jet [he] ne onworjede neure Je guoinde / 
vor Jet hi weren naked, ac rajre ham yaf clojinge / 
and mete and drinke. J)e holi man Ja3 he were king / 
and he3 man / ne hedde none ssame of Je poure / ase 
doj zome greate lhordes of Jise wordle. Jet wel doj 
elmesse to poure / ac alnewayhis habej ine onwor[j]nesse 
uor hare pourehede. And yef hi weren ri3tuolliche 
milde : hi ssolden betere louie Je ue^rede of poure 


men/ pet byep poure uor god. pet hise mo^e wel edefie is often to be 
be uorbisnes and be wordes / pet of manie riehe men bi of rich men.* &t 
habbep aboute bam / buer per ne is bote covay[ti]se / 
ulaterie / yelpinge / ^and bam make]? lete mocbe wel to 
done / and make]) bam moche kuead to done / be hare 
euele rede. 

Efterward per bye]) som uolk pet do J) yno$ elmesse / Some folk give 

enough alms, and 

ac alnewey hi ne lete]) na3t to done hare greate zenne. yet forsake not 

j)e ilke elmesse ne ssel his na^t ber^e. Vor yef bi S ins, 

sterue]) ine zuich stat : hire elmesse ne ssel ham na3t Aims alone wm 

wytie / J)et hi ne ssolle by uor-lore. j)a?me zuich uolk 

bye]) ase pe ilke pet of one half make]) ])et hous / and 

of oper half he hit brekj). And peruore zay]) pe writ- 

inge. 'Yef bou wilt kueme god : haue uerst reube / if thou wilt please 

, . / o . ■, , . , , God, have first 

and merci / of ])ine zaule. uor huo ])et is kuead and mercy upon thy 

ontrewe to hi?n : to huam ssel he bi guod and trewe V 

zay J) pe writinge : ase yef he zede. [he] ne may na3t l by [i ms. na)>q 

guod and trewe to oj)ren : ])et to him-zelue is kuead. 

And peruore saint austin zayj). ' Huo pet wile ri3tuol- Let ^g bepre. 

liche do elmesse : he ssel beuore agmne at himzelue. ^f by repent * 

uor he ssel more louie his 03ene zaule : panne anopres : 

uor god.' ISTon ne wolde zigge pet yef he were reuJ)euol / 

and uol of merci / pet ne ssolde habbe reupe of his 

moder poure and zik. hou moche he hedde reupe of 

obren. Alzuo ich zigge / be ilke bet ne is nast reubeuol He is not merci- 

, n • / i / n i i ful that hath n0 

ne uol of merci / pet ne he]) pite of his zaule : huarcne pity on his own 
he wot pet hi is zik to pe dyape / pet is ine dyadlich unto death. 

Nou ich habbe pe y-no3 y-ssewed of pe trawe of 
merci. pe stapes, pe bo3es. and pet frut. pet comp ine 
pise wordle / and ine pe opre. of pe frut of pise trawe 
ous spekp dauip ri3t wel ine pe sautere / per he zayp 
pous. 'yblyssed byep po pet ham yeuep to pe poure / Ble88ed be those 
and to be nieduolle.' bet is to zigge : bet ne abit naat : that give to the 

r # °° \ 7 poor and needful, 

al-wet pe poure him bit / ac rapre him yefp wyp-oute without delay, 

, . .__ ' , . , t , , . . and without soli- 

aksmge. vor me wes ywoned to zigge / and zop hit citation. 



[Fol. 62. a.] 

The merciful 
shall be blessed, 

and shall be de- 
livered from his 
foes at the day of 

The unmerciful 
shall be cursed 
[l MS. be] 
and driven from 
God's presence, 

and shall be given 
over to their foes, 
the devils. 

The merciful 
shall inherit the 
kingdom of hea- 

[l MS. \>e] 

and for their alms 
shall obtain 

They shall have 
everlasting life, 

is. pet to mo[e]he bay]) / pet byt. Ne pe ilke ne he]) 
herte to yeuene : Jet ne yefp er me acsi. pe ilke dep 
wel pet yefp to pe poure Jet acsep. ac he dep bet : pet 
yefp wypoute aksinge. And of fan zayp pe sauter. 
'Y-blissed is pe ilke pet onderstant to pe poure.' and 
hueruore is he y-blissed 1 he zayp efterward ine pe ilke 
ners. pet god him wyle delinri in pe kueade daies of his 
yuo. pet ssel bi ate daye of dome pet ssel by hard and 
kuead to pe wickede / pet ssolle by y-damned / uor pe 
workes of merci / pet hi ne habbep na3t ydo. panne 
pe demere ssel ham zigge at po daye. 'guop ye 1 acorsede / 
in-to pe uere of helle / mid alle pe dyenlen / ]?et yon is 
y-di3t uram \e ginnynge of pe wordle. Yor ich hedde 
honger / and porst / ye ne me yeaue mete / ne drinke / 
ich wes zik / ]jou ne come m^t to me.' And pus he 
ssel ham attwyte : pe workes of merci / pet hi na3t 
habbep y-do. and peruore hi ssolle bi betake at po 
daye : to hare yuon. pet byep pe dyeulen of helle. Of 
huam pe rewpeuolle / and po pet dop ham to pe poure / 
and to pe workes of merci. ssolle bi betake at po daye / 
and ssolle by do in-to sayzine of pe riche of heuene / ase 
zayp oure lhord ine his spelle. Yor he ssel zigge to pan 
pet habbep y-do pe workes of merci/ ' comep pe ] yblissede 
of mine uader / onderuongep pe riche of heuene / pet 
is to you y-dy3t / uram pe ginynge of pe wordle. Yor 
pet ye habbep y-do to mine poure : ye hit habep me y- 
do.' Grat worpssipe god ham ssel do / pa/me he ham 
ponkep / of pe workes of merci. and he ham ssel y[e]ue : 
pet lyf wyp-oute ende. And peruore he zayp ine his 
spelle. ' Yblissed byep pe merciuolle : uor hi ssolle 
habbe merci.' uor pet hi habbep ylengd / pet lyf of pe 
poure be hare elmesse. Wel hit is ri3t / and skele / pet 
god ham yeue pet lyf wyp-oute ende / pet is / and ssel 
by wyp-oute ende. and peruore pet hi habbep y-het 
reupe / of Iesu cnstes lemes ine pe erpe / and hise 
habbep y-loked / and y-conforted ine hare nyede. Hit 


is wel skele Jet me do ham ate ende merci / and Jet me 
his deliuri of alle kueadnesse / of alle nyede. and Jet and Christ shall 
ssel he do / huaraie he ssel yeue j>e blisse eurelestinde / f or eV er. 
mid merci his let uorj / and his ssel herber$i. 


, standing, and of 

CHASTET E. the virtue of 

Holy Writ ous tekj) / tuo maneres of Hues, huerby ThTrearetwo 

There are 
modes of life, 

me com]? to Je Hue wyj-oute ende. J)e uerste is yhote m ^ 8 by 
workuol [actiue] / uor Jet hi is ine zuynch of guode S^tho^nd. 
workes / and makeb man onderstonde to be profit of The first is active 

' r r —a life of good 

him-zelue / and of his emcnsten. j)e ojer is y-hote works. 

Tti© second is 

resteuol [corctemplatiue]. uor Jet hi is reste / of workes contemplative— 

wyj-oute / and ne dej him na^t bote to god uor to the soul leeks to 

knawe / and louie. hueruore hy his ydel of nyedes and Vforge^an 

wyj-oute / and ase aslepe. Ac hi is awaked wyjine to else ' 

Jenche of god / and him louie / and na^t ne wylni : 

bote him to habbe / and uor him / alle ojre Jinges / 

de J ine uoryetirage. Yor hi is of al y-robbed / and y- and desires to be 

... t -ii. ,1,-iTi separated from 

pi}t me god. and wylnej uor to by to-deld uram Je the mortal body, 
dyadHche bodye : uor to by aineway mid Iesu cnst / Christ, 
ase zaij zainte pauL 

pQ uerste Hf is ine Je vi3tinge / ine Je uelde of The first life is in 
guode workes / huer Je kny^t Heme J / ham prouej / field of good 
and alosej. Je ojer his reste wyj god ine Je chombre of [Foi. 62. b.] 
clene inwyt. j)e uerste onderstant to uede god / mid rfthOoA in the* 
Je mete of guode workes. J?e ojer onderstant to by chamber of a pure 

* ° * r J conscience. 

yued / and yueld of god be zoje c<mfort gostlich. Jjawne 

be uerste is be-tokned be marben / bet wes bisy uor to Martha is a type 

r Y I Y J of the first life, 

uede oure lhord / ase zayj Jet godspel. ))e ojer is be- and Mary of the 


tokned be Marie / Jet hire zette ate uet of Iesu cnst / 
and lheste his wordes. J?e uerste is way / and inguo- 
inge' to Je ojren. Vor non ne may come to Je Hue 
restuolle : bote he by uerst wel y-proved ine Hue by- 
zye / ase zayj sain gregorie. ])e yef Jes / and Je mVtues 
huerof we habbej y-speke aboue be-longe J / to Je uerste 
Hue Jet is ycleped workuol. J5e tuo laste huerof we 



The gift of under- 
standing and wis- 
dom belongeth to 
the life contem- 

To this life belong 
also a right 
knowledge of 
God and a stedfast 

The gift of under- 
standing given 
by the Holy 

is a light and a 
grace of bright- 
ness which en- 
ables man to 
know his Maker, 

and those spirit- 
ual matters per- 
taining to the 
help of the soul. 

This gift is called 
light, for it 
cleanseth the 
understanding of 
the darkness of 
pride and of 
spots of sin, 

and enables man 
to know clearly 
and surely God 
his Creator. 

The sick eye may 
not see clearly, 
•neither may 
man's under- 
standing perceive 
spiritual truths 
without being 
first purified by 
the Divine light. 

ssolle speke mid J?e helpe of gode and of pe holy gost. 
]?et is to wytene / pe yeffjje of onderstondinge / and j>e 
yefj?e of wisdom : belongej? to pe oJ?re liue ]?et is y-hote 
restuol. pet lif is ine tuo J?inges / ase we habbej? aboue 
y-zed. Jpet is to wytene / ine ri^te knawlechinge of god / 
and ine stedeueste loue. J?e loue of onderstondinge leth 
to stedeuestnesse of ri3te knaulechinge. pe jefpe of 
wysdom / leth to stedeuestnesse of loue. 

Nou we willej? zigge uerst of pe yefjje of onder- 
stondinge / be fan fet J?e holy gost wile ous teche. pes 
yeffe J?et is y-hote yefj?e of onderstondinge / ne is oJ?er 
ping / be J?e hal^en / and bi J?e maistres / bote a ly3t 
and a grace of bri^tnesse / J?et pe holy gost zent in-to 
J?e herte / huerby onderstondinge of man is arered nor 
to knawe his sseppere / and J?e gostliche Jnnges J?et ne 
mo^e na3t by y-zo3e bodilich ine alle pe J?inges ]?et be- 
longej? to J?e helj?e of zaule. mid skele kendelich ne on- 
derstondinge of man of hi?tt / ne nor him / ne may 
come, pes god is y-cleped ly3t. Yor he clenzej? J?e 
onderstondinge of man / of J?iesternesse of prede / and 
of spottes of zenne. Yor ase J?et li^t bodilich dej? away 
J?iesternesse and make]? b^tliche izy J?e J?inges bodilich : 
alsno J?is H3t gostlich clenzej? J?e onderstondinge of 
man / al to Jan J?et he mo3e bri3tliche ysy / and pet he 
mo3e knawe bri3tliche and zikerliche / ase me may y- 
knawe ine Jjise dyeadliche line god his sseppere / 
and J?e sseppinges gosthche / ase biej? pe angles / and J?e 
zaulen. fet belongej? to J?e helj?e of zaules. ase bye]? pe 
articles of J?e beleane / hnerof we habbej? beuore y- 
speke ine ane stede be him-zelue. Jois knawynge nis 
bote in inwyt wel yuayred / and wel yclenzed. Yor 
ase pe zike e3e ne may na3t wel yzi bri3tnesse. alsno pe 
onderstondinge of man ase moche ase in him is / ne 
may ysy / ne knawe pe J?inges gostliche / bote he by 
wel yclenzed / of alle lac of uelj?e / be zo]?e byleaue / 
Jet clenzej? pe herten / ase zayj? pe writinge. Ac pe 


yefjje of Jje holy gost / huerof we spekejj hier / uol- 

makejj Jjise uayrhede / and Jjise cle/messe ine herte / to enlightens the* 

Jjet his holy zaule / Jjet is y-clenzed / and ab^t / mid 80ul * 

Jjise li^te of onderstondinge : mi3te ysy and knawe 

god / and al Jjet him is niede / and guod to his ybor^- 

inge / and Jjet is Jje blissinge / huerof god spekjj ine 

his spelle / Jjo he zede. 'yblissed bye J? Jjo : Jjet bye J) The clean of 

clene of herte / uor hi ssolle ysy god ine hira-zelue ase GoTas^jeSsTW 

he is be byleaue aly 3 te / and y-streng}jed be Jie yefjje ^^L^ 

of ondersto^ndinge.' Vorzojje efter Jje dyeajje / ine standin £- 

paradis hi ssollen yzy him / al aperteliche / wizage / [Fol , 63. a#] 

to visage. 

J^awne zayb zaynte paul. bis yefbe deb away alle This gift puts 

away aU filth of 

ueljje ol herte / and hire clenzejj parfitliche of alle the heart, but 
lackes / and specialliche of Jje lacke of Jje zeraie of e8pee y e ° ery ' 
lecherie. Vor huo Jjet is be~ueld mid Jjo lac : he is For who is defiled 

• i it i iii/ ii,i /> -, i with this sin has 

r^tuollicne y blent / and he)? ylore Jje e$en of Jje herte / lost the eyes of 

skele and onderstondinge / zuo J>et he ne may'y-knawe Ws heart ' 

his sseppere / ne Jjinges Jjet wendejj to Jje heljje of 

zaule. Ac is ase best Jjet ne hejj wyt ne skele ine him. 

J^araie dauijj zayjj ine Jje sautere. Jjet man to huam Jet 

god hejj y-do zuo grat worjjssipe jjet hine made to his 

ymage and to his anliknesse huerby he may y-knawe 

god and habbe / Jjet he ne hejj y-do none beste : hejj and is no better 

, -, . , _ , than a beast. 

zuo uoryete his sseppere / an Jje guodnesse Jjet he hejj 
him y-do / Jjet he is become ilich to fole bestes / Jjet 
ne habbejj none onderstondinge. J)e zeraie bet mest Lechery makes a 

1 T man like to foul 

makejj man mch to uoule bestes / and to ueljje : is beasts. 

zemie of lecherie. huerof we habbejj be-uore y-zed Jjer 

we speke of zeraie. j)e yefjje Jjaraie of onderstondinge / The gift of under- 

Jjet is of erjje specialliche / to Jjo ueljje bestrepjj of Jje the heart of this 

herte Jje zeraie of lecherie / an he tekjj uayrhede and 

cleraiesse / huerof wext a wel uayr traw. Jjet is Jje 

mVtue of chastete / huerby me comjj to Jjo gr^ate 

blissinge Jjet god be-hat to Jjau Jjet lokejj cleraiesse of 

herte : huaraie he zede, * yblissed hi by J?e clene of Blessed *** the 


pure of heart, herte uor hi ssolle yzy god.' uor bet hi ssolle habbe be 

for they shall see J J o r i 

God. e3en of herte wel yclenzed and wel ali3t of pe yefpe of 


Of the seven steps Of JpE ZEUE STAPES OF CHASTETE. 

of chastity. 

J5ys traw wext and profitep / and cliff ase dop pe 
sde^ce? an C ° n " °J jre *°- uore y ze( i / *> e zeiie stapes. \)e uerste stape is 
defiieTmind 111 c * ene inwyt / pet is pe rote of pise trawe uor wyp-oute 
there is no chas- clene inwyt : no chastete ne lykeb to god. bis chastete / 

tity pleasing to # J J r & J' I 

God. J»is elennesse / pis purte / acsep Jet me loki pe herte 

uram euele po3tes / pet hi na3t ne cowsenti / and of 

He who consents kuede wilnifnlgges. Vor huo bet him cowsenteb to kueade 

to evil thoughts T T 

is not chaste, wylles / and to pe kneade p03tes of his herte : he ne is 
far from the Ji&jt chast. pa3 he by uer nram pe dede. nor be pe 
deed " cowsentinge wyp-oute more : he ssolde by uorlore yef 

he sterf perinne. 

toTodu^uSt' 1 ^ ri J> in g es mocne ^y e > worp to loki pe clercnesse of 
of heart. herte. be nerste is / blebeliche y-hyere be wordes of 

The first is to ' IT J J Y 

hear joymuy the god / and his spelles. Huerof oure.lhord zayb ine his 

word of God. __ /-,.-,. -, -, , ■, " 

spelle/ to his deciples. <ye bye]) he zayp <alle clene /be 
pe wordes pet ich yon habbe yzed.' Yor godes word is 
ase a nayr ssewere / ine huam me yzi3t alle pe lakkes of 

Se "shrift! which ^ ****- ^ ^ $** 1S ^ SSlifte > et iS ^ knOT / 

istheiaveriD hner he him ssel ofte wesse. be writinge zavb ine be 

which one shall ' & Jr * 

oft wash. bok of kinges. pet elyseu pe profete het to naaman pet 

Bear in mind the wes mez el / pet he him wesse ine be nom Jordan zeue- 

story of Naaman s ' ' r 

washing in Jor- zipe uor to by clene of his enele. And po he per wes 

dan seven times. T * 

ywesse : po wes he al klene and al hoi of his euele. Jpe 
the^reamtf 8 fllim iordan J> et is ase moche worp : ase stream of dom / 
ieSnfshrift, and ^oknep ssrifte. huer man ssel him-zelue deme 
shairudThim- mid g reate zor 3 el of nerte / and mi( l greate repentonce / 
self with great zuo pet o stream of tyeares : yerne be pe condut of pe 

sorrow of heart, - l-i-i.-i-ii,, 

and repentance, e3en. and zuo pe mezel ssel bi al hoi and clene. J?et is 
o?ttt a runfrl J* zene 3^ / Jef he him wesst zeuezype / pet is to 

his eyes. 

1 MS. zor\>e 


zigge / of alle his zeranes. And }>eruore zayj? saynt 

bemard. < lone ssrifte : yef J>ou wilt habbe uayrhede. CPo1 ' ^ b ' 3 

Vor ssrifte ne is na3t wyjj-oute uayrhede/ 

pet J?ridde J?ing is / bej?enchinge of Iesu cn'stes The third thing 

xt t / i is a remembrance 

pme. V or no uondinge / none euele J>03tes ne mo^e of Christ's pas- 
bleue ine herte : Jet ofte recordej) J?ane dyaj) and J?e 8ion ' 
pine of Iesu cnst. Vor J>et is J?e armure pet pe dyeuel for that is the 
dret mest ase J?e ilke be huam he wes ouercome / and dreaded by the 
be huam he lyeas his nnjte. J)et is ous betokned in pe dfivU ' 
writinge of pe eddre of bres J?et Moyses be pe heste of This is betokened 

tit 1.11 -. .. in the Scriptures 

oure lnorde arerede ope pe pole zuo he^e ; Jet al Jjet uolk by the adder of 

hise yze3. And alle J>o Jjet his yze3e : weren y-held of brasB ' 

pe prekiynges of pe eddren. pe eddre of bres arered 

ine pe pole : be-toknej? Jet body of Iesu mst y-hanged The adder denotes 

ine pe rode. Jjet wes pe eddre wyjj-oute uenym huerof Christ!^ ° f 

wes y-mad J>e tWacle of oure heljje / to ham Jjet byejj 

y-smite / and enuenimed of Jje prekyinges of pe uenim- 

ous eddre* of helle / Jet is J)e dyueL Loke be zoJ>e L ^S 

belyaue ine pe eddre of bres. Jjet ys to zigge / J>et he ]jf f ^ l£™* n 

Jjenche of be pinen of Iesu cnst. and anhaste he ssel t0 deatn and p 3 *- 

sion of Christ. 

by hol / and by y-uryd of Jje uondinges of pe 

pe oper stape huerby Jjis traw clyf p and profiteb. IL Kee P the 

. ill-, , i month from foul 

is to loki Jjane moujj uram uoule wordes / Jjet wendejj words, 
to ribaudye and to oncleraiesse. uor be zuych blest and which °ft 
be zuych wynd : is ofte aquyked Jjet uer of lecherie. onecLry 3 . ™ 
Huerof pe writiwge spekjj. Jjet 'word of fole wyfman / 
is berninde ase uer/ An zaynte paul bus zayb. bet 'be Evil words of 

11 inr.i o i *° ul women mar 

kueade wordes ot lole wyfmerc : amerrej? guode Jjeawes. good virtues. 

And Jjeruore huo Jjet wyle loki chastete : hit behouejj 

Jjet he him loki uram zuyche wordes. Vor huo bet HewhowUisay 

i i r it t t . r and listen to foul 

bleyjejlicne hise zayjj / ojjer blejjeliche his yherjj : he words is not 

ssewejj wel J?et he ne is na3t chast. Yor Jjer ne may ° 

go oute of be uete : bote zuych ase ber is inne. Yef be f ftbeword8 be 

x r 1 oathsome, it is 

wordes byejj uoule and lodliche / bet is apert tokne bet ^p 1 that the ™ 

n i i . i ii. ii i , . is filth in the 

J>e uoulhede and pe lodhchhede byejj me pe herte. Yor heart. 


III. Guard all the 

wits of the body— 

the eye from foul 


the ear from foul 


the hands from 

wicked handling, 


These are the 

five gates of the 

city of the heart, 

whereby the 

devil oft goeth 

into the heart. 

Samson, David, 
and Solomon were 
overcome through 
not guarding 
these gates. 

St Gregory says, 
"The tower of the 
heart may not be 
taken unless the 
gates be open to 
the devil's host." 

[Fol. 64. a.] 

Philosophers of 
old fled into 
deserts to pre- 
serve their chas- 

The bodily wits 
are as a horse 
without a bridle, 

but a chaste 
heart restrains 
them with the 
bridle of reason. 

IV. Let the flesh 
be governed by 
the spirit. 

The lusts and 
pleasures of the 
heart mar chas- 


be pe mochelliede of pe herte : pe moup spekp. pet 
zayp our lhord ine his spelle. 

pe pridde stape is wel to loki alle pe wyttes of pe 
bodye / ase pe e3en uram fol zy3pe. pe earen / to hyere 
fole wordes. pe bonden ura[m] wyckede takinges. pe 
uase: uram to mocbe lostuolle smelles. pane moup 
uram to lostuolle metes / and ine guode smackes. pise 
byep pe vif gates of pe cite of pe herte / huerby pe dieuel 
gep in ofte ine pe vif perles of pe house / huerby pe 
dyeuel ofte gep in-to pe herte / ase zayp pe profete. 
Yele guode men and stronge habbep by y-nome and 
ouercome / Be pan pet hi ne lokede na3t wel pise gates. 
And yef pou wylt habbe uorbisnes : pench pet non ne 
wes strenger pawne samson fortin. ne wiser pawne 
Salomon, ne more milder parai# dauid. and alneway 
uillen be wyfmen. Ac uorzope yef hy hedden wel 
yemd pe gates: pe uyend ne hedde na$t ynome zuo 
greate casteles. Yor ase zayp saint gregorie. * pe tour of 
pe herte ne may na3t by nome bote pe gates by opene 
to pe ost of pe dyeule.' Huerof yealde filozofes hem 
uledden in-to uerre stedes in-to dezert. peruore pet hi 
ne mitten yzy / ne yhere / ne uele / ping huerby pe 
strengpe of hire workes uledde away / ne huerby hi 
ssolden lyese hire chastete. pe opre peruore pet hi nere 
ine zeraie to penche of filozofie / hy presten out hare 
e3en of pe herte / pet hi ne ze3en ping pet ham mi3te 
wypdra3e uram hire cowtemplacion. frawne pe bodiliche 
wyttes byep ase pet hors pet yernp wyp-oute bridle zuo 
pet hit dep ualle his lhord. Ac pe herte chaste / ham 
ofhalt mid pe bridle of skele. Nou ich habbe pe yzed 
pane skele. 

pe uerpe stape is ssarpnesse of liue to do his uless 
onderuot pet is wrang to pe goste / ase zayp zaynte 
paul. Vor huo pet wile quenche pet uer of lecherie : 
he mot do away pe ah^tynges pet norissep zuych ver. 
pet biep pe lostes and pe eyses of pe herte / pet bernep 



and ali^tej? Jet uer of lecherie / and amerrej chastete. 
\)o.niie saint bernard Jous zayj / Jet chastete spilj be Jeremiah's girdle 
lostes. j)e writinge zayj /Jet Ieremies brechgerdel / ten beside the 
rotede bezide Je wetere. Vor chastete / Jet is onder- demotes chastity, 
stonde / and betokned be J>e brechgerdle : Jet uor- by h founuTtsT ed 
rotede / ine Je wetere of uoule lostes. And Jeruore / and therefore we 

, „ . ii«ii. i • i it must put the sin 

huo Jet wyie him loki uram berrnnge : he ssel do a- awajj by fasting, 
way Je ilk brondes / be wyfdra^inges of mete / and of *"* y p* 511 * 1106 * 
drinke / and be ssarpnesses of his bodie. Huer-of J>e 
writinge zayj. Jet Je children Jet weren y-norissed The children who 
mid greate metes / nolden na^t ethe of Je lostuolle « lustful meats," 

, / t , n n i i i were preserved 

metes / weren y-bo^e me pe fornayse of babyloyne. inthe furnace of 
huerby is onderstonde : zeraie of lecherie / Jet is Babylon - 
yquenct mid uorberinge of mete and of drinke / and be 
ssarpnesse of lyne. Ac Je greate metes / and Jet Great meats 

. . . nourish lechery, 

stronge wyn / ah^tej and iiorissej lecherie / ase oyle as oil or grease 

ojer grese al^tej and st[rjengjej Jet uer. 

j)e vifte stape is be-uly kueade uela^rede and pe v. Avoid the fel- 
lowship of the 
enchesons of zewne. Moche uolk byejj y-ualle ine wicked, 

zenne be kueade ue^rede Jet na3t elles ne hedden 

yualle. Ase lie leuayne zoureb bet do* and hit dra^b to for ** mara '» 

° x «/ st? )i man s good fame. 

smac : alsuo Je queade uela3rede amerj Jet guode los 

of Je maraie. A roted eppel amang Je holen : makej a rotten apple 

. . will spoil a great 

rotie pe yzounde. yef he is longe Jer amang. A quic many &omid 

col bernmde ope ane hyeape of dyade coles : hit his oneB * 

zet alle auer. Huerof Je sauter zay J. ' }?ou sselt by holy 

mid Je holy, and poure mid Je poure. ' ase yef he zede. 

ye f Jou wilt loki Jine klercnesse and Jine chastete : 

beuli be uelasrede of Je kueade. Vor yef Jou louest Je ifthouiovest the 

company of the 

ue^rede of Je queade : Jou sselt by zuych ase hi byej. wicked thou shait 
Vor huo Jet louej ueb^rede of fol : hit behouej Jet he are . 
by fol. Jet zayj Je wyse ine Je writinge. Alsuo be- ^ voi ^ e J e 7 
houeb him beuly be encheysones of zenne I ase speke evil, and go not 

r J r J i r into temptation, 

pmieliche to wyfman in stede suspecton : wyj one. 
Yor Jet yefj ofte encheysoun to zene3y huawne me hej 
pane time and Jane stede. Huer-of we rede J ine Je boc 



The story of 
Amon, king 
David's son. 

Avoid those things 
that lead to 

[Fol. 64. b.] 

Lot was com- 
manded not only 
to leave Sodom, 
but all its 

So one must for- 
sake lechery, and 
the temptation 
leading to it. 
The moth flieth 
about the candle 
until it is burnt. 

VI. Be occupied 
with good and 
honest works. 

The devil tempt- 
eth the* idle man. 
Idleness is the 
mistress of much 
[} steppe ?] 

says St Jerome, 
"let the devil al- 
ways find thee 

Sodom fell into 
sin through pride* 
idleness, and 

of kinges. pet amon Jjet wes dauij? is zone : huawne 
he hild his zoster / on : to one / pnueliche ine his 
chombre / he hise uorlay. Josepes lheuedy j?o hy uand 
alone him / hi wolde do him zene3i mid hire, ac he him 
uledde / ase wys / and hise uorlet. Jperuore zay]? zainte 
paul. beuly fornicacion. pet is to zigge / pe encheysons 
Jjet mo3e lede to zerme of lecherie. Yor me ne may 
na3t betere ouercome zenne of lecherie / ne loki 
chastete : panne to by-nly pe encheysones of zenne. 
J?eruore pe angle zede to lot / J?et he ssolde gno out of 
pe cite of sodomme / and alle pe boundes. Yor hit ne 
is na3t yno3 to lete pe kueade ue^rede ne pe zenne : 
bote he ne lete pe markes of zeraie. ])et is to zigge : 
pe encheisons of zenne. Me cou]?e zigge. zuo longe gej? 
J?et pot to pe wetere : j?et hit com]? to-broke horn, and 
zuo long UK3]) pe ulindre aboute pe candle : Jet hi 
bernf. Alsuo me may zuo moche zeche pe enchesouns 
of zerme / Jet me ual]?. panne huo J?et wyle him loki / 
uram berninge he ssel Mm wyj)dra3e. 

pe zixte stape is / to by ine nyedes of guode workes 
and oneste. Yor pe uyend J>et neure ne / slepjj / 
huarcne he uint man ydel and sleawol guod uor to done / 
he him &ep ine his niedes / and dep him stempe l li3tliche 
in-to zewne. panne pe writinge zajp / J?et idelnesse / 
pet is to zigge / sleu]?e and onlosthede wel to done / is 
maystresse of moche quead. And Jeruore zayjj zaynte 
paul. '£Te yef na3t' zayj) he 'stede to pe viende.' pet is 
to zigge : ne by na3t ydel / jjet pe uiend ne uinde stede 
pe uor to uondi. Yor he is ydel of guod workes : j?et 
yeff stede to pe zaule hire uor to uondi. Jjeruore zayj? 
saint gerome. ' Do alneway zome Jinges of zome guode 
workes / zuo J?et pe dyeuel pe uynde alneway workinde. 
uor huo J?et is ydel / he him ne may na3t longe hyalde 
J?et he ne ualle in-to zenne.' panne pe profete zayjj. uor 
J?et wes pe zenne of sodome / ]>et prede. ydelnesse. and 
plente. J»et is to zigge / Jet hi ethen /and uorzuo^e / 


and na^t ne dede. huer-by hy uillen in-to pe uoule 
zewne pet na3t ne is to nemni. alsuo dep moche uolc Much folk lose 
pet lyese]) hare time / and hine bezettej) ine ydelnesse / ^ ££££**" 
and ine to moche of metes an drinkes / and ine fole chu^shni^ 78 ' 
ple3es. ine childhedes / ine h^thedes / ine zonges / ine ^*J» ^ 8 » 
karoles / and ine tables / in ches / and ine obre fole chess » and other 

/ ' r foul games, 

gemenes. Ine zuyche li^thedes waste]? hare time, and and so fail into 

peruore hi uallep hjjYJliche ine moche uoul zenne / and 

ofte in-to pe pette of helle. pet is ate pricke of pe 

dyape / huerof he l ne nimp none hede. [» un 

j)e zeuende stape is guode benes to god / pet moche vn. offer good 
is worp to ouercome alle zenne / and nameliche zenne of prayers t0 God * 
lecherie. #araie saynt ambroyse zayp. * holy bene is a 
guod sseld / a-ye alle pe berninde ganelockes of pe 
dyeule.' and ysidre zayp. pet / pet his remedie aye alle Holy prayer is a 
zerane. to him pet yernp to holy benes / an haste ^Srttart. 
huawne be vyend asayleb be herte. Yor wone to bidde : Itis powerful 

' J J r r before God, for it 

aquencp alle pe asaylinges of zenne. Holy bene is wel is shored with 
mi3[t]uol auoreyegod. nor hi is y-ssored / mid uonr pinges with four posts. 
ase mid nour poss[t]es. 

j)Q nerste is ri3te beleane hner-of zayp oure lhord ine 1. The first is 
his spelle. ' In al pet pou acsest ine pine benes / haue Have a good 
gnode beleaue / and uest hope ine god : and pou sselt ^d thy pr^era 
habbe / pet pon acsest/ Saint Jacob zayp. pet me acsy 8haUbean8wered - 
to god / ueste bilene / wyp-oute drede. uor huo pet Hewhoiswith- 
dret : he is ase pe wa3e of pe ze / pet pe wynd let hider w^U^uhe^ea? * 
and pider. And peruore he pet gep 'yerninde / and ttT^"" 5 
talyinde / ne pengp na3t aye god. J)e oper ping pet [Foi. 65. a.] 
ssel by ine bene is hope uor to habbe pet me byt. 
Huer-of pe sauter zayp. haue guode hope ine god / and 2. Have good 
he pe wile do pet pou him acsest. And peruore zede he thou askest for. 
ine ane opre stede. * Lord haue merci of me : uor min 
herte hopep ine pe.' Grat hope ous yefp him uor to 
bidde / zuo pet he ne zayde na3t / ine behotingge / po 
he zede ine pe godspelle. * huo pet acsep : he nimp. and 
huo pet zekp : he vint. and huo pet clepep : god him 


Ask wisely, dm- openeb.' bet is to onderstonde / huo bet acseb / wysliche. 

gently, and perse- * * ' J J ' 

veringiy, huo Jet zee]) / diligentliche. and huo Je[t] clepej / 

bleuindeliche. Hua?me Jise J?ri Jinges byej ine hire 

skele. wyt. diligence, and perseuerance : god ham y-herj> 

and God shall hear an haste, wyt : Jet Jou acsi wisliche. Moche uolk 

prayers. acsej / Jet ne bye]? na$t y-herd / uor hi make]) kuead- 

liche hire acsinge. Huerof saint Jacob zayj to Jan Jet 

ne wytej huet hi acsej. ' J)ou acsest ' he zayj ' to god 

Some ask more °^ e / ac na 3^ ne onderua[n]gst.' zome aksej to he^ Jing / 

forThem^rdid more J a ^ne ham behouej / ase dede Je tuaye apostles 

the apostles John sa i n t j on / an d '^\n.t Jacob, bet acsede bet on of ham 

and James, ' * * 

zete ane Je ri3thalf of onre lhorde ine his regne / and 

Je ojer ane his lefthalf. Hi ne acsede na3t wisliche ac 

who were re- rajre hit J^te grat presumcion. And Jeruore he ham 

Lord for their ansurede oure lhord hardliche and ham zede. ' Ye ne 

presumption. W yteJ huet ye acsej.' jpawne huo J?et wile wysliche 

Let no man be bidde god / yef he him lokej uram presumption / ojer 

thrpharts^r 6 J> et he ne wene g reate finges of him-zelue ase dede Je 

[ i /arisen?] farisen 1 Jet yalp ine his benes / and onwor]?ede Jane 

pubblycan. Ac mildeliche me ssel to god bidde / and 

but let Mm pray him-zelue deme beuore god bet yzisb be herten of be 

meekly before ° r J 7r r r 

God. uolke. and wot hare eueles / and hire lackes / and wot 

Take heed to the huet ham is nyed / betere ba?zne ham-zelue conne. Mm 

poor beggars, 

how they exhibit hede to Je poure truons / hou hi ssewej hire eueles / 
order to excite an d nare defautes / uor to maki Jet uolk / to habbe Je 
pity * more reuje of ham. Alsuo me ssel do to-uore god / 

so shall one show mildeliche'ssewyhis lackes / and his zewnes bererecordy / 

meekly before ' r J ' 

God his lacks uor to habbe grace and uoryeuenesse. j)e obre by J bet 

and sins. .... 

other folk pray ne conne a csi bote Jmges libbinde and little / ase bye]) 

for temporal ^ guodeg of ^^ q^ ^ ^ wd gmtter j ingeg 

but God will not yeue. He nele Je yeue pere / ne eppel / ase me deb 

give thee a pear , ., , 

or an apple as one ane cnilde. ac greate Jmges he wile Jet Jou him acsi. 

doth to a child. fingeg fet )e by profitable / tQ helfe of zaule j age 

his grace and his blisse. Yor huo Jet acsej to god 
richesses / worjssipes / l^nesses / ojer dyeaj of his 
yuon : he zent to gode uoule benes. and Jeruore he ne 


hierj his na 3 t. Jperuore zayj zaint austin. ' ISTe onder- He desires us to 

, -, . , , . . „ , . . ask what is pro- 

stand na 3 t he zayj < of god uor greate Jinges / Je guodes fitabie to the 
Jet he yefj / alsuo wel to )>e kueade / ase to Je guode.' Temporal gifts 
he wyle zigge. me ne ssel na 3 t hyealde uor greate Z^Z'lT™ 
Jinges I pe guodes pasinde pet god yef J / alsuo and u P onthe g°° d ' 
more yet to Je kueade : fa/me to p e guode / and Jeruore 
his yeij god to pe wyckede : Jet pe guode lierni to wherefore the 
onworji Jet he yef} to Je kueade / ase zayj> zaynt S^2?ito^y 
austin. < Huarcne Jou bist panne god' / zayj saynt am- them ' 
broyse / ' acsej grat Jing / Jet byej Jo Jet euremo ilestej 
wyj-oute ende / na 3 t Je Jinges pasinde. Vor Je ilke 
bene ne com J na 3 t to gode.' Jjeruore ous tekj oure [Foi.65.b.] 
guode mayster Iesu crist / uo[r] to acsi wysliche. and we must ask ail 

i • ,i i t-t « things in the 

ous ssepj oure acsmge Jo he zede. ' Yef Jou aesest eni name of Jesus. 
Jing to mine uader / ine mine name : he hit Je wile 
yeue.' Yef he hit acsej mid Je name of Iesu cnst / 
Jet acsej Jet behouej l to helje of zaule. Vor Iesu / is Jesus signifies 
asemoche worj : ase helje. And huet Jing ssolle we [ims. bohoveft 
panne acsi : he ous tekj ine his spelle Jo he zede. 
* Yerst ocsej godes riche/and his ri 3 tuolnesse. and alle "Seek first," 
Jise timliche Jinges : Jou sselt habbe to ajutage.' Yor UJSS kingdom 
ase me can zigge / <to Je meste niede : me ssel alneway eousness^&e. 
yerne.' We habbe J niede of tuo Jing. [of gostliche we should yeam 
guodes / and of timliche guodes. Ac wel more nyede gtft, ° *"* 
we habbe J of gostliche guodes. and Jeruore we ssolle for we have more 

x« , t »-iti i.ii -i need of spiritual 

nis uerst and pnncipalliche bidde. and god his wile than of temporal 

ous yeue / and ous wile do auontage of Je ojre guodes / ** ' 

Jet byej Je timliche guodes. We ne ssolle na 3 t maki 

of Je ojre [seconde] guodes principals / ase doj Je 

couaytouse / Jet ne zechej ojer lif / bote Jet / Jet ham 

failej? / and ham ascapej wille hi nolle hi. Ac Je riche 

of heuene is Jet lif eurelestinde : we ssolle bidde be wherefore let us 

pray for life ever- 

ofseruinges of guode workes. And Jet is Jet god zayj. lasting, 

' bidde J uerst godes riche/and his ri 3 tuolnesse.' Jet is/ and power to do 

do guode workes / huerby me may come to Jo riche Jet whereT^one 

neure ne ssel faili. an huo Jus hit bit : god dej him ^skTnVdom. 



auontage of Je timliche guodes. uor he hise him yef J 

to his wone yno3liche. uor na3t ne lackej to ham Jet 

The covetous men louie J god / and drede J / ase zayj Je writinge. Ac Je 

ofthis world are -n , -, i i • i -u-l i_ / t 

never satisfied, couaytouse of Je wordle : Je more pet m nab be]? / Je 
lesse hi habbej. huo Jet mest hej of mayne / and mest 
h.1771 failej 1 of mete, and Jet mest he J hors : mest him 
faylej gromes and stablen. And sain[te] Ierome zayj. 
Jet l to Je wreche faylej : Jet he he J / and Jet he nej.' 
Nou Jench Ja/me huawne Jou woldest bidde god 
and aesi wisliche / and diligentliche / Jet is ententif- 
liche / and perseuerantliche : and he Je wille y[e]ue : 
Jet Je hest niede to Ji profit / an to helje to Jine 

s. Let there be J)e Jridde Jing Jet ssel by ine bene : is deuocion of 

in thy player. ea herte / Jet is to arere Je herte to god / wyj-oute Jo^te 
ine ojre stede. Jjawne oure lhord zayj / 'huawne Jou 

say thy prayer in sselt bidde god / be-tuene Jine tej.' Jet is to zigge / ine 
Jine herte. ssete Je dore ope Je. Jet is to zigge : do out 

and put out an alle* Jo^tes ulessliche / uoule / and wordleliche / and 

thoughts! ° U zuo bid e J me uader of heuene ine halke. Saynt 
cipn'an Jous zayj. Jet alle Jo3tes ulessliche and 
wordleliche me ssel di3te uram Je herte / Jet wyle god 
bidde. zuo Jet his herte ne Jenche to ojre Jinge : bote 
to Jet he ssel bidde. 'hou' zayj 'he / wenst Jou / Jet 

we pray truly £°& f e y-here / huawne Jou ne hierst nat Ji zelue 1 ' 

riS^iS! 1 * ° f And y sidre za ^- ' J> a?me I we bidde > zojliche / huarcne 

we Jenche J nawerelles.' And saint aug^tin zayj. 

what good is it i Huet is hit worj to sterie and to beate al day Je 

to move the lips, t , • i ■• -i « » -i -. . ™ 

while the heart is lippen / nua?^ne Je herte is al domb V zuych difference 
ase Jer is be-tuene Je cheue and Je corn / be-tuene 
The voice of bren and flour of huete / betuene Je uelle and Je beste : 
chaff^d^ran. zuyche difference is betune Je rearde of Je bene / and 
tte\t V r?t?h°e f > e <*euocioun of Je herte. God ne is na 3 t goth 2 to uede 
com and flour of m {^ l eaue s. alsuo Je bene Jet is y-wri3e ine leaues of 
wordes / wyj-oute deuocion of herte / ne likej na3t to 
1 MS. saile\> 2 got ? = goat 



god / ac rajre him mis-pay]) / and him 1 went Jet yeare / [i ms. m*] 
Jet he hit ne yhiere. uor he ne onderstant na3t zuiche [Pol. 66. a.j 
speche. Huo bet bit god wyb-oute deuocion of herte : He who P"ar« 

T ° Jr without devotion, 

he spekb to god patroyllart. ase be ilke bet spekb half addresses God as 

i. i , in , / , ., one that speaketh 

englis and hall urenss. he spekj to god mid mouje : half English and 
ac Je herte spekj ojre speche / huanne he JengJ 
elleshuer. J?awne hit Je JingJ Jet zuych uolk / Jet zuo 
bidde]) god : him scorne]). ase he Jet wile scornj ane Such folk scorn 

j i t i -it God as one 

dyaue : he waggej Je lippen onlepiliche and makej mocks a deaf 

semblont to spekene : and na^t ne zayj. To zuiche to such God 

uolke make]? god Jet dyeaue eare. Ac Je bene pet ^ eth the deaf 

comj / of pe dyepnesse of pe herte : Jo yherj oure 

lhord. Vor ase zayj Jet godspel. ' god is a gost. and 

Jeruore huo Jet wile by yhierd of god : hit him behouej God is a spirit, 

Jet he bidde ine goste / and in zoje.' Dam J ous tekj prayeTtointhe 

to bidde god deuoutliche ine Je sautere / Jo he zede. 8pmt * 

' lhord mj bene bi ydi^t beuore Je : ase Jet stor.' j)et 

stor huawne hit is ope Je uere smel J zuete. alsuo deb Prayer of a fer- 

vent heart is 

Je bene : huarane hi com J of bernide herte of Je loue like the incense 

of god / smeij Wei zuete to-uore god. ojerlaker Je bene 

ne comj na3t beuore god / bote hi come of Je herte. 

ase Je messager Jet none lettres ne brengj / ojer Jet Prayer without 

, , , . , , . , . _ devotion is a mes- 

ne is na3t wel yknawe : ne comj na3t l^thche touore senger without 

Je kinge. bene wyj-oute deuocion / is messagier wyj- ^^L^ com ' 
oute lettres / and wyj-oute knawlechinge. huo Jet 
zuych messager zent to cort : euele ha dej his niedes. 
Vor ase me zayj communliche. huo Jet fol zent : fol 
abyt. Huo Jet wyle Jamie zojliche bidde god : he 
ssel to god grede mid dyepe herte / ase dede dauid Jet Pray to God 
zede ine Je sautere. ' lhord god yhyer mine bene and heart, 
mine rearde Jet ich grede to Je / mid Je dyepnesse of 
herte.' j)e hete of loue : is Je gredinge of herte / Jet 
zayj saynt augwstin. pe ilke rearde and Je ilke gred- 
inge / him likej. na3t rearde uor to telle tales. Saint 
gregorie zaij. Jet zojliche bidde god : is biter zobb- f wtterouu* 
inge of uorjenchinge. Jet is to zigge / of zoi^e / and of %££***" 
14 * 



and not of smooth 

Such pray erdrives 
away the thieves, 
that is, the devils. 

God gave the 
water of tears 
to quench the fire 
(lust) of our 

The peril of sin is 
like the peril of 

and the tempest 
of death. 

We should pray 
God to preserve 
us from 

1. the thieves of 

2. covetousness, 

3. evil thoughts. 

Pray specially to 
God on Sunday in 

[Fol. 66. b.] 

We forsake the 
works of the 
week in order to 
serve God better 
on that day. 
Some pray to be 
seen of men. 

and others pray so 
loud as to dis- 
turb those near 

repentonce of herte / keste to god. na^t wordes afaited 
and y-sliked ueleuold. Zuych gredinge cache]? Je 
Jyeues / Jet bye)? Je dyeulen Jet ous waytej ous to 
robbi. and Jeruore ssolle we ofte 'grede to god / Jet he 
ous loki uram Jo Jieues. Alsuo ssolle we strangliche 
grede to god / Jet he ous loki uram Jo Jyeues. and 
uram Je uer of couaytise / and of lecherie / Jet he ous 
yeue Jet weter of tyeares uor to quenche zuich uer / Jet 
hit ne berne oure herten. Alsuo ssolle we grede aye Je 
foles of euele Jenchinges / Jet ouerguoj ofte Je herte. 
Jet Je herte ne spille be grauntinge. jeruore gredde 
dauij to god ine Je sauter. Jet zede. lhord / y-wyte 
me uram Je peril of weteris / Jet is nie^ y-guo in-to 
mine herte. And Je deciples of oure lhorde Jo hi 
yze3en Je tempeste of Je dyaje ope ham gredden. 
6 Sire / y-wyte ous / uor we spille J.' 

Vor Jo Jri Jinges Jet ich habbe hier y-zed / me 
ssel ofte grede to god / Jet he ous wytie uram Jise Jri 
perils / of Je Jyeues of helle / uram Je uere of 
couaytise. of foles and of kueade Jo3tes / and uram 

Nou sselt Jou conne / Jet ine eche time / and ine 
eche stede : nn^t Jou bidde to god. ac specialliche 
and more deuouteliche me ssel him bidde at cherche / 
Jane zonday / and ine festes Jet biej iset god uor to 
bydde. herie / and worjssipie. and Jeruore me let of 
bodiliche workes of Je woke / uor betere to onder- 
stonde to bidde god. serui / herie / and worssipie. 
Jper byej tuaye manere benes / on Jenchinde ine herte / 
Jet me may oueral bidde. an ojer ine speche of mouje. 
Jet me ssel bidde ine oneste stedes / na3t ine longaynes 
ase doj Je ypocrites / Jet ham sseawej wy[j]-oute / and 
na3t wij-ine. and alsuo Jer biej ojre Jet gredej hare 
benes zuo lhoude Jet Jo Jet byej y-hende / byej 
desstorbed of hare deuocion be ham / and JencheJ 
zuych ich am. And Jeruore to zuichen zayj god. 


Vor-zoJ>e ich zigge to yow : ye habej? onderuonge youre 

mede. Yef god het / zuo straytlic[h]e loki jjane zeter- if a man was 

day / me pe yealSe la 3 e / fet he made, ane man / to LTwontf* 

stene / to-uore al J>e uolke / uor J?et he hedde y- Saturda ^ 

gadered / a lite wode / pane zeterdey. huet ssel he do / 

of pan / pet do]? / greate ze/mes / pane zonday / and what shall be 

ine festes / and wastep pane time in ydelnesse / and ^ml^af ° 

ine folies. and worse dop ine festes : pawne in opre ^ 8 ? ontheSun - 

da3es. Vorzope hi ssolle by more y-pined / and more 

y-damned ine pe opre wordle : parcne geus / pet breken For the Sunday 

hare zeterday. Vor fe zonday is more holy : panne pe STS? to- 

zeterday. ^y- 

Also bjep pe festes principals / pet hjep yzet ine The great festi- 
holy cherche / uor god to bidde / and >onki / serui / ^SmT 
herie / and worpssipie. of pe greate guodnesses pet he God ' 
pehep y-do/ase holy cherche recordep. Ine zuyche christmaa re- 
festes ase at mstesmesse / his beringe / hou he wes y- c^t^h, 
bore / of pe mayde. At yestre / his oparizinge / hou SLtltnXn 
he aros uram dyafe / to Hue. Ate assencion / hou ha ^e* oing ^ 
stea3 to heuene / ine zhpe / of alle his apostles. At Whitsu » tide of 

1 , , -I , the descent of 

lokes / hou he zente fane holy gost : ope his apostles, the Holy Ghost. 

Alsuo per bye]? yzet pe festes of ha^en / ine holy There are the 
cherche / uor to worpssipie / an uor to serui god / and ^ mST^ 
herie / and his ha^en / of pe miracles pet he dede uor observed - 
ham. uor to uestni oure beleaue. And peruore / we 
ssolle pe festes of ha^en loki / and bidde / pet hi ous 
helpe auoreye oure lhord Iesu crost / pet zuo moche his Let us pray that 
worssipej? / ine heuene / and ine erj?e. Jeanne zene3ep forTaod! "* *' 
he wel kueadliche / Jet ne lokep pe festes. Vor he 
dep aye godes heste. and of holy cherche. 

Ac zome nn^te zigge. ' lyeue sire / me ne may na3t some might say, 
alneway bidde god / ne by at cherche. huet kuead is wa/Upraylng^ 
hit / yef ich guo playe. and solaci. per-huile pet ich church"* 
me solaci / an playe : iche ne penche none manne 
kuead. 7 To ban ich wilJe ansuerie listliche. uor al bane aii time not 

, . , , , , . . J r given to God is 

time / pet pou bezest m fole gemenes / in ydelnesse / lost time. 



He loseth a great 
thing that loseth 
his time, 

for he loseth the 
good that he 
might do in that 

[Fol. 67. a.] 

Be occupied in 
good works, for 
timeis short, 
and we know not 
when we shall 

Another may 
say, "If all days 
are to be mass 
days and holy, 
how then should 
we sow, reap, 
mow, &c. ? " 

The answer I 
leave to those 
better able to 
answer it than I. 

When at church 
a man should re- 
member that the 
place is holy. 

It is a house of 

and ine niedes / Jet ne byej na3t i-di^t to god : Jou his 
lyest. Yor Jou sselt ywyte / Jet al Jane time / Jet Jou 
ne Jengst na^t a god : Jou hise sselt rekeni uor na3t. 
Jet zayj an hal^en. Jet is to onderstonde / huawne Jou 
ne Jengst / bote to ydelnesse of Jinge / Jet ne is ydi3t / 
ine none maner to god. And uorzoje he liest grat 
Jing / Jet liest his time / zuo zayj senekes. nor he lyest 
Je guodes Jet he ssolde do / ine zuo moche time / ase he 
lyest ine Je playes / and ine ydelnesse. and Jet ne is 
na3t wy]>-oute zenne / to liese Jane time / in queade 
wones. Yor god wile acsi rekeninge / ate daye of dome. 
Jis zayj saint anselm. And Jeruore me ssel alneway 
wel do / and wel bezette Jane time / ine guode workes / 
ase moche / ase me may / Jer-huile Jet he leuej. uor Je 
time is ssoit / ase zayj Je writinge. ne non ne wot / 
hou longe he hit ssel habbe. uor non ne wot / huaraie 
he ssel sterue / ne huawne he ssel paci. 

An ojer may zigge. ' Yef hit were suo / Jet alle 
da3es ine Je yeare were messeda3es / and y-hote 
hyealde be holy cherche. huo Jamie ssolde erye / and 
zawe. ripe / and mawe. and ojre erjliche workes to 
done / huer-by men ssolle libbe 1 ' Jerne ansuere ich lete 
to ham : Jet betere eonne ansuerie / Jamie ich. Huo 
Jet wyle Jamie loki Je festes / ase he ssel : he him ssel 
loki to done Jing / Jet to gode ne is na3t likinde / ne 
to his ha^en. and wel to bezette Jane time / in god 
to bydde / herie / and Jonki of his guode. y-here his 
sermons / and onderstonde to alle guode workes. Alsuo / 
huaraie at cherche / man him ssel habbe / wel oneste / 
and do worjssipe / an reuerence / to god. and to his 
ha^en / uor Je stede is holy / and is y-zet / to bidde 
god. na3t uor to iangli / uor to lhe33e / ne uorto trufly. 
panne oure sire zayj. ' Min hous / is hous of bene/ and 
Jeruore me ne ssel ojer Jing do / ne zigge : bote Jet 
hueruore hit is y-zet. Jis zayj saynt austin. pe ilke Jet 
ssel come to-uore Je kinge ine his chombre / uor zome 


grace to bidde / he him loki wel to zigge Jing / Jet 

na^t ne liki Je kinge. Wel more he him ssel loki / Je It is God » 8 cham . 

ilke Jet com]? to cherche / Jet is godes chombre / and ^8^^ 

godes hous / to done / and to zigge / to-uore god / and H^oni* wi^ ™ 

to-uore his angles / ))ing Jet him ne liki. God nele is pleasing to 

najt Jet me maki his hous marcat / ne hope / huerout 

he wrek / Jo Je zyalde / and bo^te / ine Je temple, uor 

he nele / Jet me maki uorewerdes / ne noyses / ne 

nyedes seculeres / berinne. ac rabre wile / bet me on- wherefore pray 

J ' r r . devoutly, and 

derstonde / to bidde god deuouteliche / and him herie / thank God for 

' ° ' .' all His gifts to 

and Jonki of al his guode. fiex me ssel wyj>-clepie his thee, 

herte to him / and do al out / alle seculere niedes. 

yemere Jo3tes. and Jenche an his sseppere / and ane and think of His 

his guode guodnesses Jet god him he]? y-do. and him go ° 

dej communliche. recordi his zennes / and his lackes / 

and him-zelue mildi / to-uore god / and bidde uoryeue- 

nesse / and grace / him to loki uram ze/me. and Pray for forgive- 
ness, and for 
bleuinge ine guode Hue / al to Je ende. \)eve ssolle Je grace to live 

greate lhordes / and pe greate Iheuedyes uoryete hare ° J ' 

bhsse / hare mhte. hare dingnete. and hare h^nesse. in church great 

lords and ladies 

and Jenche Jet hi bye J? beuore hare demere / Jet ssel should lay aside 

his zette to skele / of pe guodes J?et he ham het y-do. 

of Jje dingnete / huer he his hep y-zet. hou hi hit 

habbef y-used. and ham ssel yelde be hare ofgoinge. 

Jjeruore hi ssollen J?er / ham moche mildi to god / na3t 

glorifie hare he^nesse / ne of hare uayre di3tiwge / ne of 

hare uayre robes / to pe uorbysne of kinge dauij> / Jet and, like David, 

hedde uoryete his dingnete / Jo he bed god / and on- 8elves ^ton 

worjede him-zelue / touore him. ' Ich am' he zede ' a lite 

werm / and no man.' and ine Jet / he bekneu / his 

Jolemodnesse. his pourehede / and his uoulhede. Vor Man ^j 8 like a 

ase Je werm is uoul / and lite / Jing onwor J / and wext 

al naked / of Je erje / al-suo is man / uoul Jing of 

him-zelue. uor hua^ne he yede / in-to Je exil of Jise naked and worth- 
wordle : na3t he ne bro3te : ne na3t ne ssel bere away. 

al naked he com : and al naked he ssel guo. Jeanne CFoi. 67. t>j 



filth, a sack full 
of dung, and 
meat for worms. 

Great ladies 
should take pat- 
tern by Queen 

and should leave 
their fine robes 
at home. 

God is disgusted 
with those who 
rejoice in these 
things, and desire 
to please fools. 

God is pleased 
with a mild 
heart and a pure 

Women should 
come to church 
with clean cloth- 
ing and not 
dressed above 
their station. 

They should be 
meek and shame- 

They should not 
be too busy about 
decking their 
heads with gold 
and silver, 
for at church 

saint bernard zayp. ' huet is man / bote uelpe / and a 
zech uol of donge / wermene metef He is wel uoul an 
stinkinde zed ine pe byetinge. * a zech uol of donge ine 
his Hue. mete to wermes / ine his dyape. Alsuo pe 
greate 2 lheuedyes / pet come]? zuo idi^t mid gold / mid 
zeluer / mid stones of pns / and mid robes of grat cost / 
to cherche be-uore god / hy ssolden nime uorbisne of 
pe quen hester / pet dede of hire coustouse robes / and 
hire opre agraipinges / parme hi com to cherche / to 
bidde god / and hire to lo^y / and bekneu hare poure- 
hede to-uore god / and zayde to god. 4 lhord pou wost 
pet ich hatie pe toknen of prede / and pe blisse of 
agraypinges / and of ioyaus / pet me behouep do / ope 
mine heauede ine grat wlatiynge.' Vorzope / and zuo 
hep god grat wlatiynge / to ham / pet ine pise pinges 
habbep blisse / and ham agraypep / ham uor to ssewy / 
and to paye pe foles. God ne hep na^t to done mid 
zuyche payinges / ine his cherche. ac of milde herte / 
and of clene inwyt. Zainte pauel tekp ri^t wel / hou 
pe guode wyfmen / ham ssolle agraypi / huanne hi 
comep to cherche / to bidde god. He zayp pet hi ssolle 
habbe clenliche clopinge / wyp-oute to moche. pet is to 
onderstonde : be pan pet pe wyfman is. Vor pet / pet 
is to moche ine one wyfman / ne is na^t to moche ine 
anopre. More behouep to ane kuene / panne behouep 
to ane borgayse / oper to ane simple wyfman. Efter- 
ward he tekp / huiche byep of simple zi3pe. pet is to 
zigge / milde / and ssamueste / na}t pe bolde / ne pe 
na3t ssamueste / ase byep pe fole wyfmen / pet guop 
mid stondinde nhicke 3 / ase hert ine launde / and 
lokep azide / ase hors of grat cost. Efterward / he 
nele na^t pet hi bi to bysi / of hare heaueden to agraypi 
mid gold / and mid zeluer / and mid preciouse stones. 
And he wile yet eft / pet at cherche / pet hi habbe / 

1 For l beyetinge.' 2 MS. gretate. 

3 MS. reads nihcke 


hare heaueden y-wre^e / zuo bot non ne bi ine kuede their heads should 

, i -i • ** covered. 

pontes uor nam. and pet hi ne yeue none enchesoun / 

to penche quead / to ham / Jet hise ysyep. Ac hi 

ssollen bi ydi3t l ase he zayp / ase guode wyfmen / pet [i ms. yam 

sseawep pe guodnesse of hare herten / be guode dedes / 

and peruore zayp saynt Ambroyse. ' Huo pet wyle by He wh <> a^res 

1 , . , . , , 1 his prayers to 

ynerd me nis benes : he ssel do away uram him / alle be heard, must 
toknen of prede / and he ssel bou$e to god / be zope tokenlS pride. 
bo3samnesse / uor to sterie god to merci.' Vor ase he 
zayp. ' prouduol clopinge / ne wynp na3t of god. ac yefp 
encheisoun / euele to deme / of pan oper of hire: pet hit 

ISTou ich pe habbe y-ssewed / pri ping / pet ssol by 
ine bene, beleaue. hope, and deuocioun. Ac to pan pet Two wings are 
pe bene / by parfitliche licuol to gode / and worpi to JE^T 
bi y-herd : hit behouep / pet nerpe ping, pet is pet him God ' 
behouep / tuo wyngen / pet hit bere touore god. J?ise 
tuo wyngen / byep : uestinge / and elmesse. Jperuore / They are fasting 
pe angle zayde to tobye. pe bene is guod : huawne hi wft^rthese it 
hep mid hire / elmesse / and uestinge. and wyp-oute God.™* fly t0 
pise tuo pinges : bene ne may na3t / vly to gode. ac 
zeraie amerp and him wipdra3p ayen. peruore pou sselt 
y-wyte / pet ine tuo maneres is bene amerd / ase zayp 
ysaye. Vor pet me ne let na*t euele to done. And 
peruore / pet me nele uoryeue / his misdedes / ne his in prayer there 
euele ywyl. Vor alsuo ase pe smeryeles / ne is na3t worp / wm ITthTheart. 
to hele pe wonde / ne non oper ping / per-huile pet / pet 
yzen is perinne : alsuo hit ne is na3t worp /ne na3t ne pro- 
ntep pe bene / to him pet hit zayp ; per huile pet he is / 
ine dyadlich zerme. ne ase longe ase he hep / quednesse 
ine his herte. And peruore zayp pe profete. < Arere we Therefore saith 
oure herten / and oure honden to god / pet ophebbep 2£E*!?S^ 
oure benes be guode workes.' And pe apostel tekp / hanStoGoTthat 
pet me arere / clene honden ine bene, be clene u P heaveth our 

i t , , , , , ' prayers by good 

nonden / pet byep pe clene benen / bet byeb y-do ine ™**" 

i . , , T a i , The cIe »n hands 

clene mwyt. Vor God ne yherp na3t pe bene / pet are tne <*ean 

r prayers. 



God will not 
listen to prayers 
from a filthy 
soul, that is, from 
those with bloody 

They have bloody 
hands who ill-use 
the poor. 

They eat bloody 
morsels, for 
which they shall 
pay hard scot 
in the other • 

He who will be 
heard, must not 
come before God 

but must bear a 
present of good 

We read in the 
gospel that the 
gate was shut 
against those 
maidens whose 
lamps were 

God hears those 
that have their 
lamps full of 

that is, whose 
hearts are full of 

Prayer thus 

comp of inwyt uol of uelpe / and of zeraie. J>awne he 
zayp be pe profete. < Hua^ne pe multepliest pine benes : 
ich nelle none y-here. uor pine honden byep al blody.' 
Huo byep po / pet habbep pe honden blodi : bote po / 
pet be-nleap pe poure uolk / pet byep onder ham / and 
benimep ham hire guodes be strengpe 1 Hy habbep hare 
honden al uol of blode / of pe poure. uor hi benimep 
ham hare lyf / and hare sostinonee /be hare couaytise 
and be hire roberie. and makep pe greate to mochel- 
hedes / and etep pe blodi snoden. Huerof hi ssolle 
paye hard scot / ine pe opre wordle / bote pe writinge 
ne lye^e / pet zayp. pet god wyle acsi / pet blod of pe 
poure : of hare honden. ftarane hit behouep pet hi 
yelde : oper pet hi hongi. Yor ase me zayp : ' oper yelde : 
oper hongi.' And peruore god ne yhyerp na3t zuich 
uolk / uor hi ne byep na^t worpi. Huo pet wyle paraie 
by yherd : ne come na^t beuore god / mid zuorde 
adra3e / and mid blodi honden / ne ydel honden. pet is 
to zigge : in wyl to zene3i / ne mid lac of ontreupe / ne 
ydel of guode workes. uor pus zayp oure lhord ine his 
spelle. ' pou ne sselt na3t sseawy pe / beuore me : ydel- 
honded.' pe ilke comp to-uore god / mid ydele honden : 
pet comp him to bidde / wyp-oute makiynge of presont 
to god / of guode workes. uor ayens pan / ha sset his 
gate : pet him bit / and na3t ne brengp. Of pisen we 
habbep ane uorbisne / ine pe godspelle / pet zayp. pet 
pe gate was y-sset / aye pe fole maydines / pet hedden 
hare lompen ydel. and god ham zede. < ich ne knawe you 
na3t/ pet is to zigge : < ich not huo ye byep.' Vor god ne 
knaup bote po : pet him trewliche seruep / pet habbep 
hare lompen uol of oyle : ase hedden pe wyse maydenes. 
pet is to zigge : pet habbep hare herten uol of pite / and 
hit ssewep be guode dedes. Zuich uolk he y-herp / and 
to zuiche uolk he openep his gates / uor he onderuangp / 
blepeliche hare benes. 

iSTou ich zigge parane / pet bene pet is yssored mid / 

Amalek by 


pise uour poss[t]es / ase ich habbe beuore yzed : ys wel scored with 

. . , ill, these four posts 

m^tuol be-uore god. uor he ssel habbe ly^tliche of him / al is powerful before 

pet he hep niede / by hit to pe bodie / by hit to pe zaule / God ' 

ase-wytnessep pe writiwges. panne saint Iacob zayp. pet The prayer of a 

mochel is worp bene of guodman. uorhiis worp uor to hele to heanhVsick* 

pe zike / of bodie / and of zaule. Huerof him-zelf zede. ££* aonl ^ 

yef he is ine zeraie : hit ssel him by uory[e]ue. pe 

writinge zayp. pet Moyses ouercom amalec / and al his Moses c 

ost / na3t be n^t : ac be his holy biddinges. uor ase 

zayp an holy man. more is worp an hal^en / and may 

biddinde : pane uele pousond of zene^eres : ui^tinde. , [Foi. 68. b.] 

pe bene of a gnod man / openep pe heuene. hou ssolde The prayer of a 

he/boteouereomepewyckedeineerpe. Aguodaldwyf/ f^ e ™ anopeneth 

porchacej) more of henene / ine one-lepi oure biddinde : 

pawne ssolde do / a pouzond kny3tes / of pe londe in lang 

time / be hare armes. And peraore hit is guod / to zeche wherefore it is 

J>e benes of guodemen. and specialliche of men of re- prayers of good 

ligion / pet bye]> to-gydere / god nor to semi / and uor mea * 

to bidde uor ham / pet do]) haw guod. Vor yef pe bene 

of ane guode mawne / is moche worp be-uore god / ase The prayers of 

zayj? pe writinge : more is worp / and may : pe bene / eK^thi^the 

of uele guode. Yor ase zayj) an ha^en. Hit ne may 1 ^ notone 

na3t by'/ J>et pe bene of uele guode men : ne is y-herd. 

pe benes of a couent / byej) rapre yherd of pe abbotte : The prayers of a 

„ convent to the 

parcne pe bene 01 one moneke* alsuo yherj) god rajjre pe abbot are sooner 

benes of pan pet byep to-gidere him uor to serui. panne prayer of one e 

he zayj) ine his spelle. < yef tuo of ous / one}) ham to- monk * 
-gidere / me uor to bidde : Al J)et hi bidde J) / mine 
uader : [he] ham wile do.' 

JjE ZEUE BO3ES/ OF CHASTET&. The seven boughs 

of chastity. 

Nou ich habbe yzed be zeue stapes / huer-by clif b / Th ® seven 

r ' boughsofchastity, 

and wext / and pnmtep / Jjet trau of u/rtue / and of are seven states 

cha[s]tete. Nou behouej? to zigge / of pe bo3es / of worid" m 
pise trawe / pet bye}) zeuen. be pe zeue states / of pe 
stapes of uolke / J)et byej) ine pise wordle. 



The first state is 
of those that are 
whole of body, 
and have well 
kept their maid- 

In marriage one 
shall observe 
chastity of heart 
and of body. 
ChildreD should 
have good 

lest they be mar- 
red by foolish 

Children should 
be chastened and 
taught while 
young to practise 
good manners. 

Such form as the 
shoe takes at 
first it evermore 

The other state 
is of them that 
have lost their 

[l So in MS.] 

[Fol. 69. a.] 

Even in this 
state chastity 
should be ob- 
served by having 
a fast purpose 
to abstain from 
and the flesh 

pe uerste stat / is of Jan Jet bye J? yhole of bodie / and 
habbej wel yloked hire maydenbod. Ac alneway / bi 
ne bye]) na3t y-bounde Jerto / Jet hi ne bi ine mariage. 
Ine Jet stat / me ssel loki cbastete / Jet is clennesse ,of 
herte / and of bodie. jeruore Je children of riche men / 
ssolle habbe guode lokeres / and oneste / Jet hi by 
be-zide ham / and Jet hi bi diligent ham wel to teche / 
and loki uram zemie / and uram kueade ue^rede. 
Yor Je fole uela3redes / amerrej ofte children, and hare 
te[c]hinge. Jet kueade uolk / Je wordes of kueadnesse / 
of ribandie / Je fole takinges / and inhoneste ine zenne 
of lecherie. and ojerhuil of Jo lecherie / Jet is aye 
kende. Jperof anojre time we habbej yspeke ine Je 
chapitle of uices. an Jeruore hit ne behouej na3t to 
reherci. nor Je ilke kende ne is na^t uayr. And Jeruore 
me ssel Je children chasti / and wel teche / and bi bezide 
ham Jerhuile Jet hi byej yonge. And wonye his to 
hyealde Je guode teehinges. Yor ase zayj Salomon. ' Jet 
child lyernej ine his ye3eje : he hit wyle healde ine his 
elde.' And Je filozofe zayj. ' Hit ne is na3t lite Jing / to 
wonie guod / ojer kuead / ine his ye3eje.' Yor ase me 
zayj. ' Huo Jet tekj colte endaunture : hyalde hit wyle 
Jerhuyle hit ilest.' Zuiche fourme ase Je sso takj ate 
ginnynge : he halt euremor ine Jet stat. J^araie hej 
chastete nyede of guode lokinge. uor ojerlaker hy ssel 
zone by uorlore. 

j)e ojer stat is of ham Jet biej na3t clene of bodie / 
and habbej hare chastete uorlore / and hare maydenhod / 
er Jan hy weren euerte l ymarissed / ne y-bounde mid 
bende. huo may ham wyjnyme uorte bi y-marissed. and 
alneway hy byej y-ssriue and uorjenchinde of hare 
ze^nes. Ine Jo stat me ssel loki chastete. Yor huo Jet 
is ine Jet stat : he ssel habbe uest porpos / and wyl / 
Jet neure mor ne ssel ayen yerne to Je zeraie of his 
bodye. ac rajre he him ssel loki be his mijte. wyj-oute 
Jet / Jet he him mo e marissi yef he wyle. And huo 


Jet wyle ine Jet stat loki his chastete : hit behouej bet should be render- 

he defouly and chasti his uless be hardnesse of uest- severity of fast- 

/ii ••-,.! n , • ing, and by pen- 

mges / and be penonces. pis is Je ojer 003 of Jise anC es. 

j)e Jridde is of ham Jet byej y-bounde be mariage. The third state 
ine Jo stat me ssel loki chastete / out-ynome Je dede of those bound by 

spoushod. Vor hi ssolle loki hare bodi Je on to Je Jre T^shouid 

klenliche and treweliehe / wyj-oute do onri3t : Je on to ^^Jt^ 

pe op ren. and Jet acsej pe la 3 e of spoushod. Jet pe on ^tdsTheother. 

bere to pe o Jren la 3 e and tre wje of his bodie. Vor For man and 

Jerhuyle Jet hy byej y-uestned to-gidere be spoushod by marriage are 

pe on to pe ojre / hi byej o body / ase zayj pe writinge. ° ne ody ' 
and Jeruore ssel pe on louye pe ojren / ase him-zelue. 

Vor ase hi byej on body, hi ssolle by on herte be wherefore they 

trewe-loue / ne nawmore ham to-dele / be herte ne be ueart tyfruT 

bodie Jerhuile Jet hi libbej. jeruore hi ssolle loki hare love * 

bodyes clene. and chastliche out-ynome pe dede of wives shall love 

spoushod. and Jeruore zayj zay[n]te paul. Jet pe wyues be chaste and* 

ssolle louie hare lhordes / and worssipie. and deuoute- sober * 

liche by chast and sobre. chaste to loki hare body uram chaste in their 

,. o i ni -1 • . i« bodies and sober 

ojren Jamie 01 nare lnordes. sobre ine mete and me in meat and in 

drinke. uor to moche drinke / and to moche ethe : 6xbA ' 

is grat ah^tiwge to pe uere of lecherie. Alsuo ssel The man shall 

Je man loki his body clenliche Jet he ne yeue hit to other women. 

na 3 t to ojre wyfmen / bote to his. Spoushod is a 

stat Jet me ssel wel klenliche / and wel holylyche Marriage is a 

loki uor manie skeles. uor hit is a stat of greate authority^ 

autorite. uor god hit made ine paradis terestre ine be and was ordained 

in Paradise, 

stat of cle?znesse. erjan man hedde y-zene3ed. And 
Jeruore me ssel hit holyliche loki / uor Jane skele 
Jet god hit made / and uor Jane stede huer hit wes 

ymad. Efterward / hit is a stat of greate dignete. it is a state of 

uor godwolde by bore of wyfman yspoused. Jeruore Je ^ matd ^ mt y* 

mayde marie made of spoushod hire mentel : hueronder For God was bom 

wolde by godes zone bi y-cowceyued / and y-bore. Under womanT™ 86 
Jo mentle wes y-hole uram Je dyeule / Je pnuite / and 


Under her mantle be red of oure scele / and of oure helbe. beruore banne 

was the secret 

of the soul's help me ssel hit worjjssipie and clenliche loki. Efter ]?et me 

hidden from the 

devil. ssel hit loki holyliche / uor his holynesse. 1 uor hit is on of 

it is a holy state, pe sacremens of holy cherche. and betokneb be spoushod 

being one of the 

sacraments ,• )?et is be-tuene holy cherche : and Iesu cmt and betuene 
so what was before god / and pe zaule. j)a>nne Jet stat of spoushod is zuo 

cLGEicilv sin be - 

came no sin in h°ty an( l suo honeste : J>et pe dede Jet wes dyadlich zeraie 
marriage. ou £ £ gpoughod j f s wyjj-oute zenne ine spoushod. and 

na3 onlepiliche wyjoute zenne : ac hit mai by to merite 
He hath great uor to wynne Jet lif wyJ?-oute ende. And J)ou sselt 
doSiedTOdof' T^J^ P G ^> ine J)ri cas me may do pe dede of spoushod 
marriage without ^j^^e zeraie. and he maihabbe grat merite ase to pe 

The deed of ]>e uerste cas is huawne me dej) pe ilke dede ine 

be°siniesTfirst ay wylle uor to habbe child to serui god. uor ine zuiche 
to^egeTchlidren 8 onderstondinge wes uerst spoushod yzet. j)e ofer cas 
to serve God. j g . \ m?inrie j, e on y e ^ ^ J?e ojre his dette / panne he 

the one yieideth hit akse]). and Jerto ssel sterie dom : J?et yelt to echen 
d ebtwhenhe 1S hi s T ty> huanne he hit akse]) and bit be moufe / oferbe 
asketh it. tokne ase dojj pe wyfmen J)et bye]) ssamuest zuich ping 

[Fol. 69. b.] , , .,, , , , . _ , _ . 

uor to acsi. pe like Jet uorzakj? fane oprene ]?et acsef : 

The one hath a] zene^GJ). 2 uor he dej) him wrang of his 03ene Jringe. uor 

body oTthe 6 P G on ne ] ) r ^ ine pe bodie of pe oJ?re. Ac he Jet acse]) 

other. jj e ^. -^q sse i : Re dej? wel and ari3t. hua/me he hit de]? ine 

po onderstondinge he ofseruej? auoreye gode. uor ri^t 

Thirdly, when it him di3t Jerto / and na3t lecherie. j)e pridde cas is 

away lechery from huaraie me hit acse]) his wyue of po dede / uor to loki 

hipe uram zenne. nameliche huawne he yzi3J? pet hi is 

zuo ssamuest / J?et hi nolde neuremo acsi hare lhorde of 

zuiche Jjinnge. and ylef J) pet hi ssolde ualle blepeliche 

in-to zenne / oper li3tliche bote yef me hire ne acsede. 

in this there is ^uo J 3 ^ i ne J 30 onderstondinge / yelt / oper acse]) zuiche 

merit bUt "^ dette : he ne zene 3[ e J>] na 3* / a ° rapre ofserue]) auoreye 

god. uor pite him stere]) pet to done. Ine J>ise ])ri cas / 

ne is no zenne ine pe dede of spoushod. 

1 MS. lolynesse * MS. zeneie> 


Ac ine obre cas me may zenen / ober lhtliche / ober On the other 

j jv -U j • ir / . V- u ' • hand.onemay 

dyadliene. and specialliche me pri cas. pe uerste is. sin in three 

huanne me ne zekp ine zuich dede : bote pe lecherie and Tne f[ rst i8 when 

his lost, and ine po cas me may zene3i / li3tliche / and ™ satisfy histe/ 

deadliche. Li3[t]liche / huanne pe lost ne pasep na3t 

pe markes / ne pe zetnesses of spoushod. pet is to zigge / 

huanne be lost is zuo y-led mid scele / bet be ilke bet is The sin is venial 

r J . if it is temperate, 

ine pet stat nolde na3t pet ping do : bote ine his wyue. 
Ac huanne pe lecherie and pe lost is zuo grat ine his wyue 
bet scele is y-blent / and ase moche wolde do he ine otherwise it is 

r . deadly. 

hire : pa3 hy nere na3t his wyf : ine pet cas is pe like 

zenne dyadlich. uor zuich lecherie gep ouer pe markes of 

spoushod. huerof god him wrepep ofte to zuiche uolke / with such sin 

and yefp operhuil grat m^te to pe dyeule ham uor to ly wrath™ 66 mg " 

slea / ase me zayp of saren l raguelis do3ter / pet wes C 1 wr«« f] 

yonge tobies wyf. pet hedde y-het zeue housboundes / 

pet alle were y-sla3e of pe dyeule : pe uerste m^t pet hi 

wolden ligge by hire. Jperuore pe angel zayde to tobyen 

bet hise ssolde habbe to wyue. ' Ich pe wyle zigge ' he The devil hath 

* . power over those 

zayde / ' ine huet uolc pe dyeuel hep my3te / ine pan pet who give them- 

, i; ,/»t ij/t/»i selves up to their 

dop out god / zuo out 01 hare harten / and ot hare i^ts, 

p03tes. pet ne yeuep ham na3t / bote to hare lecherie to 

uoluelle / ase an hors deb. ober a mule.' and beruore ham as a horse or a 

1 . . mule - 

benimp god operhuil hare frut / zuo pet hi ne mo3en 

habbe no child. Yet hi mo3e zene3i dyadliche ine 

anopre manire. })et is to wytene / huanne pe on dep 

aye kende / and operlaker panne kende of man acsep / 

ne la3e of mariage acsep / ne oueryernp. zuich uolk 

zene3ep more gratliche / panne opre beuore yzed. Ac Those that in 

bo bet in hare spoushod lokeb be drede of oure Ihorde / the fear of our 

r s s * ' Lord, please God. 

and lokep klene hare spoushod ase hit is yset. zuych 
uolk payep god. 

j)e oper cas huer me may zene3y be spoushod / is T^ e . ot J er oase of 
huanne man geb to his wyue ine time bet he ne ssolde hood " is when a 

° J ° * man goeth to his 

na^t guo. bet is huanne hi is ine be ziknesse bet wyf- wife in a time 

J . s r J that he should 

men habbep communliche. zuo pet he his na^t ne sparep not go. 



God hath forbid- 
den this improper 
for in such state 
are oft begotten 
the crooked, 
blind, lepers, 
deaf, dumb, &c. 

[Fol. 70. a.] 

Also they shall 
abstain from the 
deed in holy 
times such, as in 
great and solemn 

and in times of 
fasting appoint- 
ed by the church. 


Also when the 
woman lieth in 
childbed, or is 
near her time. 

Kings, earls, and 
barons, have at 
such times their 
chambers to them- 

or they go to 
their castles, 
and therefore 
they have such 
fair children. 

The elephant 
will not dwell 
with his wife 
while she is with 

huawne he wot Jet hi is in zuich stat. zene^ej) gratliche 
and uor Jan Jet god uorbyet / Jet man ne habbe uela3~ 
rede mid his wyue. ine zuich stat / and uor Je peril of 
his children. Vor ase zayj saint gregorie. ine zuych 
stat byej ofte beyete Je crokede / Je blynde / and Je 
mezels. Je dyaue / Je doumbe / Je ssornede l / Je scallede. 
and men and wyfmen Jet habbe]> of ere zyknesses in hare 
bodie Jawne hi come]) to manhod ase goutes / and beles. 
and ojre ssrewede eueles. J)eruore Je wifman ssel wel 
zigge to hire lhorde huawne hi ys ine zuych stat / Jet he 
abyde. and hi alsuo abyde : Jerhuile hi is ine Je ylke 
stat. Alsuo hi ssollen to-gidere spari uram Je dede of 
spoushod : ine holy times / ase ine greate festes and 
solemnes / to yeue ham-zelue Je betere god uor to serui. 
Alsuo in times of uestinge of holy cherche hi ssolle abide 
mid Jo dede. na^t uorjan Jet hit by zewne zuych Jing 
to done ine zuiche time, and ine zuiche onderstondinge 
me may hit do. Ac ojerhuil hit is Jet me ssel abide / 
Jet me mo3e hit do wyj-oute ze^ne: uor betere 2 to habbe 
of god Jet me him bit / ase zayj saynt austin. Alsuo ine 
time Jet Je wyfman lyj a chi[l]dbedde / ojer nyej uor 
to childi. he ssel him loki uram Je dede of spoushod / 
uor onestete / and uor peril Jet nnjte by. jeruore Jise 
kinges / erles / barouns / and ojre lhordes habbej hare 
chambren be ham-zelue uram hare wyues ine zuiche 
time, ojer hi wendej to yzy hare kasteles / ojer hare 
ojre stedes. and Jeruore hi habbej zuo uayre children 
and zuo cliene 3 of bodye. Me uint ine Je boc Jet spekj 
of kende of bestes. Jet Je elifans nele na3t wonye mid 
his wyue : Jerhuyle Jet hi is mid childe. and man be 
scele ssel bi more antempred Jamie a best, and Jeruore he 
ssel more him-zelue ine Jo stat Jolye / and ine Jo time. 
Ac alnewey / ich ne zigge na3t Jet yef he dej Je dede 
of spoushod ine Jo time be guode cause / and ine guode 
onderstondinge / huerof god is demere yef hit is zeraie. 
1 Looks like ssorued in MS. 3 MS. chene 


l)e pridde cas is / liuerine mo may kueadliche zene3i The third case is 

v- 11--1T.1 •-,-, , when the deed is 

me nis spoushod : is. me holy stede. uor me holy stedes done in holy 

ase ine cherchen pet hye> apropred uor god to bidde and ^fare set apart 

hym seruy. me ne ssel na 3 t do pe dede of spoushod uor £ r d the 8erviceof 

worpssipe of pe stede. And huo pet ine zuyche stede 

ne lokep him na 3 t po dede uor to do : he zene 3 ep uor pe 

scele of pe stede pet godes uiess and his blod byep 

y-sacred inne. uor zuieh ping mai by ze?me in one stede / 

and ine one time: pet ne is no zeraie ine opre. j)e l uerpe [i Ms.j*>r] 

stat is of ham pet habbep yby ine spoushod : ac dyap 

hep to-deld pe on uram pe opere. And pe ilke pet is 

ybleued ine lyue he ssel him loki chastliche ase longe chastity shall 

ase he is ine pe stat of wodewehod. pet is a stat pet wi£^£ ln 

zaynte paul prayzep moche /pet zayp to wodewon. 'huo 

pet guod is : he him hyealde ine pet stat. and yef hit 

him na 3 t ne lykep : he him wyui. Vor betere and it is better to 

more holy ping is to wyui : parme him-zelue heme.' J?e p^ 7 

ilke bernp / pet to zewne grauntep. Yor he zet his He burnetii that 

herte be wylle and be wilninge to pe uere of lecherie. consent8to sin - 

Ac more liit were worp him to wyui / pa/me himzelue They who are 

of zuiche uere uorberne. and pet is to onderstonde of ^remain widows 

ham pet byeb ine be stat of simple wodewehod. nast of ca .™ ot "^"J 

T J r r x ' without deadly 

pan }?et byep ine pet stat y-bounde be heste pet ne mo 3 e sin - 

na 3 t ham spousy / wyp-oute deadlich ze/me / efter pe [Foi. 70. b.] 

beheste. Ac alneway yef pe beheste is simple / pet is if the behest is a 

to zigge / huawne hi is do pn ueliehe / and wyp-oute / its violation 

solemnete. pa 3 hit by zuo pet ha zene 3 i dyadliche / pet an ™ an 8 pen " 

efter zuych ane beheste him spousep : alneway he may 

bleue ine his spoushod / yef per ne is now oper destorb- 

inge. Ac he ssel do penonee / uor pe beheste. Ac 

hua^ne pe beheste is solempne / ase be hand of prelat / if the behest be 

, nil i/ solemn, as by the 

oper be profession 01 religion, oper be holy ordre / pet handofapre- 
me hep onderuonge / ase sudyakne / oper dyakne / oper a e ' 
prest. j)anne po 2 spoushod ne is na 3 t. ac rapre hit be- N *] 

, . the sin is deadly, 

houep / to dele po / pet me zuiche manyre / comep to- and the marriage 

gidere / uor hi ne mo 3 e na 3 t by soued ine zuych stat. solved. 



The turtle dove 
teacheth us to 
keep the state of 

Three things 
belong to this 

1. The fellowship 
of suspected per- 
sons should he 

St Paul reproves 
young widows for 
being idle, 

and fond of 
gossiping in 
the houses of 

2. God should be 
devoutly served, 

as one readeth 
of Anna, the 
good widow who 
served God in the 
temple day and 

3. Sharpness of 
meats by which 
lust may be 

The heart is 
drowned in the 
water of lusts of 
this world. 

The clothing of 
widows should 
be humble. 

They should 
imitate the ex- 
ample of Judith, 

To loki Jet stat of wodewehod / me ssel sterie Je 
uorbisne of Je turle. Vor ase zayj Je boc / of kende 
of bestes. efter Jet Je turle hej ylore bare make : bi ne 
ssel neuremo / babbe ueb^rede / mid ojren. ac alneway 
bi is one / and be-uly3t / Je ue^rede of ojjren. 

Jpri Jinges belo^ge]? moebe / to bam Jet bye]? ine Je 
stat / of wodewehod. J)e uerste is him-zelue kepe / and 
pWueliche bi ine his bouse. na3t uor to uo^y Je 
uelajredes suspiciouses. fterof we habbej uorbisne of 
Iudit / Jet wes wodewe / and hi wes a uayr wyfman / 
of huam me ret ine Je writinge. Jet hi hild hare ine 
hare boure be-sset mid hare maydenes. Huerof zaynte 
pauel wyj-nimj Je yonge wyfmen wodewen / Jet were 
ydele / and bysye to guorcne / an to comene / ganglinde / 
and to moche spekinde. ac bisset hy ssollen by ine hare 
house / and yeue ham guode workes to done / ase 
saynte paul tekj. 

j)e ojer Jing is / yeue ham to bidde god. and bleje- 
liche bi at cberche ine deuocion / and ine tyares / ase me 
ret ine Je godspelle of saint luc. Jet Je ilke guode 
wodewe / Jet hette anne / Jet hy ne to-delde hire na^t / 
uram Je temple, and seruede god ni3t / and day. ine 
benes and ine uestinges. 

j)e Jridde Jing is / ssarpnes of metes. Yor ase zayj 
saint bernard. Jys spilj ine lostes. alsuo ase he spilj ine 
Je wetere / Jet zuo longe he may by Jer onder : Jet he 
lyest Jet lif. Non ne may habbe bis heaued. Jet is his 
herte / longe ine Je wetere / of lostes of Jise wordle / 
Jet he ne ssel lyese Jet lyf / Jet is Je grace of Je holy 
gost. be huam Je zaule leuej ine god. To Jo stat 
belongej : ase lo3e clojinge. na3t proud / ne bisiuol / to 
Je uorbisne of iudit. Jet let hire uayre robes / and hare 
riche agrayjinge's / Jo hire lhord wes dyad, and nom 
clojinge of wodewehod / onworj / and I03 / and more 
wes tocne of wepinge / and of zo^e : Jarcne of goye. and 
of ydele blissa J^eraore Jet hi ledde chastete / and hi 


hit wolde loki al hare lif. Hy hire ssredde mid Je who clothed her- 
here / and ueste eche daye. and hi wes uayr / and fasted* eLh day. 
yong / riche / and wys / ac guodnesse of herte / and 
loue of chastete : hit hire dede do. And Jus ssel libbe : 
Jet wyle loki chastete ine Jo stat. Jjis is Je uerje bo$ 
of Jise trawe. 

j)E VIFTE BO3 OF CHASTET&. The fifth bough 

of chastity. 

j)e uyfte boa of be trawe of chastete : is maydenhod. The fifth ^ugh 

■,./». of the tree of 

and Jet is Je uitte stat / of ham Jet lokej / and habbe J chastity is 
alneway lokmge / and bye]) alneway ine wylle / to loki (^ngiTiife). 
al hare lyf / hare bodyes yholliche / wyj-oute enye cor- [Fo1 ' 71 " a " 3 
rupcion / uor Je loue of god. J^is stat is moche to This state is 
alowe / uor his dingnete / uor his uayrhede / and uor ™rat S ed°forits 
his guodnesse. Vor his dignete : uor Jet stat make)? S t !' g 2;. 
Jane Jet hit wel lokej / anlyke to Je angles of heuene / For its dignity- 
ase ziggej Je nai^en. Ac Jos moche habbe J Je may dines state are like to 
more Jawne Je angles, uor Je angles libbe]) wyjoute theangels> 
ulesse : ac Je maydines habbej) ouercominge of hare 
ulesse. and hit is grat wonder Jet hi lokej) zuich ane 
fieblene castel / ase hare fyeble body / aye zuych ane 
strangne uend / ase is Je dyeuel of helle / pet alneway The devil is ai- 

, • / i i i . , ways trying to 

zee]) gmnes / nuerby he may nime ]?ane castel uor to take the castle 
robbi Jjet tresor of maidenhod. J)et is Jet tresor / ^urTolma'd- 
huerof oure lhord / spekj ine his spelle / Jo he zede. enkood - 
Jet ' Je kingriche of heueue / is anlycned / to Je tresor / Christ speaks of 
Jet is y-hed / ine Je uelde.' Jet trezor y-hed ine Je of the fieidf aSUre 
uelde : is maydenhod y-hed ine bodie / bet is ase a The field is the 

/ t / • i / body, which 

ueld / Jet me ssel erye / mid penonce / and zawe mid should be eared 
guode workes. }?et trezor is anlikned / to Je kingriche Tnd sowTwUh 
of heu[e]ne / uor Jet lif of maydines / is anlykned to Je g works - 
Hue of heuene / Jet is Jet lyf of angles. Huer-of oure 
lhord zayj ine his spelle. Jet ine Je oprisinge / ne ssel 
by non spousynge / ase Jer is hyer. ac hi ssollen by ase 
Je angles of heuene. 

Efterward Jet stat is to praysy / uor his uayrhede. For its beauty— it 
15 * 



is the fairest 
state on earth. 

Solomon associ- 
ates brightness 
with chastity. 


chastity is fair 
and bright above 
other virtues. 

[i MS. likende] 

Maidenhood is 
the white robe 
wherein a spot is 
sooner discovered 
than in any other 

It should be pre- 
served from filth, 
blood, and fire. 
The filth is the 
covetousness of 
the world. 

None may please 
God who seek 
to please the 
world, that is, 
God's foe. 

[2 So in MS.] 

One sign of 
pleasing the 
world is the 
decking of the 

[Fol. 71. b.] 

Fairness without 
is often gained 
by the loss of 
purijy within. 

uor pet is pe uariste stat pet is ine erpe / madenhod 
clenliche yloked. Huerof Salomon zayp ine his boc of 
wysdome. i 0.' zayj? he / <huet is uayr chastete / kenrede 
mid bri^tnesse.' he zet i^t wel brijtnesse mid chastete. 
uor paraie is uayr c[h]astete / and maydenhod / huawne 
hi is b^t be guode Hue / and oneste. Ase pe bri^t- 
nesse of pe zomie make J) pane uayre day : alsuo pe 
b^tnesse of grace / and of guode liue : make]? pe 
maydenhod uayr / and likinde l to god. Huerof saynt 
Ierome zayp / pet mochel is uayr and b^t / to-uore 
pe opre uaVtues / maydenhod. huawne hi is wypoute 
lac / and wyp-oute uelpe of zewne. Yor huo pet is yhol 
of bodie / and uoul ine herte : is ase pe berieles yhuited / 
pet is uayr wyp-oute : and wyp-iraie uol of stench. 
Maydenhod is pe huite robe / huerinne pe spot is uouler 
and more yzyenne / paraie in anoper clop. J}et ssel by 
wel yloked uram pri spottes. uram hor. uram blod. an 
uram ver. Jpise pri spottes be-uelep moche pis huite 
clop, pe spot of hor : is pe couaytise of pe wordle / pet 
ne ssel na^t by ine his herte / pep wyle queme god ine 
pe stat of maydenhod. uor non ne may "y-queme god / 
and to his yuo / ase zayp sainte gregorie. And pe ilke 
him ssewep / pet he ne is na^t godes vrend : pet wyle 
kueme pe wordle / pet is godes uend. Jperuore saint 
Ion zayj? / pet c huo ])et wyle by urend to pe wordle : he 
ssel by uend to god.' and sainte paul zayj?. ' yef ich wylle 
queme to pe uolke of pe wordle : ichc 2 ne ssel na3[t] by 
Iesu cn'stes seriont.' 

tocne / pet me wyle kueme pe wordle is : pe 
agraypinge aboute pet body, uor non ne wolde neure 
mor zeche / uairhede / ne bisihede of robes / ne of 
agraypinge : bote yef he ne wende to by yzo^e of pe 
uolke. Ac huo pet wile zeche zuich uayrhede wyp-oute : 
he lyest pe uayrhede wyp-inne / huer-by me kuemp god. 
j^eruore saynt bernard zayp to ham pet zechip pe 
coustouse robes / and pe uayre agraypinge uor to kueme 


pe wordle/and ham nor to ssewy. 'J?e do3tren' he zayj) 

* of babilonie / J?et is of confusion / zechej) hire blisse / 

and hit ssel wende ham in-to co^fuzion / and to ssame 

enrelestinde / bote yef hi ham ne wytie.' ' Hi ham Purple clothes 

clojjef he zayj) / < mid ponrpre / and mid nayre robes / 0^"^^ 

and costuolle / and onder pe nayre robes / is ofte p et 80u1, 

inwyt / ponre / and naked. And hi hise ali^tej? wyj>- 

oute / mid stones / and mid broehes of gold / and of 

zelner. Ac hi bye]? ealde / and nonle / benore god / 

be kueade Jjeawes.' Ac saint bernard zayj) / and spekj) 

of ham J?et zno ham ssewej) / ine wykkede onderstond- 

inge / and do]? more panne hare stat acsej). Ac al pe 

blisse of pe kinges defter of blisse / ase zayj) danij) / is ah the joy of 

wyp-inne / ine holy inwyt / and ine uayre mVtnes huer daughtf/of bliss 

j>er ne is no couaytise / bote nor to kueme god. And 7ndundSaed° l7 

Jos pe spot of pe hore : ne beuelj) hit na^t. mind * 

And j)os me ssel wy tye in j?et stat / nram pe spotte The white robe 
of blod. J)et is of J)03tes / and of nlessliche wylninges. from blood,** 
Huerof saint Iorome zayj). Jet J?e ilke maydenhod is £^£ flo,,hly 
sacrefice and ofringe to Iesu cr/st : }>et ne is na3t be- 
smetted ine herte mid kneade j?03tes. ne ine nlesse : of 
lecherie. ase hrmzelf zayj). <Na3t ne is worj? maidenhod Maidenhood of 
of bodye : J?er J>et is ueljje of herte.' Ase }>et frnt ne is So^u^y of 
na3t guod / pa^ hit by wel nayr wi}>-oute / huaraie hit is heart * 
norroted and wermethe. 

Efterward he ssel him loki ine Jet stat nram pe The robe must 
spotte J)et com]? of pe uere. J)et ner Jet zengj) and tL^poftf Le™ m 
bernj) ofte pe huyte robe of chastete / and of mayden- 
hod : is blefeliche zigge / o)?er to lheste wordes j?et 
mo3e sterie to zemie. Vor ase zayj) zaynte paul / and 
eftzone we hit habbej) aboue y-zed. ' \)e kneade wordes : Bad words mar 
amerrej? pe gnode feawes.' And Jjernore zayj? senekes. goodmaimer8 ' 
' loke pe uram uonle wordes J?et ne bye J? na^t honeste.' they destroy 
Vor hno J?et him y[e]fj? to noule wordes hi ham ssolle na3t 
ssamie and afrounti / Jjet is te zigge / hi lyezejj pe 
ssame / and nallej? pe li3tlaker in-to zenne. and jjereuore 



and burn or singe 
the soul. 

Maidenhood is 
like the lily, fair 
and white. 

St John the 
evangelist was 
the most beloved 
disciple of our 

[Fol. 72. a.] 

because of his 

Maidenhood well 
rooted in God's 

is preserved from 

The flower of 
maidenhood hath 
six leaves. - 
The first leaf is 
holiness and 
purity of body. 
C 1 wyouote in MS.] 

The second leaf 
is purity of heart. 

huo pet wyle loki elenliche pane huyte kertel of maden- 
hod : him behouep him loki uor to speke / oper to 
y-hiere wordes zuyche / huerof he may him heme / 
oper be-zenge. j)Q prme eat bezengp ofte his scin / and 
zuo ne dep na3t pe wylde cat. Maydenhod amang pe 
opre turtues is anlikned to pe lylye Jet is wel uayr and 
huyt. })eruore oure lhord zayp ine pe writinge he 
salomownes moupe. ' My lemman is ase pe lylye amang 
pe pornes.' Oure lhordes lemman special is yloued / 
pet lokep maydenhod. Yor pet is a mVtue huerby zaule 
onderuangp speciaUiche more loue / and pe fauour of 
oure lhorde Iesu cnst. Jparaie saint Ion pe ewangelist 
pet wes mayde / wes amang pe apostles / pe meste 
helouede of oure lhorde. and him ssewede oure lhord pe 
meste tokne of louerede / ase hit ssewep ine pe god- 
spelle. And zuo ha wes ycleped amang pe opre 
decip[l]es : pe deciple / pet Iesu cn'st mest louede. na3t 
uorpan / pet he ne louede wel pe opre / ac pane more 
speciaUiche uor pe maydenhod. J?is lilye flour lokep his 
uayrhede amang pe pomes of uondi[n]gges of pe ulesse. 
Vor pet uless is ase a donghel / pet ne carkep asemoche 
ase is of him-zelue / bote pornes / and netlen. pet byep 
kueade meniynges / pet ofte prekiep pane gost. Ac pe 
flour of maydenhod ne hep hede of po pornes. uor hi is 
wel y-roted ine godes loue / pet hire werep uram pe 
pornes of uondinge. 

j?is flour hit ssel habbe zix leues / and pry grayns 
of gold aboue wypinne. j)e uerste lyaf is yholnesse / 
and cle?messe of bodye. pet is to zigge / pet pet body 
by y-hol / wy[p]-oute l uelpe of lecherie. Vor yef a mayde 
were uorlaye be strengpe / and a-ye wyl : hi ne ssolde 
na3t peruore lyese hare maydenhod / ne pe mede of 
hare maydenhod. J?eruore sainte lucie zayde to pe 
tiront. ' Yef pou me beuelst aye mi wyl : my chasthede 
hit ssel by me y-dobbled / ase to pe coroune of blisse.' 
jpet oper lyaf is clewnesse of herte. Vor ase zayp saint 


Ierome. IS^t ne is worp to habbe maidenhod of 
b odye : pet hep wyl to by y-spoused. He spek p of fan 
petjiabbep behote maidenhod. Yor huo pet he]) be- 
hote maydenhod oper chastete to loki / he ssel loki his 
herte chastliche / and clenliche. be pridde lyeaf is The third leaf is 

. meekness. 

mildenesse. Vor maydenhod proud : ne quemp noping 
god. And peruore zayp saint bernard. i Hit is wel uayr 
ping : pet hep mi[l]denesse mid maidenhod. and wel 
stranglaker kuemj) to god pe ilke zaule to huam mil- 
denesse yefj} los to maydenhod. and maydenhod / 
uayrep mildenesse.' Ich dar wel zigge / pet wypoute without meek- 
mildenesse / be maydenhod of marie / ne hedde neure of Mary would 

' not have been 

y-quemd to god. uor wyp-oute madenhod / we mo^e by pleasing to God. 

y-bor^e : and na3t wy-oute mildenes. j)e uerpe lyeaf of The fourth leaf 

pe flour of hlye of maydenhod : is drede of god. Vor God. 

Jjo pet byep zopliche maidines / hi were y-woned to bi 

dreduol / and ssamuest. and hit nis no wonder : uor 

hi berep a wel precious tresor ine a wel fyebble uet. 

j)aniiG pe mayde marie wes alneway by hire-selue / and 

hedde greate drede / po pe angel ssewede him to hire. 

Ac be drede of god / is be tresoriere / pet / pet tresor The fear of God 

J ° ' ' I r i i is the treasurer 

of madenhod lokep / pet pe dyeuel me may hit stele, ofthe treasury of 

uor hi lokep pe gates of pe kastele : huer pet tresor is 

be-sset. be gates of be kastele huer maydenhod is : The gates of the 

* ° * ^ treasury are the 

byep pe gates of pe herte. J2e ilke gates lokep / pe gates of the 
drede of oure lhorde / pet hi ne by opene to pe viende The fear of God 
be ydele bysyhede of zi3pe / of hyerpe / and of speche / so that they are 

, n ' • it • • x. * * not open to the 

oper oi guomges me ue^redes suspiciouses. uor bisi- devil 

hede is specialliche to yzy / and to hyre pe ydelnesses 

of pe wordle / hy byep ofte way to ze/me of lecherie. 

panne me ret ine pe writinge / pet Iacobbes do3ter / 

po hi yede muzi uor bysihede uor to ysy pe wymen of 

pe contraye huer pet hi wes. Hi wes y-rauissed of pe [Foi. 72. b.] 

prmces zone of be cite / and uorlaye. And peruore whowiiipre- 

r J ' serve virginity 

huo pet wyle loki maydenhod lum behouep moche must withdraw 
wypdra3e his wyttes uor to zyenne ydele bisihede. And business. 



Jet me dej be holy drede of oure lhorde J?et me dret 

alday to wreji. Jpet is Jet wyt of Je uif maydines 

huerof oure lhord Iesu cr/st spekj ine his spelle Jo lie 

The kingdom of zede. J?et Je kingriclie of heuene is anlikned to Je ten 

heaven is likened tip./. 

to the ten madmes. huerof Je vif were wyse. and Je ojre mi were 

five\vCTe wise re ° fol es - He clepej hier-ine Jan of Je kingriche of 
fodish! ° therS heuene : holy cherche. Jet is hier beneje. huerinne 
byej guode / and kueade / of foles / and of wyse. Jet 
. byej lemes of holy cherche / by Je byleaue of cn'sten- 
The five wise are dom. be vif wvse betokneb bo bet wel lokeb / and 

those that control J r r r r I 

the five wits of ledej Je vif wyttes of Je bodie. huerof we habbej 
beuore yspeke. j)e vif foles be-toknej Jo : Jet folliche 
his lokej. 

The fifth leaf is h e t vifte leaf is ssarpnesse of liue. Vor huo bet 

' sharpness * 

(austerity) of wyle wel loki his maydenhod : him behoue J wel wys- 
liche his uless ouercome / and do onderuot / be 
uestinges / be wakiinges / and be benes. Ssa[r]ppnesse 

which is a strong f liue / is ase a Strang heg uor to loki bane gardin of 

hedge surround- ' ° ° . 

ing the garden of be herte uram kuede bestes. bet byeb be viendes of 

theheart. \ _. . , _ r r r _ _ 

neile / Jet hj ne mo^e na^t m. Jet ne wylne[J] na^t bote 

stele : Jet tresor of maydenhod. and Jeruore ssel Jet 

tresor by wel be-sset / and wel y-do op / Jet hit ne by 

uorlore. uor huo Jet hit lyest : neure ne ssel hit habbe 

ayen. naranore Jamie Je lompe huawne hi is to-broke / 

ne may by y-held. 

The sixth leaf is j)et zixte leaf is / bleuinge / Jet is stedeuest wyl to 

(stedfastness). loki Jet me he J behote to god. Jparaie saynt austin 

" Follow the iamb za yJ ine J e bok of maydenhod. and spekj to maydines / 

£? isf Jesus and za JP P ns - Vo^eJ Jet lamb of mildenesse / Jet is 

Christ." j esu m - st J i ki n( j e nestliche / Jet Jou hest behote to 

god. do hardiliche alsuo moche ase Je mi^t. Jet Je 

guodnesse of maydenhod ne spille ine Je. uor Jou ne 

n^t do no Jing huerby hit comj ayen : yef Jou hit 

liest. ase we be habbeb y-zed uorbysne of be lompe. And 

Study persever- m J x 

ance, for it win- saint bernard Jus zayj. Stude Jou to bleue. uor hi 

neth the crown of , 

heaven. one / wynj Je coroune of heuene. 


pise zix leues beuore yzed uayrep moche pe lylye of 
maydenhod. ac hit behouep pet J?is flour habbe wyp- 
inne pri cornes of gold. pet betoknep pri nianeres to 
louie god. Vor maydenhod wyp-oute pe loue of god / virginity without 

- the love of God 

is ase pe lompe wyp-oute oyle. parcne pe iole maydenes is a lamp without 
uor pet hi ne uelden na3t hare lorapen mid pe oyle : 
weren besset wyp-oute uram pe bredale. And pe wyse 
maydines pet wel uelden hyre lompen of pe oyle : 
yeden in mid pe bredgome to J?e bredale. 

pe pri maneres to louie god / pet bye J? be-tokned The three grains 

„,., , , of the lily teach- 

be pe pri comes ol pe lilye : saynt austm tekp po he e tn how to love 
zede pus. pou sselt louye god mid al pine onderstond- ^ the under . 
inge wyp-oute errour. mid ale pine wylle wyp-oute 8ta f^ h ng> TJ 11 ' 
wypziggmge. and mid al pine bepenchinge wyp-oute 
uoryetinge. Ine zuyche manyere is godes anlyche in such manner 

* is God's likeness 

uolueld ine manne / by p e pvi dingnetes pet biep ine pe fulfilled in man 

by these three 

zaule. pet is to wytene. onderstondmge. bepenchinge. properties of the 

and wyl. Hua?me pise pri pinges bye]? wel ydi^t to 

god ine pri maneres / ase zayp saint austin / pa/^ne hjep [Foi. 73. a.] 

pe pri cornes of pe lilye wel y-gelt mid pe golde of 

charite pet yefp uayrhede / and guodhede to alle uor wip-oute po golde / no virtue ne is be-uore 

god. Operlaker spekp saynt bernard of pe maniere to st Bernard 

louye god. And pus zayp. ' 0. pu pet art cmten / love God> 

lyerne hou pou sselt louie god / pet is Iesu cn'st.' 

Lierne him to louie / wysliche. zueteliche. stran[g]liche. wisely, sweetly, 

strongly, and 

and stedeuestliche. Wysliche : Jet pou ne by y-stered stedfastiy. 

_ , ,. , , Wisely, that thou 

be none prospente. Stronglicne : pet pou ne by ouer- he not moved by 
come / be none, aduersete. and pus is uayr pet flour of gtroSgiyTthat 
pe lylye of maydenhod / huawne hi is zuych / ase we |£™ b b e n °*j °™ r " 
habbep y-zed. And pet is pe oper scele huer-by pe stat 8it y- 
of madenhod / is moche to praysy / pet is uor his 

pe pridde scele huerby hit is to alowe / is uor his ^ e t ^ n ™ as £ l 
guodhede / and uor pe note pet perof comp. Vor may- ^ e r ^ 8 ais ^ d , 
denhod is a tresor of zuo grat worp : pet hit ne may ness. 



Nothing is 
worthy of being 
compared to the 
chaste heart. 

Virginity brings 
forth most fruit. 
Marriage thirty- 

widowhood sixty- 

and virginity a 

[l bolonge]) an d 
bouore in MS.] 

In marriage one 
shall keep the ten 

In widowhood 
one shall keep 
the ten behests, 
and six works of 

The number 
hundred betoken- 
eth a round num- 
ber, and is the 
fairest of all 

It betokeneth the 
crown wherewith 
the wise maidens 
crowned them- 

[2 Originally the 
passage stood 
thus, were mid 

for they have a 
special crown 
above the crown 
of bliss, 

by / be nonen y-zet a pns. J^awne pe writinge zayp. 
J)et no ping ne is worpi to be ylykned : to pe chaste 
herte. and is to onderstonde specialliche : of pe chaste 
maydenhod. uor maidenhod aboue alle opre states berp 
pet gratteste frut. po pet bye]> ine spoushod yef hit 
lokep ase hi ssolden : hi habbep Jet pritta3te frut. j)o 
pet byep in wodewe-hod : habbep pet zixtia3te frut. ]>o 
pet lokep maydenhod : habbep pet hondr[ed]a3te frut. 
Vor zuo zayp oure lhord ine his spelle. pet / pet zed 
pet vil into pe guode londe : fructefide of one half to pe 
pritta3te. of oper half to zixtia3te. and of pe pridde 
half / to pe hondreda3te. J)ise pri nombres of pritti. of. 
lx. and of an hondred : belongep l to pe pri states beuore l 
yzed. pe tale of pritti / pet is of prisipe ten : belongep 
to pe stat of spoushod. huer me ssel loki pe ten hestes 
ine pe byleaue of pe tn'nite. pe tale of zixti pet is wel 
gratter / pet is of zixzipe ten. be-longep to pe stat of 
wodewehod. uor in zuych stat me sse[l] loki pe ten 
hestes. and mid pan me ssel do pe zix workes of merci / 
huer-of we habbep aboue y-speke. Ac pe tale of an 
hondred pet is pemeste of pe priuol-do. uor hibetoknep 
ane rounde figure, pet is pe uayreste amang alle pe 
opre figures. Yor ase ine pe rounde figure : pe ende 
went ayen to his ginninge / and makep ase ane coroune : 
alzuo pe tale of an hondred : ioynep pan ende to pe 
ginninge. uor tenzipe ten : makep an hondred / pet be- 
toknep pe coroune pet pe wyse maydynes : ham 
corounede. 2 And pa3 hit by zuo pet ine pe stat of 
spoushod. and ine pe stat of wodewehod / me may wel 
wynne pe coroune of blisse / and more habbe of merite 
auoreye god : pane uele madines. Yor manie per byep 
ine paradis of ham pet habbep yby ine spoushod / and 
ine wodewehod / pet more byep nier god : paraie manye 
maydines. ac alneway habbep pe maydines ane speciale 
coroune : aboue pe coroune of blisse / pet is pe coroune 
to alle pe ha^en. Yor pet pe maydines habbep ane 


speciale ouercomynge of hare ulesse. uor to uol^y pe 

lamb of mildenesse / huyder hit gep / to hnam hi [Foi. 73. bj 

byep y-spoused. and habbep ylete pe ulessliche for they have 

, , ii • i i • t overcome in an 

sposayles / uor to by mid him ate sposayles eure- especial manner 

i ■• j the lusts of the 

lestande. flesh . 

])e tende l stat huer me ssel loki chestete / is of The sixth state of 
clerkes y-hoded / ase bye]? supdeaknes / dyaknes / hooded'cierks, 
prestes / and bissoppes. Alle pos bye]) y-hyea[l]de to ™*lt™2', who 
loki chastete / uor manye sceles. Verst / uor bet hod are bound i to 

' ° ' * preserve chastity 

bet hi habbeb onderuonge / bet acseb alle holinesse. for man y reasons. 

* T ° ' T * First, because 

}5a^ne pet sacrement is zuo he3 and zuo holy / pet po their hood de- 
pet hit onderuongep / bye]? ybounde to chastete to loky. ne*". e 
]?et neuremo hi ne mo3e ham do to spoushod. Efter- secondly, their 
ward uor hare office pet hi habbep. uor hi bye]? y-di^t. Goo% " t0 8erVe 
propreliche to serui god ine his temple at his weuecle. 
and handle]? / and be-takep to hare honden pe pinges 
pet byep y-haljed. ase pe uesseles yblissed. pe chalis. to handle sacred 
pe copereaus. and pet more is grat ping wyp-oute com- and?S>ove ail, 
p^risoun : pet bodi of oure lorde Iesu cn'st / pet pe t he b° d y° f o u '* 
prestes sacrep / and onderuongep / and betakep opren. Christ. 

]STou hi ssolden panne by wel klene / and wel holy / 
uor pane scele of pe Ihorde to huam hi seruep / pet is 
holy / and hatep alle uelpe. \)miie he zayp ine pe The scripture 
writinge. ' Byep holy / uor ich am holy.' uor to zuiche forYam holy/' 
lhorde / zuich maine. Yor pe scele of pe stede huer hi 
seruep / pet is pe cherche / pet is holy / and y-ha^ed 
god to seruy. Me uint ine pe writinge / pet amang pe Among the 
paenes pe prestes pet lokeden chastete ine pe temple / observe chastity 
weren to-deld uram pe opren / pet hi ne loren hire m e erape " 
chastete. Mochel ssollen bi more clene wyp-oute com- 
parisoun / and more chast pe cr/stene prestes / pet 
seruyep ine godes temple / pet is y-ha^ed / and 
apropred god to serui. Yet eft hi ssolle by more christian priests 
clene / and more holy / uor pet hi seruep at godes ra0 re chaste, 
borde of his coupe / of his breade / and of his wyne / 
l l So in MS. : read zixte ?] 



for they serve at 
God's table. 

St Paul exhorts 
Christian bishops 
to be chaste. 

This chastity 
was betokened in 
the Old Law by 
the girding of 
the loins. 

The girdle is 

Aaron and his 
children were 
clothed in linen 

Before the linen 
" kirtle " is white 
it must be beaten 
and washed ; 
so must the flesh 
be disciplined by 

The kirtle must 
have above the 
white girdle of 

[Fol. 74. a.] 

The linen kirtle 
betokeneth chast- 
ity of heart. 

The girdle above 
denotes chastity 
of body. 

and of his mete. Godes table is Je wyeued. pe coupe 
is j)e ehalis. his bread and his wyn : Jet is his propre 
bodi and his propre blod. Mochel ssolle hi Jamie by 
clene and holy / J>o Jet zuiche seruice do]?. Jeanne 
sainte paul zayj. hit behouej Jet Je bissoppes / and Je 
ojre ministres of huam he hej y-speke / Jet byej Je 
ministres of holy eherche / by chaste. 

J?is chastete wes be-tokned ine Je yealde la3e huer 
god het to ham Jet ssolden ethe of Je lombe / Jet be- 
toknede Jet bodi of Iesu cn'st / Jet hi gerten wel hare 
lenden. fie gerdel huermide Je ministres of holy 
eherche / ssolle ham gerde / ope Je lenden : is chastete / 
Jet wyJ-dra^J Je lecherie of hare ulesse. j)o god het 
to aaron / Jet wes prest and bissop / Jet alle his chil- 
dren weren yclojed ine linene kertles / and y-gert 
aboue mid huite linene gerdles. Aaron and his chil- 
dren / Jet serueden ine Je tabernacle : be-toknej / Je 
ministres of holy eherche / Jet ssol by y-clojed mid 
linene kertles / of chastete / Jet is be-tokned be Je 
huite ulexe. Vor ase linene kertel erjan hi by huyte : 
uelezije him behouej Jet he by ybeate / and y-wesse : 
And alsuo hit be-houej / Jet uless beate / and wesse / 
be dissiplines / and be hardnesses, and ofte wesse his 
herte of kueade lostes. and of kueade wylnynges / be 
zoje ssrifte / er Jan me mo3e habbe Jane huite kertel 
of chastete. Ac Jes kertel ssel habbe Jane huyte gerdel 
aboue. Jet is to zigge / Jet chastete ssel bi straytliche 
y-loked / and wel wyj-dra^e be abstinence [uorberinge] / 
ase moche ase scele berj / Jet is Je bocle of Je gerdle. 
Ojerlaker me may zigge / Jet Je linene kertel / be-tokn- 
ej chastete of herte. fie gerdel aboue / be-tocnej 
chastete of bodie Jet ssel wyjdra^e Je lostes of Je 
ulesse uor to loki Je chastete of Je zaule. fiis ilke selue 
is ous betokned / ine Je aube / and ine Je gerdle aboue / 
Jet Je ministres of holy eherche doj an / huarcne hi 
ssolle serui at godes wyeuede. Yor hi ssolle by chaste 


wypine ine be herte / and wyb-oute ine bodye. Mochel Very foul is the 

. T ' Jr J spot of lechery in 

is uoul pe spot of zewne / and nameliche of lecherie / the ministers of 

, ... n -, i i i tt i • -, • tne church, 

ine pe mmistres ot holy cherche. Yor hi biep pe e3e 
of holy cherche / ase zayp pe writinge. Yor ase pet 
e^e let pet body / and him ssewep his way huerby hit for they are the 

i i n / . . eyes of Holy 

ssel guo : alsuo ssolle pe pmas / and pe opre mmistres church. 

of holy cherche ssewy pane way of helpe to opren. 

#araie alsuo ase pe spot pet is wel uouler ine pe e3en / Asthespotis 

pa^ne ine opre lemes of pe bodye : alsuo is pe spot of than^n^he^ufer 

lecherie more uouler/ and more perilous ine clerkes ^lechery more 

and ine prelas : baraie ine leawede uolke. Efterward / pe^ ™* 11 elerks 

x J i and prelates than 

hy byep pe sseawere of holy cherche / huerine pet iniewdfoik. 

lewede uolk lokep / and nimep uorbysne. Ac Ima^ne 

pe sseawere is bri^t me zi^J? wel pane spot / and pe 

uelpe pet is ine pe ssewere. Ac p e ilke p et ine zuich a 

ssewere na3t ne lokep / he ne zikp 1 na3t Ins 03ene spot / [i a^p?] 

ne pet me dep mid pe sseawere pet is uoul an dim. Ac 

huanne pe ilke sseawere is wel bri3t and clene : panne 

may me wel y-zy / and wel y-knawe his spottes. Alzuo 

huawne pe prelat is of guode lyue / and of guod los. 

paraie he ssel nime uorbisne of guode lyue. Efterward. Prelates should 

hi ssolle by wel klene / and wel holy, uor pet hi for they hallow- 7 ' 

clenzep / and ha^ej? pe opre. Yor ase zayj? saynt ° er8 ' 

gregorie. ( pe hand pet is uoul / and behorewed / ne 

may opremarcne uelpe do away.' and pe writinge zayp. 

pet pe ilke pet is uoul : ne may nenne oprenne klercsy. but tu e fo ui ar © 

. , . , , not able to cleanse 

And pet is to onderstonde : ase moche ase faylep of his others. 

merite. Yor pe sacrement pet is y-mad be pe ministre / 

be pe hand of pe kueade ministre. ne is na3t lesse worp 

ine him-zelue / ne lesse mrtuous / ne pe lesse nn^tuol / 

uor to haLjy ham pet hit ondoruongep. Yor yef hit on- 

deruongep be pe hand of ane guode ministre. uor pe t^ wickedness 

. . of the minister 

kueadnesse of pe ministre / ne apayrep na3t pe sacre- impairetn not 

. / , , * i i , „ tne virtue of the 

ment / ne pe guodnesse. Ac alneway pe kueadnesse of sacrament, 
pe ministre / may anpayri pe opre be kueade uorbysnen. 
and pe guodnesse edefie / be, uorbisne of guode lyue. 



Ministers should 
be an example of 
chastity to their, 

The seventh state 
is the state of 

Those who are 
dedicated to God 
must always ob- 

[Fol. 74. b.] 

for their state 
is one of per- 

The devil strives 
most to tempt 
them to sin, 

for he has greater 
joy over the fall 
of a good and 
great man than 
over many others, 

as the fisherman 
hath greater joy 
to take a great 
fish than a little 

Jperuore pa?me huam pet hi hal^ep / and dense]? pe opre 
ine pet hi ministrep pe sacremens of holy cherche : hy 
ssolle by pe more holy / and more clene / panne pe 
opre. Vor yef hi hjep queade : hi ssolle by pe more 
y-harmed / panne pe opre. j)is is pe zixte stat. 
huer me ssel loki chastete. and pe zixte bo^ of pise 

pe zeuende stat huer me ssel loki chastete : is pe 
stat of religioun. uor po pet byep ine pet stat / habbep 
to god behote : pet hi ssolle libbe euremor chasteliche. 
And peruore hy hjep y-hyealde / and y-obliged be 
zuych beheste. pet neuremor hi ne mo3e by spoused / 
zeppe hi hjep profes. And huo pet him dep spousy : 
pe spoushod ne ssel by na^t. and peruore hi ssolle do 
greate payne / and grat diligence wel to loki hare 
chastete / and uor hare stat / pet is stat of holy perfec- 
cion. pet pe more pet / pet stat is holy : be zuo moche 
is pe zenne pe more / and pe more uoul. j)e uouler 
pet is pe spot : pe more he is yzyenne ine pe huyte robe. 
And huo pet b^est ualp : pe zorer he him blechep. 
And uor to ouercome hire aduersarie pet is pe dieuel / 
pet mest him paynep uor to uondi and to do ualle pd of 
religion, and more is gled hu&nne he his may ouer- 
come : pamie of eni oper stat. Vor alsuo ase pe angles 
of heuene habbep grat glednesse of ane zene^ere 
huawne he him repentep / and dep penonce uor his 
zennes : alsuo pe dyeulew ham glediep huawne l hi mo3e 
ouercome / and do ualle in-to zenne ane guodne man. 
And pe more pet he is of grat stat / and pe parfiter : 
pe more hep he pe gratter glednesse / huarcne he him 
may gyly. Ase pe vissere hep more blisse uor to nime 
ane gmtne viss : pane ane littlene. 

Here lieth a 


One readeth in 

the lives of the 


Me ret ine Hues of holy uaderes / pet an holy man 
1 MS. \>uanne 


tealde / hou he com to by monek / and zede. hou bet holy fathers 

i . -i i 1 -, , that a holy man 

ne nedae y-by ane payenes zone / pet wes a prest to pe toidhowhebe- 

momenettes. And J>o he wes a child : on time he yede S^a^gan 

into pe temple mid his uader pmieliche. per he yze$ when ITiid he 

ane gratne dyenel pet zet ope ane uyealdinde stole / and ™ p ™ c */ nthe 

al his mayne abonte him. per. com on of be pnnces : Mahora et» 

■j 1 . , . ill* and tneTe ne saw 

and leat to mm. po he him aksede pe ilke pet zet ine a great devil sit- 

pe stole, hua/mes he com. and he ansuerede / pet he stool, and ail hif 

com uram ane londe huer he hedde arered and ymad ^ antsabout 

manye werren / and manye ^tinges / zno pet moche eamelftSdhS 

uolk weren ysslase /and moche blod ber y-ssed. be ofthe wars and 

J ° ' bloodshed he had 

mayster him acsede ine hou moche time he hedde Jet caused in 30 days, 
y-do. and he ansuerede : 'ine pritti da3es.' he hi?w zede / His master the 

cv i 1' /i t , „« devil ordered him 

ine zuo moche time / hest zuo lite y-do V ))o he het to be wen beaten, 
pet ha wer rijt wel ybeate / and euele y-dra^e. Efter m^chTime he had 
fan: com anoper Jet alsuo to him leat ase pe uerste. done 90 little - 
pe mayster him acsede: huannes ha com. He ansuerede / Another came 

,,! . , t,,-, , an<1 said that in 

pet he com uram pe ze. huer he hedde ymad manye 20 days he 
tempestes. uele ssipes to-broke / and moche uolk p^tsandsM^* 
adrey[n]ct. pe maister acsede ine hou long time, he wrecks * 
ansuerede /'ine tuenti da^es.' He zayde / ' Ine zuo He too was re- 
moche time: hest zuo lite y-do?' Efterward com pe idleness! 1 
pridde. pet ansuerede / pet he com uram ane cite huer a third came and 
he hedde y-by at ane bredale / and per he hedde arered wedding hi had 
and y-mad cheastes / and strifs. zuo pet moche uolk Slcordfand 
per were y-sk^e. and per-to : he hedde ysla^e pane Say 8 derin 10 
hosebounde. pe maister him acsede hou long time he 
zette pet uor to done. He ansuerede pet ine ten da3es. 
Jjohehet pet he were wel ybyate. uor pet he hedde for which he was 
zuo longe abide pet to done : wip-oute more. Ate %^ t £\!£t 
lasten com an-ober to-uore be prmce. and to him he so loug about iu 

-, A At last there 

bea3- And ne h* m acsede / huaraies comst pou. He came an <>ther, 
ansuerede pet he com uram pe ermitage / huer he who said he came 
hedde yby uourti yer uor to uondi ane monek of forni- J^^ 1 " 
cacion / pet is pe zerane of lecherie. and zuo moche ich had l>een 40 

\ years tempting a 

habbe y-do pet ine pise nyit ich hine habbe ouercome / monk t0 commit 

' fornication, and 



[Fol. 75. a.] 
was ultimately 
The devil kissed 
this prince, and 
placed a crown 
on his head and 
praised him for 
his prowess. 

Thus we see how 
glad the devil is 
when he may 
cause a man of 
religion to fall 
into sin. 

Our Lord went 
into the desert to 
be tempted. 

Religion is a 
desert hard and 

Whoso will avoid 
lechery, must 
withdraw from 
the lusts of the 

He who will take 
a castle must 
withdraw the 
meat and the 
water so as to 
starve his foe. 

The castle of the 
womb may not 
withstand the 
spirit when it is 
starved by fast- 
ings and absti- 

and y-do him ualle in-to pe zeraie. \)o lhip op pe 
mayster / and him keste / and be-clepte / and dede pe 
coroune ope his heued / an dede him zitte be-zide him. 
and to him zede / pet he hedde grat J>ing y-do / and 
grat prowesse. ]>o zayde pe guode man / pet huarcne 
he hedde pet y-hyerd / and pet y-zo3e : he p03te / pet hit 
were grat ping to by monek / and be po encheysoun 
he becom monek. 

Ine pise tale me may ysy / pet greate glednesse hab- 
bep pe dyeulen hua^ne hi mo3e do ualle ane man of re- 
ligion in-to zeraie. Yor huawne pet a man is y-guo in- 
to religion / he is ase pe ilke pet gep in-to pe uelde 
uor him-zelue / to mjte wyp pane dyeuel. Jparaie 
huarme oure lhord wolde by uonded of pe dyeule : he 
yede in-to desert, nor pe desert of religion : is ueld of 
uondinge. Eeligion is ycleped desert, uor alsuo ase pe 
desert is hard and draye / and uer uram alle men : 
alsuo ssel by pe stat of religion hard / and draye be 
hardnesse of Hue. pet is a Strang heg aye pe wyckede 
bestes. and a Strang armure a-ye pane uyend. J)is is 
remedie aye zewne of lecherie. uor huo pet wyle quenche 
pet uer of lecherie ine him-zelue : he ssel wypd^e pe 
brondes. pet byep pe lostes of pe ulesse / pet pe guode 
religious ssel wypdra3e of his ulesse / be uestinges / be 
wakiinges / be diciplines. oper operlaker pet uer ne may 
na3t by y-quenct. Huo pet wyle ane cite oper ane castel 
nime : he ssel asemoche ase he may / wypdra3e pe 
metes / and pet weter / uor to asterue his. Yor huawne 
pe castel is asterued : he ne may hym hyealde aye his 
yuo. Alsuo pe castel of pe wombe pet is pe strengpe of 
pe ulesse / ne may him hyealde aye pane gost : pawne he 
is asterued be uestinges / and be wypdra3pes. j)e stat 
of religion ssel by zuo yuerred uram pe wordle : pet pe 
ilke pet is ine pet stat / ne uele na3t huerof he ssel by 
dyead to pe wordle / and libbe to god. ase zayp zainte 
paul. pet alsuo ase pe ilke pet is dyead bodilich / hep 


ilore alle his bodiHehe wyttes / Je zitfe / Je hyerje / Je 
speche. fane zuel3 / Jjane smel / and ]>e uelinge. alsuo 
ssel by Je religious zuo dyead ase to Je wordle : Jet he The religious 
nojing ne uele Jet belongej) to zwme. Jet he mo 3 e Sew^M* 6 ^* 
zojliche zigge Jet word / Jet ]?e apostel sainte paid st Paul held the 
zayde of him-zelue. <))e wordle' he zayj <is y-crwcefyed SSw^S 
to me : and ich to Je wordle.' he wolde zigge Jet al ^^^j 8 . 
alsuo ase Je wordle him hild uor uyl / and uor wlatuol / ed for his mi8 " 

° ' I deeds. 

ase me dej enne y-honged : alsuo hed he Je wordle 

uor vil / and uor wlatuol / ase me hej Jane : Jet is y- 

erwcified ojer anhonged uor his misdede. Alsuo ssel 

Je ilke Jet is ine stat of perfeccion / Je wor[d]le hatie. He that is in a 

Jet is to zigge : Je couaytise / and Je kueadnesse of Je tXJ^ 

wordle / Jet he ne uele na 3 t be loue and be wylninge. ^ S80fthe 

zuo Jet his ccmuersacion by al ine heuene. ase zayj 

zainte paul of him j and of ham Jet byej ine stat of 

perfeccion. 'Ourecomiersacioun' he zayj 'is ine heuene. for their conversa- 

, , t_ j . . , , . , ,. , tion is in heaven. 

uor Jet body is me Je erje. Je herte is me heuene be 
loue / and be wylninge. 

Man religious ne ssel nojing osen habbe ine erbe. ^ ol - 75 - b -3 

Ai i i • t_ • i i • i ^" ne religious man 

iic ne ssel maki his hord me heuene. ase zayj oure shall make his 

lhord ine his spelle. ' Yef Jou wylt' he zayj 'by parfit : h ™ Td ™ h6aVen ' 

guo and zele al Jet Jou hest / and yef hit j?e poure uor 

godes loue / and zuo Je sselt habbe Jin hord ine heuene.' 

Mamies hord of religion : ys zobe pouerte bet comb of The man of re- 

, -, , j r ligion's hoard is 

guode wylle / ase zayj an ha^en ine Je lyues of uaderes. true poverty, 

tt x'-*x lit • i , wherewith one 

V or pouerte is Jet menet / huermide me bayj Je riche buyeth the king- 

of heuene. Hueruore oure lhord zayj. Jet Je poure of ° m ° 

sprit byej y-blissed. Vor Je riche of heuene : is hare. 

Yorzoje huo Jet is poure of spirit / Jet is of wylle. He 

ne zekj ine Jise wordle / ne lostes. ne richesses. no 

wor Jssipes. ac ra Jre uoryet al / uor god. And zuo ssel Tn e good reiigi- 

j . , , . . , , ., ous man seeks to 

do Je guode religious / Jet wile clme mto Je helle of climb unto the 
perfeccion. ftawne Je angel zayde to lot / Jo he wes * ° Per e ° 10n ' 
y-guo out of sodome. 'ne trost Je na 3 t ine Je stede Jet 
Jou hest ylete. ac ywyte Je ine J?e helle of perfeccion.' 



for he trusts not 
to the world. 

Lot's wife looked 
back to the burn- 
ing city, and was 
changed into an 
image of salt. 

Lot's wife be- 
tokeneth those 
whose bodies are 
in the cloisters 
but their hearts 
in the world. 

They have only 

the clothing of 


The image of salt 

betokeneth wit 

and discretion. 

Our Lord exhorts 
his disciples to 
remember Lot's 

He who sets hand 
to the plough and 
looketh behind is 
not worthy of 

Those dedicated 
to God should 
ever have the 
eyes of their 
[Fol. 76. a.] 

Yor huo pet is y-guo out of pe corauersacion of pe wordle : 
he ne ssel him na^t trosti / ne hyealde besyde pe wordle 
be wylle / ne be wilninge. Ac him asoyny ase moche 
ase he may / al huet he is ine pe helle of perfeccion / 
and per me ssel abide to his helpe / wypoute lokinge 
ayen. Lottes wyf lokede behinde hire / pe cite pet 
ber[n]de huerout hi wes i-guo. and peruore hi wes 
ychonged in-to an ymage of zalt. Lottes wyf / be- 
toknep ham / zeppe pet hi byep iguo ont of J?e wordle / 
and bye)? yguo into religion, wendep ayen be wille and 
be wylnmge / pet habbep hare body ine cloystre / an 
zettep hare herten ine pe wordle. Jpos anlyknep pe 
ymage of zalt / pet ne hep bote pe lyknesse of man. and 
hit is hard / and chald ase a ston. Alsuo bye]? pet 
uolk chealde ine pe loue of god / and hard wyj?-oute 
wetnesse of pite : and of deuocion. }?a?me hi ne habbej? 
bote pe cloJ?inge of hare religion. \)e ymage J?et wes of 
zalt / be-toknej? ine pe writiwge : wyt / and discrecion. 
nor ase J?et zalt yefp smac to pe mete : alsuo ssel man 
habbe wyt. and discrecion ine his dedes / and ine his 
wordes. pe ilke ymage pa?me of zalt ssel y[e]ue wyt / 
and onderstondmge / and uorbysne : to ham of religion, 
pet habbej? uorlete pe wordle / pet hy ne wende ayen to 
pan pet hi habbep y-lete. And peruore zayp oure lhord 
in his spelle to his deciples / pet him uol^ede. 'bepenchep 
you he zaip of lottes wyue.' J)et is to zigge / ne lokep 
na3t to pet ye habbep y-lete uor me. pet ye ne lyese pet 
lyf of grace and of blisse : Alsuo ase lottes wyf / 
uorlyas pet lif of pe bodye / uor pet hi lokede to pan / 
pet hi hedde y-lete. J^araie oure lhord zayp ine his 
spelle. pet pe ilke pet zet pe hand ape ZU0I3 and lokep 
behinde him : ne is na3t worpi to pe riche of heuene. 
Yor alsuo ase pe ilke pe let pe ZU0I3 lokep alneway 
beuore him / uor to lede wel his zuol} : Alsuo ssel do 
he pet zet pe hand to pe ZU0I3 of penonce oper of reli- 
gion : alneway ssel habbe pe e3en of his herte / pet is to 


zigge J?e onderstondinge and be wyl to ban bet is be-uore : neart directed to 

, . . everlasting bliss, 

ana na3t to Jan pet is behynde. Jet is to Je guodes and not totem- 
eurelestinde Jet ssolle^ by be-uore ine Je herte. na3t to P ° ra R °° 8 * 
Je timliehe guodes / Jet ssolle by behynde. And Jus 
dede zaynte paul Jet zede / Jet he hedde uoryete Jet / st Paul always 
Jet wes behinde. pet wes pe wordle and al Je couaitise demanding and 
pet per is / Jet he ne prayzede na^t / and yede alneway 
beuore him. Vor he hedde alneway his onderstondinge 
and his wyl to heuene. Ac moehe uolk of religion 
zettep pe ZU0I3 be-uore pe oksen. uor uele per byej and Many religious 
Jet is hire harm Jet more zeche J Je timliehe Jinges / porai things and 
and doj beuore / Jet ssolde by behynde. pe timliehe S^tffEl 
guodes beuore: pe eurelestinde. and pe gostliche be- 
hynde. Zuyche religious byej ine wel grat peril of hare 
uorlyezynge. uor hi ne habbej bote pe clojinge of hare 
religion. To pe uorbysne of zainte paul / ssel pe guode st Paul exhorts 
religious / uoryete pe wordle / and lete his behinde him. ^ri^ting 6 
and pe guodes eurelestinde alneway habbe beuore his 55^'^^* 
e3en. and alneway guo uram uirtue / to mrtue / alhuet and go from 
he comj to Je mont ioye. Jet is / to pe helle of blisse untutoey^come' 
eurelestinde. huer he ssel clyerliche izy god. and him ^^J^ °l Usa 
ssel louie parfitliche. and worjssipie euremo. J)et is pe 
blissinge huer pe yefje of onderstondinge let Jo Jet 
lokej cle?messe of herte / and of bodye / ase we habbej 
aboue y-sseawed. And Jeruore zayj oure lhord. pet 
yblissed byej pe clene of herte. uor hy ssolle clyerliche " Blessed be the 
ysy god. J?e ilke blissinge beginj hyer. uor hi bye]? for they shall' 
yclenzed of Jiesternesse / of errour to pe onderstond- 
inge / and of spottes of zercne / ase to pe wylle. And 
Jeruore hi y-zyej god be byyleaue alijte / of pe b^tnesse They shall see 
Jet com]? of pe yefje of onderstondinge / huerby me D y ttJgiftof an 
knauj his sseppere / and al Jet belongej to helje of ™ der8tandin *- 
zaule wyj-oute drede / wyj-oute comparer / wyj-oute 
chancelier. and ine pe byleue of Iesu enst huer hi byej? 
zuo to-gidere / and yzet uestliche / Jet hi ne mo3e ham 
to-dele : uor dyaj? / ne uor torment. And Jeruore hi 
16 * 


The pure of heart byeb yblissed / be clene of herte / ine fise lyue dyad- 
are blessed in this J , , , 

mortal life, lich. uor hi habbe]) Je ^n of hare herten / and pe 

onderstondinge of hare wylle / zuo clene / and zuo clyer / 

for they see God fet hi zye3 l god / and yleuejj be stronge beleaue / and 

eyeTo^f their * zikere. ase zayf onre lhord to saint thomas pe apostel. 

heart. < ^ 0P ^ ^ mQ he3 t j- z0 $e : Jjou me hest yleued. Ac 

Jjo ssolle by yblissed : pet me ne y-ze3e and me yleuef.' 

This blessing Ac Jris blissinge ssel by uolueld / ine pe Hue eureles- 

iiftL b ufe e ev e C r. ed tinde. huer J>e clene of herte J?et hier ssolle ysy him be 

astmg, byleaue. ac alneway Juesterliehe. hi ssolle y-zi face wjp 

when they shall face : al aperteliehe / ase zayj) zayte paul. Jjet is J?e 

face G ° d faCet ° blissinge of angles / and of ha^en of paradis. J?et yzy 

god ine J?e face / yknawe enne god ine J?ri persones. to 

ysy clierliche ine po sseawere huermne alle Jjinges bye]? 

bri3te / mid'fe lombe / and pe hal^en ham wondrej? / 

[Foi. 76. b.] and ham j-zyep. and nolle ne mo3e by : him an to loki. 

in heaven there Vor J>er is alle uayrhede / alle zuetnesse / alle gno[d]- 

IwttoessTand nesse. welle of lif enrelestinde / and al J>et herte may 

goodness; wylnj / and of guod desiri. Ac ich zigge lite, uor 

ase zayj? pe writinge. ' ne e3e dyeadlich ne may na3t 

ysy. ne eare hihere. ne maraies herte Jjenche. fet 

god hep agrayfed to his uriendes. , ])arme sant 

wherefore think ansalm zayj?. 'Man arere al fine onderstondinge J?er 

and^oTsid^how aboiie / an J> encn ase moche ase pe mijt / huet / and 

desirable is that ^ ou moche Rra t / and huo moche lostuol / is bet guod / 

bliss which com- & ' ' J " ' 

prehends all j>et he]) pe ioye and fane lost of alle guode. and m^t 
zuych lost / ne zueche blisse / ase me uint ine sseppinges : 
ac asemoche more : ase pe sseppere is more Jmwne pe 
sseppinges.' ISTou zayj? he / 'maraies makinge huet 
y-zyxt Jjou foleant uor to zeche diuerse guodes to fine 
zaule and to fine bodye. Loue wel on guod huer byef 

G ood iSthehiShe8t a ^ e ^ uo( ^ es / an( * nit is y n0 3- J> et is him-zelf f et is he3est 
of Him come all om.od of huam comeb alle be obre / ase be streames / of 

goods, as the & r r r I r I 

streams of the fe welle.' Vorzofe he ssel by wel yblissed zayf saynt 

well. it- -i 

He is greatly austm / pet wyf -oute none nakede uisage onwri^e ssel 

blessed who with _ _ _ . ~ . ,. 

his naked visage yzy pe blisse of god. and ssel by y-went me anlicnesse 

1 For zyej?. 


of Jje biisse huer he ssel ysy god ase he is. huych ziipe shall Bee God 

. . if-,-,. n , , BUcn as He is. 

is coroune wyjjoute ende / and al Jje ssepe of haLjen. 
Jjet ssel by al Jje guod of man / zayjj huje de saint 
uictor. auoreye Jjane man Jjet he made ine bodye and ine 
zaule / uor Jjan J>et man him y-ze^ mid Jje e3en of J?e 
bodie ine his manhode. and Jje zaule him yzij? ine his 
godhede. zuo Jjet he uand zuetnesse / and lost ine his 
sseppere wyjj-ine / and wyjj-oute / wyjj-inne : ine Jje 
godhede. wyjjoute : ine J>e manhode. Jjet ssel by J>e biisse 
of man / bet ssel by his ioye / and his lost / and lif ThiB Bi s ht 8haU 

; . ' be the great joy 

eurelestinde pe ilke yblissede zi^pe. pet is pe blissinge of life everlasting, 
yef hit onderstondejj : Jo Jjet lokej? clewnesse of herte 
and of bodie. 


, wisdom. 


pe laste yef be / and be meste / and behe^este : is be Theiast gift and 

J r i r I r ■> r the greatest is 

yefjje of wysdom. Jjet is a grace Jjet pe holy gost yefjj to wisdom, 
pe ecmtemplatme herte. huerby he is ynome of be loue by which the 

n -i « / / heart is possessed 

oi god. Jjet he na3t ne wylnejj / ne ne ze^Jj ojjer Jung / with the love of 

panne him to zyewne / and to habbe / ine him uor to ° ny ' 

likni / mid him uor to bleue. Jpis is Jjet greate of per- This is the step 

feccion / pe ende of cowtemplacion. pe yefjje of onder- 

stondinge huerof we habbe]? aboue yspeke / make]? 

knawe god / and Jje gostliche Jjinges ase be zi^Jje / and 

be simple lokinges. Ac pe yefjje of wysdom / makej? to This gift makes 

yuele god / an to y-knawe ase be zuel^. panne wysdom perfectly, 

ne is ojjer Jjing / panne knaulecliinge smackinde / Jjet is 

mid smac and mid grat lost of herte. uor ojjerlaker he 

knaub wyn / be ilke Jjet hit yzisjj ine a uayr gles. ojjer- as one knoweth 

, wine by seeing or 

laker Jje ilke Jjet hit drmcj? / and tastejj / and smackej?. tasting it. 

Ac Jje filosofes yknewen god be writinge / ase be ane The philosophers 

knew God by 

ssewere huerinne hy lokedew. be skele and be onder- writing, as by a 
stondinge of his irn^te. his uayrhede / his wyt. and his m rrorj 
guodnesse / erjjan hi y^en pe sseppinges Jjet he hej? 
ymad zuo greate / zuo uayre / zuo guode / and zuo wel 


and by the works y-ordayned. fanne hi knewen wel be zy3je and be 

Lt™ a^reaTon, 7 uorbisne / and be simple zi^Q of onderstondinge / and 

[Foi. 77. a.] of k en delicli skele. Ac neure na3t ne yuelded / ne 

but never byi ne mi^te y-uele be zuelj of ri3te loue / ne by deuoeion. 

love or devotion. ^^ ^ ^ uele cWstene c i e rkes / and leawede / 

Jet wel ham yknewe be byleaue / and be wrytinge. Ac 

uor Jet hi habbej Jane zuel3 na3 wel y-di3t be zeraie 

hi ne mo3e no Jing yuele narcmore Jamie Je zike uint 

The gift of wis- smak ine Je guode mete. ])e yef Je of wysdom / Jet Je 

man'fheartto holy gost zet ine herte / zikerliche uayrej / and clensej / 

God by the glue of of alle ue ^ Q £ zmnQ j m ^ arerej zuo Jane gost of man : 

Jet he hi??i ioinej to god / be a glu of loue / zuo Jet he 

and there he ™ al on mid g 0(L *> er he Um UGth ' J** ^ Mm n0rlsSe >- 

feedeth,resteth, • ^ie ^ m ue tteb. ber he him losteb. ber he him restej. 

and is nourished, Y * * * J 

and forgetteth ail i, er ^ g \^{ m s l e pb. Jer he uoryet al his trauail / alle his 

his labours and * r . . ,, 

desires (carnal wylninges ulessliche / and er Jliche / and mm zelue / 
and eartmy). ^ ^ ^ im ^ b e j, en gj, f na ^t : bote of Jet he louej / 

This is the last and Jet is god onlepiliche. J?is is Je laste stape / of Je 

otTerfeSion dder lheddre of perfection / Jet Iacob yze3 ine his sslepe / Jet 

tok Je heuene / huerby Je angles of oure lhorde Iesu 

The steps of this c Wst cliue op : and doun. j)e stapes of Jise lheddre: 

ladder are the n _ . . , / i /» i i t_ i 

seven gifts of the byej Je zeue yefjes of Je holy gost / nuerol we nab be J 
BfthesTsteps y-speke. Be Jo zeue stapes cliuej Je angles. Jet byej 

climb the angels, ^ ^ ^^ hare herten ^ heuene f j, et lede j, ly f f 

angle ine erje / be uayrehede / and be cle/messe / Jet 
habbej hare herten in heuene be wylnynge. huamiehi guoj 

going from virtue and profitej uram mrtue to uirtue / al huet hi yzyej god 
aperteliche and herie J parfitliche. Ac huamie hi byej 

Having reached y-cliue op al to Je laste stape : ojerhuil hit behouej guo 

the highest * _ 

step, doun be lo3nesse. V or ase moche ase man is more 

parfit : Je more he is milde / and Je lesse him-zelue 

praysej. Jerof me kan zigge : he Jet is mest worj : he 

there is a greater him mest lo^ej. )}a?me Je guode parfite marai ssel by 

and self-abase- ase Jet trau Jet is y-karked mid frut / Je more hit bou3 

mm " to Je grunde. Ine anojre manire me may onderstonde / 

Jet Je angles yeden doun. uor Je guode men Jet ledej 


lif of angel an erje / be hire holyhede / huawne hi byeb lt ^hoveth those 

, . _ leading the life of 

y-ciiue op to pe ne3este stape of cowteraplacion / huyder angels on earth 

pe yefpe of wysdoni his let / Jet is alsuo y-goyned to 

god / Jet he uoryet al Jet is onder god / be Je greate 

zuetnesse Jet Je herte uelj / Jet is alsuo iroted ine god . 

Jet he lyest alle ojre lustes. zuo ham behouej ojerhuyl 

guo doun of Jise zuetnesse / of Jise reste / of pise loste / 

uram his zuete bryesten of solas, huer god ham dej 

zouke ine pe cowtemplacion to pe workes of pe bysye to descend to the 

lyue / huerof we habbej aboue y-speke. huer pe parfite busy life. 

abide ssolle / and uor hare note gostlich / and uor 


Anojer scele Jer is / hueruore hit behouej guo doun 
of Jo ilke zete of ctmtemplacion / huer pe gost of wisdom 
wonej. V or pe corrupcion of pe ulesse is zuo grat Jet The corruption 
pe gost ne may ine Jise liue dyeadlich longe bleue / in ^at, fle8h " B ° 
zuo he3 stat of contemplation, ne yuele pe ilke greate ^'^Jjjf 1 
zuetnesse / bet paseb alle lostes bet me may yuele ine remain in so high 

1 * * T r J J a state of con- 

cise wordle / ase Jo wytej Jet liit habbej y-proued. tempiation. 

Jjeruore pe ayenwy3te of pe ulesse / is zuo heuy / Jet he The flesh drags 

dra3j) Jane gost a-doun wylle he / nolle he. and Jeruore 8pm 

pe ilke greate zuetnesse Jet Je herte cowteraplatif uelj / 

be pe yefje of wysdome ine Jise dyadliche lyue. ne is [Foi. 77. b.] 

bote a litel zuel3 / huerby me smack ep hou god is in this earth the 

zuete / and zofte as me taste J? and sniackyj Jet wyn. taste of GodV* 

erjan me drincj his uolle. Ac huaraie me ssel come J.utwhra'he shall 

in-to be create tauerne / huer be tonne is be-take. bet is com * l nto the 

* ° it t great tavern 

ine pe liue eurelestinde. huer Jet god of loue / and of (heaven), 

pays / is / of blisse / and of lostes / and of solas / ssel 

bi zuo abandones to echen / Jet alle ssolle by uolle. 

Ase zayj pe sauter. Jpet al pe wylninge of pe herte he shau drink his 

ssolle be uolueld Jer. huaraie god ssel do come ope his 

urendes ane ulod of pays / ase zay J pe prophete. huerof f 0r God shall - 

hi ssolle by zuo uol dronke / Jet hi ssolle by alle dronke / frtendTafood of 

of pe greate plente / Jet is ine Jine house / and his sselt JJJJ 8 ^^ all 

do drinke of pe ulode of pine zuetnesse / and of fine 8ha11 ** drank - 


likinge. Jet mid Je is Je welle of lyue. Jet is Je welle 
eurelestinde / Jet alneway kuel3 l / and fayly ne may. 
Jet is god zelf / Jet is welle of liue / and sterue ne may. 
huerof arist / and gej doun aboue alle Je ha^en. Jet 
bye]? / and ssolle bi ine paradis / a ulod of blisse / of 
lost / and of pais, zuo grat / Jet alle Jo Jet Jerof drinke J : 
To win this bless- hi bye J dronke. pet is bet pays and be blissinge bet 

ing one shall live 

soberly in this ssel by me Je wordle Jet is cominde hire uor to wyne / 
and habbe / me ssel libbe sobreliche ine Jise wordle. 
ase zayj) saynt austin. Yor now ne dringj of ])ise 
stremes of pais : Jet ne is dronke of Je plente of blisse : 

sobriety cometh jet ne lokej sobrete. Jet is Je mrtue Jet Je yef Je of 
wysdom zet ine berte / aye Je tomocbelbede of glotunye. 
Yor wysdom tekj sobrete / ase Salomon zayj. Sobrete 
is a traw wel precions. nor hit lokej Je helje of Je zaule 

Giuttonyproduces and of Je bodie ase zayj Je writinge. Of glotonye of 

sickness and 

often death. mete and of drinke to mocbe : eomej nele greate zik- 

nesses. and ofte Je dyaj. Yor be to mocbe drinke and 

Death seizes e the : sterfb mocbe nolk / and be dyab his nimb sodayn- 

gluttons suddenly, m r I r <J r r J 

as one doth the liche / ase me nimb bane yiss by be cheake. bet is to 

fish by the cheek. ' , 

zigge / Je morsel ine Je mouje. 

Jpise u/rtue me ssel loky toppe alle Jinges. nor Je 

gnodes Jet hi dej to Jan : Jet his wel lokej. Yerst / 
Drunkenness de- sobrete lokej be skele / and to Je onderstondinge hire 
freedom™ 11 ° w uridom / Jet dronkenesse hire be-nymj. Yor Je ilke 

Jet is dronke / is zno y-nome of wyn : Jet he lyest 
The drunkard skele / and onderstondinge / and is ase adrayngt ine 

loses his reason, ' ° ' ° ° 

and the wine wvin. and huaraie he wenb drinke bet wyn : bet wyn 

drinketh (drown- . r * J r J 

eth) him. dryngj him. pe ojer guod Jet sobrete makej is Jet hi 

deliurej Jane man of to nonl Jreldom. Jet is of Je 

The glutton breldome of be wombe. Yor be glotonn / and be to 

makes a god of , . 

his beiiy, moche nimere of metes : make J of hare womben hare 

god. ase zayj zaynte panl. Yorzoje moche he him 
onworjej : Jet seruej to ane zuiche nonle lhorde / ase 

out of which go to his wombe. huerof ne may go out : bote uelbe and 

filth and stench. . 

stench. Ac sobrete" lokej man ine his lhordssip. uor 
1 For kueljj. 


J?e gost ssel by Ihord ouer ]?et body, and Jet body ssel The spirit should 

semi to pe goste. j?e J?ridde guod J?et sobrete maked body! ° Verthe 

is J?et hi loki ]>e gate of J?e castele aye j?ane ost of pe [FoI. 77. a.] 

dyeule. ]?et is f e niouj? ]?et is ]?e mayster gate of J?e The mouth is the 

castele of J>e herte / Jet pe dyeuel asaylej? ase moche Z^Zfthlhll*. 

ase he may. Ac sobrete him wer]? ]?e gate / Jet is Je 

mouj. And huarme Je gate of Je mouje is open : pe 

gest of zeraie gej in li3liche / and uor na3t he vi3t ayen 

pe ojre zennes / Jet na^t wyjhalt his tonge. Huo Jet 

hej Jise u/rtue : he hej of his bodye pe lhordssip. 

Alsuo ase me ouercomj Jet hors bi pe bridle, sobrete Sobriety is first 

hep pe uerste batayle ine pe ost of uz'rtues / and lokej / SSTtof virtues. 

and were]? pe ojre mrtues. Jeanne pe dyeuel uondede 

uerst / ase be pe mouje / of oure lhorde Jo he him The devil tempted 

zede / Jet he ssolde maki of stones bread. Alsuo he the mouth. * by 

asaylede Jane uerste man be pe mouje / and him ouer- 

com. uor he him openede pe gate of his castele / Jo he 

him co?zsentede to pe uondinge. To loki sobrete ous 

tekj / kende. writinge. an alle ssepje. kende / Jet 

amang pe bestes / man he]? J?ane leste mouj be pe 

bodie. Efter man to pe o]?re lemes y-dobled / ase pe Man hath some 

e3en / [and] earen / ac—he ne he]? bote enne mouj. Ine Keta^omV 

pet ous tekj kende / Jet me ssel ethe lite / and drinke onemouth - 

lite, uor kende is mid lite y-payd. and be to moche 

of mete / is ofte y-ueld doun. f)e writinge ous tekj 

sobrete. ine uele manyeres / and be manye uorbysnes / 

ase mo3e ysi / ]?o J?et conne]? pe writinge onderstonde / 

an ]?o ]?et yzyej? be liues of haben. Efterward / alle ah creatures 

,,,,.., . ., ., _ teach us sobriety. 

ssep]?es techej? sobrete. uor me alle ssep]?es / he]? god 
yzet ri3te mesure / ase zay]? Salomon ine pe holy writ- 
inge. Sobrete ne is ojer bing Jamie to loki ri3te sobriety is a mean 

between too much 

mesure. Jjet alneway halt J?ane middel me to moche : and too little, 
and to lite, be J?an J?et scele a-li^t be grace tekj. Yor 
ine J?ise timliche guodes / J?et / J?et is to moche to 
onen : is to lite to ano]?ren / and }?et / ]?et is to moche 
to ane poure manne : to ane riche manne hit were ofte- 

" be well ordained 
to God,' 


zipes to lite. Ac sobrete and temperance / zet ouer-al 
Even in fastings, mesure. Alsuo ine gostliche guodes : ase ine uestinges / 

watchings, &c, m g & & m & ' 

sobriety must be ine wakiinges / ine dissiplines / and ine opre dedes of 
mrtue / pet bye]? y-do uor god / an uor note of pe 
zaule : zet mesure. zuyche ase scele acsep. pe virtue 

The virtue of of temperance and of sobrete. be ilke m'rtues lokep 

temperance must . 

be observed in all mesure sceluolle. na3t onlepiliche ine mete and me 

drinke : ac in alle m'rtues. ase zay[p] saynt bernarrl. 

for it moderates Vor pi se uirtue zet alle ]>e ]?03tes. alle pe willes. alle pe 

i^SSi steriynges of pe herte. and aUe pe wyttes of J>e bodye / 

of the body. outnime pe lhordssip of ri3te scele. ase zayp tullius pe 

wyse. zuo pet sl li^te scele be pe yefpe of wysdome / 

halt ine pese pe lhordssip of pe herte / and of pe bodie. 

The end of all and pet is pe ende and pe onderstondinge of alle 

heart andboly 116 ™rtues Jet pe herte and pet body by wel y-ordayned to 

god. zuo pet god onlepiliche by he3 lhord. ine zuyche 

manere pet al by ine his bo3samnesse al pet he hep ine 

pe regne of bodye and of pe zaule. and pet make]) 

sobre loue of god. J>et zet of al / pe herte in-to pe wille 

of god. panne zaynt austin zayp. pet pe m'rtue of 

temperance and of sobrete / is alone pet is yloked to 

and be withdrawn god y-hollyche wyp-oute corrupcion. and ous wyp- 

this world. dra3p uram pe loue of hier benepe. pet is pe loue of 

[Foi. 78. a.] pise wordle / pet troublep pe herte of man / and hise 

zet ine zo^e. and him benimp ri3tuolle knaulechinge of 

god / and of him-zelue. Alsuo ase me ne Z13J? na3t 

The love of God bri3tliche ine pe wetere ystered. Ac pe loue of god / 

sets the heart in ... , , inn tit / ■,*■.-. 

peace. pet is wel y-clensed of alle erpliche loue / and of alle 

ulessliche willes zet pe herte ine pais. Yor hi him dep 

and zet ine his 03ene stede. pet is ine gode. per he him 

restep. per he is in pais, ne ne hep blisse / ne reste : 

our Lord saith, bote per. panne zayp oure lhord ine his spelle. 'pou 

tr^iifnthis 36111 sselt ^y ine trauayl ine pise wordle. ac ine me pou 

world but in me sse it yi n de reste.' And saynt austin zede. 'Lhord: 

shalt thou find m ° 

r e st -" min herte ne may by ine pais : alhuet hi restep ine 

pe.' pe ilke loue ne wext na3t of erpe / ne of mares. 


Of pise wordle. Ac hy com]? doun of be hese roche This love cometu 

, , . ,•.-• . down from the 

nueroppe hi ys yzet and y-mad pe greate cite of high rock (Jesus 

paradis / and pe cite of noli cherche. pet is Iesu h 8t) ' 

crist J ope huam byep y-set and ymad uestliche be 

guode bileaue. pe stronge casteles. pet byep pe herten 

of guode men. Of po he3e roche com]) doun pe welle ofthiBrock 

of loue ine herte pet is wel y-clenzed uor pe loue of pe oTtove^to the* 

wordle. Jpe ilke welle is zuo clier and zuo y-zendred / heart * 

pet pe herte hire y-knaup / and j-zi^p hire zelue and 

hire makiere. alsuo ase me jzi^p ine ane uayre welle 

wel yzendred. ope po welle pQ herte restep efter pe By that wen the 

tmuayl of guode workes / ase we redep of Iesu crist after its labour of 

oure lhord. pet po he hedde zuo moche y-guo pet he sood works * 

wes al weri / he him zette and restede ope pe welle. pe 

ilke welle boue pet guode herte / he pet him wille 

ber^e / him restep is pe loue of god. pe ilke welle is This wen is sweet 

zuo zuete and of zuo guod smac : pet pe ilke pet perof 

dringp / uoryet alle opre zuetnesses and opre smakkes. 

pe ilke welle ne uelp na^t pane fauc ne pe erpe / ne it i* pure and un- 

pane merss of pise wordle / and peruore hy is zuete and 

of guod smac to drinke. uor ase moche ase be welle «»d wholesome to 

° r drink. 

yuelp lesse of pe erpe : zuo moche hi is po holer and 

be betere of to drinke. bet is be welle of wytte and of u iB the wel1 of 

r . witandof 

wysdome. uor pe ilke pet perof dringp / he knaup wyt wisdom, 

, . and whoso 

and wysdom and velp / and smackep pe greate zuet- drinketh thereof 
nesse pet is ine god / and pet is pe he3este wyt of wisdom. 
man : wel to knawe his sseppere / and him louie mid 
al his herte. Yor wypoute pise nlosofie / alle opre 
wyttes ys folye. 

Zuych wyt zet pe holy gost ine herte / pawne he such wit the 

. « Holy Ghost 

him yefp pane yefpe of wisdom / pet is herte of gost- giveth, 
liche blisse / and hire adraynkp / and makep him 
dronke of holy loue. Huet wyt is pet / pet pe holy 

zet m-to be herte wel y-clenzed : bet ich habbe and setteth it in 

1/1 • i - n tne heart » 

hier be-uore y-ssewed / huer pet is spek of pe wyttes of 

pe zaule / ate ginninge of pe dra^pe of mrtue. and per- 



to make it sober, 
meek, and patient. 

None may live in 
this world with- 
out " some 
fighting of tempt- 

[Fol. 79. a.] 

The good heart, 
when it hath 
well fought, 

returns to itself 
and resteth in 

uore ich paci Je ssortlaker. })et gostliche wyt Jet com]? 
of stedeuest loue of god. makej Je herte sobre / and 
zofte / and alle fringes a-mesurej / zuo Jet Je herte Jet 
is ine zuich stat is ine payse / ase hi may by ine Jrise 
dyadliche Hue. Vor ine Jrise wordle / non ne may 
libbe wyj-oute torment / and wyj-oute zome vi3tinge 
of temptacion. Jet god zent ofte uor to uondi his 
kny3tes. and uor fan Jet hi co/me usy of armes of 
u/rtue. uor ojerlaker hi ne nu^e by guode kny^tes. 
panne me couje maky Je tornoymens ine time of pays. 
Ac huawne Je guode kny^t het ouercome Jet tornoy- 
me^t : he went ayen to his house. Jer he him restej 
al in eyse. Alsuo dej pe guode herte huarcne hi he J 
wel yuo^te and hej ouercome pet tornenoyment of 
uondmges : ha comj ayen to him-zelue / and him 
restej ine god. pet him confoitep efter pe trauayl / zuo 
Jet he Jer uoryet al his trauayl. and ne JengJ bote of 
god. huer he uint al Jet he wilnej. ])et is Jet frut Jet 
pe traw of sobrete berj / Jet com]? of pe yefje of wys- 
dom / ase ich habbe aboue yzed. 

Of the steps of 

Moderation shall 
be observed in 
five things. 

1. Set bounds to 
the understanding 
and to belief. 

Those overstep 
moderation who 

I 1 misbylejinde ?] 

and measure be- 
lief by their un- 


Ase ich habbe aboue yssewed / sobrete ne is ojer 
ping I bote to loky ri3te mesure ine alle pinges. Ac 
specialliche : ine vyf Jringes me ssel loki mesure. j)et 
byej alsuo ase zeue stapes huerby wext and profitej Jet 
traw of sobrete. 

pe uerste stape of sobrete* is / Jet me zette mesure in 
his onderstondinge. spacialliche to pe articles and to pe 
poyns of pe beleaue. pe ilke ouergej mesure / Jet wyle 
zeche kendelich skele / ine Jan Jet is aboue onderstond- 
inge / ase do J Je bougres / and Je misbylefde. 1 Jet 
wyllej mesuri Je beleaue be hare onderstondinge. ac hi 
ssolden mesuri hire onderstondinge and hare skele to Je 
mesure of Je beleaue / Jet god ous hej y-yeue. And 
Salomon zayde to his zone. ' Vayre zone / do in-to Jine 


wytte mesure.' J)et is to zigge / Jet Jou ne bi na 3 t / of Man should not 

zuo o 3 ene wytte / ne na 3 t zuo ypi 3 t in fine ouerweninge : TJZ?-™^ 

Jet Jou ne flechchi / nor to leue to guod red. and Jet dent " 

Jou ne lete fin o 3 ene wyt / uor to bou 3 e to Je wyser 

Jamie Jon. And specialliche to J?e articles of Je beleaue 

me ssel lete his o 3 ene wyt / and his onderstondinge He should set his 

flechehi / and zette ine Jreldom of J>e beleaue / ase zayj ™^ad^toteiitf. 

zayte paul. na 3 t nor to apeluchier ne zeche kendelich 

scele. hner he non ne hej / ase dof Je bysye / ojer Je 

malancolien / Jet byej ylich Jan Jet zek 3 l Je crammeles 

ine Je russoles. ojer Jan Jet zekj Jet uel ine Je aye / 

ojer fane knotte ine Je resse. 

j)e ojer stape is / Jet me zette mesnre ine Je loste 2. set measure in 
and mid Je likinge of Je wille / Jet me ne him ne aslaky piLureTahV 
na 3 t to moche Jane bridel to yerne to lostes of Je ulesse / w,n * 
ne to J?e couaytise of Jise wordle. Jjanne Je wyse zayj 
ine Je writ[i]nge. ' Ne nol 3 e na 3 t he zayj Je couaitises ne Follow not the 
Je wylninges of Jine herte / and Je miswende to do Ji S2taST° f 
wyl / Jet Jon hit ne uoluelle na 3 t. and yeld gnod skele. 
uor yef Jon dest to Jine herte his wyl : Jon makest 
blisse to Jine vyendes / Jet bye J Je dyenlen of helle.' 
uor alsuo ase Je ilke Jet makej blisse to his uo / ayens 
huam he ssel ui 3 te / huawne he him yelt to him ouer- 
come. Yef he him yelt ouereome to Je dyeule Jet him Consent not to 
cowsentej to his euele wylninges. J?eruore zayj zayte ^ vil ' 8S ^ e8 " 
peter Je apostel. * ich you helsny / Jet ye ase oncouje / 
and pilgrimes / you loki uram wilninges.' pe ilke bet Travellers in a 

. 1 . ■, . . , strange country 

is pilgnm and me oncouje contraye / huer byej manye are watchful for 

Jyeues an robberes Jet aspiej Je pilgrims / and waytej ^ C ra. h 5!b!i 

Je wayes : ham lokej moche / Jet hi ne ualle ine Je 

honden of Jyeues. and JengJ? hou he may guo zikerliche. 

Alle be guode men ine bise wordle byeb oncoube and A11 s 00 * 1 men are 

._ ; __. J J r r like pilgrims. 

pilgnms. Hi byej oncouje / uor hi byej oute of hare 
contraye. Jet is paradys. Jet is Je contraye / and heritage 
to guode men. Hi ne byej jjenchinde bote uor to Their heritage is 
uoluelle hire iornayes / al huet hi come]? to hare eritage / p* 1 "*^®- 
1 For 7,ek\>. 



The good pil- 
grims choose 
good society, 

and pursue their 
journey by right 
belief and true 

They have no fear 
of thieves, that is, 
the devil and his 

Belief and love of 
God lead them 

The heart is like 
a bird, 

and is liable to fly 
into the snare. 

Control thy will, 

as one doth the 
horse with a 

Sobriety is the 

Observe modera- 
tion in words. 

Jet is Je cite of paradis / Jet Je guode pilgnms zechej. ase 
zayj zaynte paul. Jetne habbej / ne nolle]) habbe Je eri- 
tage bier in Jise wordle. Zuycbe pilgnms Jet wille J guo 
zikerliche : hi doj bam ofte ine guode uela^rede / and 
ine zikere guoinge. pe guode uela3rede Jet let zikerlicbe 
and guo]) ri^tuolliche / is byleaue / and loue. beleaue / 
let Jane way to pilgnmes. ac loue bis berj). zuo Jet Je 
way bam greuej lite / ojer na3t. Huo Jet hej zuycbe 
uela^rede : he ne bej of Jyues none drede Jet waytej Je 
wayes. ])et byej dyeulen Jet nimej and robbej alle 
Jo / Jet none zuiche nela^rede ne babbej. Jpet bye J Jo 
Jet wyllej do byere / hyre lostes : Jet bam doj in-to Je 
bonden / and in-to Je gnnes of Je dyeule. Beleaue / 
and loue of god. of-halt Je berte / and bis wyjdra^t 
uram queade Jo3tes / and uram fole l lostes / Jet be ne 
consenti. Alsuo ase me ofbalt Jane uojel be Je ges / 
Jet be ne vly to bis wylle. j)e herte is ase is Je uo^el 
Jet wolde vly to bis wylle / and bote by by ofhealde / 
be Je ges of beleaue / and of loue / by uly3j perilous - 
licbe / zuo Jet by byre spilj / and ualj ofte into Je 
grines / of Je uo3elere of belle. Jet is Je dyeuel / Jet ne 
wylnej / bote to nime Jane uo3el. J)eruore Je guode 
man and Je wyse / wyjdra3ej bare wyl / and hare 
lostes / and hare Jo3tes. be temperance and be sobrete 
Huerof senekes zayj. ' yef Jou louest to bi sobre / and 
atempre : wyjscore / and wyjdra3 Jine willes / and zete 
ane brydel to Jine couaytises.' Vor alsuo ase me wyj- 
halt Jet bors by Je bridle Jet bit ne guo na3t to bis 
wille : alsao me ssel ofhyealde Je herte be Je briddle of 
sobrete / Jet hy ne yeue hire na3t / to Je wille ne to Je 
couaytise of Jise wordle. 

J)e Jridde stape of sobrete is / zette and loki mesure 

ine wordes. Huerof Salomon zayj. Jpet ' Je wyse / and 

Je wel yto3te / temprej / and mesure J his wordes.' And 

saynt Ierome zayj. Jet 'mid ueawe wordes / is y- 

1 MS./ofo 


proued marines lyf.' fet is to zigge. by J?e wordes me By words may 

may yknawe fe folyes / and J>e wyttes of men. Yor ltdomTmanbe 

ase me knauf fet zuin be f e tonge / yef bit ys hoi. known * 

of er aboue y-zawe. and f eruore zayj? fe wyse ine J?e 

writinge. fet ' pe wordes of f e wyse byej? y-we^e ine f e 

waye.' jpet is to zigge / Jjet fe wyse ssel zuo we^e pe Weigh thy word 

wordes ine f e waye of skele and of discrecion fet per ne Ss^n?"* ° f 

by najt to wyf-nymene. Zome uolk byef / fet ne mo^e 

ham na;t hyalde stille / ne m^t h&m loki / fet hi ne zigge / 

by hit zop by hit leazinge. })et byef ase pe melle wyf- 

oute scluse. fet alne-way went be pe yernynge of be 

wetere. Yor hi habbef ase nele wordes / ase per com]) 

of weter to fe melle. Ac pe wise zettef fe scluse of The wise setteth 

discrecion / nor to ofhealde fet weter of fole wordes. Se^on S kL?" 

and to nele. fet hi ne guo be fe melle of pe tonge. J>er- J^££! ror 

uore zayf pe wyse ine pe writinge. <Yzi3 Jet weter] 

yerne.' pet is to zigge : hald fine wordes ine f e scluse 

of discrecion. uor ase zayf Salomon. ' Huo Jet let guo 

fet weter to his wille : he is ofte cause of strif / and of 

chidinge / and of manie kuedes / Jjet come J? of kueade Manyeviiscomeof 

tonge.' ase ich habbe be-uore yzed/ine pe chapitele of the evil ton ^ ue - 

nices. huer ich spek of f e zenne of pe tonge. Jjeruore 

zayj? wel pe wyse ine pe writinge. ' do' zayj? he ' / fine 

wordes ine waye / and guod bridel ine bine moube. and Take heed that 

. n thou fall not by 

mm hede fet fou ne ualle be fine tonge be-uore J)ine thy tongue, 
uo : fet pe asspief .' An-of er zayf. ' Do to fine mouf e / Put a door and 
a dore and a loc. and to fine wordes : a waye and a mo°uth. y 
yok.' Huo Jiet ne we^f his wordes ine pe waye of discre- 
cion. and ne of halt na$t his tonge by pe bridle of skele. 
Jjet ssel of hyealde pe tonge of kueade wordes. he ualf He who does not 
^tliche ine J?e honden of his uon. fet byef pe dyeulen / wmfidi tatottw 
Jjet oueral ous aspief / and waytejj. Huamie pe von / ^T^[ hi8foe ' 
Jjet vi$tef aye fane castel / yef hi vyndejj Jje gate oppe : 
hi guojj in lijtliche. alsuo Jje dyeuel Jjet ui3t wyjj Jjane 
castel of pe herte / huawne he uint Jje gate oppe /Jjet The mouth is the 
is Jje mouf /he nimjj h^tlichc fane castel. And feruore * ateoftheheart - 



Reason has the 
care of the mouth. 

Weigh well thy 
words ere they be 

Be not afraid to 
speak the truth, 

and speak not 
falsely to please 
any one. 

Be careful of what 
thou hearest. 

with pleasure 
evil of another, 
thou art privy to 
the sin of the 

Great men should 
consider well what 
they hear. 

Flatterers and 
liars are plentiful, 

but few are truth- 

[Fol. 80. b.] 

Great men have 
great need of 
those who 
fearlessly speak 
the truth. 

zayde dauij ine Je sautere. < Ich sette guode lokinge to 
Je mouje aye mine yuo ' / Jet is Je dyeuel. pe lokinge 
of Je mouje / Jet is skele and discrecion. Jet examenej 
Je wordes / erjan hi guo out ate mojje. Jpis is Je vi3t 
huerof Je wyse spekj ase ich habbe aboue yzed / huer 
me ssel we3e Jet word er hit by yzed. And Jou sselt 
ywyte / Jet zojmesse halt Jise ri^tuolle waye. Vor 
zojnesse aeordej Je onderstondinge of Je herte : and 
Jet word of Je moujje / as hit is ine Je herte. J^is waye 
ne ssel hongi of Jis half / ne of yend half / ari^thalf ne 
alefthalf. ))et uor none prme loue of man ne of wyf- 
man. ne uor timlich note, ne uor hate of ojren : me 
ne ssel lete to zigge zoj / huer pet me ssel / and huawne 
hit is nyed. ne leazinges / ne ualsnesse / me ne ssel 
zigge uor neraie man. 

Ase me ssel loki mesure ine wordes : alsuo me ssel 
loki mesure ine hyerje. Yor asewel me may zene^y ine 
kuede hyerfe : ase ine kueade speche. J3a?me pe ilke 
Jet yhyerj blejeliche missigge ojren : ys partiner / 
and uela3e of pe zeraie of pan Jet he yherj. ])et non ne 
wolde zigge 'blejeliche kuead of ojren / nameliche to- 
uore greate men / bote yef he ne wende Jet hit likede 
to him Jet hit hyerj. Jparaie an ha^en zayj. Jet 'non 
ne ssolde by misziggere : bote Jer by an hyerere.' ])er- 
uore Salomon zayj. ' pe norjene wynd / to-jrauj pe 
raynes / and pe lourinde chiere : pe wordes of pe 
missiggere.' ]}ise greate men hi ssolden wel ham loki / Jet 
hi hierej / and Jet hi leuej. Jet hi vindej veawe / Jet 
zoj ham zigge. Ac ulatours / and lye3eres / bye J to 
grat cheap ine hare cort. j)e meste dierje Jet is aboute 
ham / is of zojnesse / an of trewje. and Jeruore hi byej 
ofte y-giled. ])et hi yherej blejeliche / and y-leuej 
li^tliche Jet me ham zayj and Jet ham likej. Senekes 
zayj. Jet Jer ne lackej to greate lhordes : bote zoj 
ziggeres. Yor hi habbej I^eres / and vlatours : to 
greate cheape. and veawe zoj ziggeres. Me ssel habbe 


pe earen opene / uor to hyere blepeliche / pe guode 

wordes / pet byep worp to pe help of zaule. and y-sset : Shut th y ears t0 

to fole wordes / ydele / and queade. pet im^e do harm : 

and ne mo^e do guod. J^eruore pe wyse zayp ine pe 

writmge. « Stoppe pine earen mid pomes, and ne hyer ®* op theui with 

na^t pe queade tongen.' pe queade tonge : is tonge of 

eddre of helle / pet pe misziggeres berep. and enuenimep 

po pet his y-herep. Aye zuyche tongen me ssel stoppi 

pe yeren mid pornes / mid be drede of oure lorde / that is, with the 

. r I r i fearo f t heLord. 

oper mid pe pornes huermide god wes y-corouned / uor 
bebenchinge of his passion : Vor huo bet heb drede of For who that 

r to r m . feareth God will 

god / and bepenchinge of his passion : he nolde na3t not listen to liars 
blepeliche y-hyere pe misziggeres / ne flatours / ne fole 
wordes / ne lodliche. In anopre manere me may on- 
derstonde pis word. ' Stoppe pine yeren mid pornes.' 
j)e pornes pet prikiep / be-toknep harde wordes and 
prekiinde / heruore me ssel w} r pnime pe missiggeres / 
and maki his stille and ssewy semblont pet me ne hierp 
his na^t blepeliche. per is an eddre pet is y-hote ine The asp cioseth 
latin / aspis. pet is of zuiche kende / pet hi stoppep pet a^the^er*^ 
on eare mid erpe / and pet oper mid hare tayle / pet hi ^s^ma'^not 
ne yhere pane charmere. pe ilke eddre ous tekp a wel hear the cnarmer 
grat wyt / pet we ne hyere na3t pane charmere / pet is The liar and 
pe lye 3 ere / and pe natour. pet ofte be-charmep pe riche SSS^tone 
men. Ac huo bet stoppep bet on eare mid erpe / and must beware of. 

He who stops ills 

pet oper mid pe tayle : he ne ssolde habbe none hede to ears will not be 

besmiled by 

bi be-charmed of pe dyeule / ne of kueade tongen. flattery; 

pe ilke stoppep pet on eare mid erpe : pet pengp pet he and win think of 

, t _ . the earth from 

is of erpe / and to erpe ssel come, and zuo pencne his whence he came, 

uoulhede and his ziknesse. huemore he him ssel moche 

mildi : and na^t him praysy. pet oper eare stoppi mid 

pe tayle / uor to bepenche of pe dyape / pet him ssel and of death that 

wel astonie. Huo pet pus coupe stoppi his earen : * ^ l e w^thinketh" 

he nolde yhyere blepeliche zigge / ne record! ping: pet ^^tustefto 

ssolde misliki god. and zuo ssoldo he by wel ytempred / words^dispieasmg 

'MS. war en 




Moderation in 
clothing is the 
fifth step of 
Excess is a sin, 

wherefore we 
should not be over 
busy in adorning 

He is a fool and 
childish that is 
proud of his 

The wearing of 
clothes comes of 
the sin of our first 

[Fol. 81. a.] 

Under fair robes 
there is often a 
dead soul. 

Nature has 
adorned the pea- 
cock and cock. 

Nature has given 
man no clothes of 
which to be proud. 

St. Paul says that 
women shall 
adorn themselves 
with propriety. 

Many poor might 
be sustained by 
the number of 
robes that one 
woman wears in a 

and amesured ine hyerje and ine lhestinge. And Jis 
is Je uerje stape of sobrete. 

j)e uifte stape is / to loki mesure of ssredinge of 
pr^ciouse robes / huerof me pasej moche mesure / and 
make]? moche ouerdoinges. and Jeruore Jet ouerdede is 
grat ze/zne / and uelezije anchesoun to zene ine ojren. 
Jeruore me ssel ine zuyche Jinges loky mesure. Vor 
bit is to moche of przs and to moche bysy agrayjinge 
ne were zenne : oure lhord ne speke na3t zuo stefliche 
ine his spelle a-ye Je queade riche / Jet zuo ofte ham 
ssredej / ase of to zofte bougeren and of to moche of 
pn's pourpre. 0. moche is he fol uorzo Je / and child of 
wytte / Jet of his ssredinge is proud. Me ssolde him 
wel hyealde fol : Jet were proud to bere Je ssredinge. 
Jet ne ssolde by bote a tokne. and a bejenchinge of Je 
ssame of his uader / and of his 03ene. j)es wone of 
robes nes yuounde / bote uor Je zenne of oure uerste 
uader uor to wry his confusion / and oure. Hua^ne 
me jzi^p bere ane byrie. Jet is tokne Jet Jer is wyjine 
a dyad, alsuo hit y-ualj ofte / Jet onder Je uayre 
robes : is Je zaule dyad be zeraie / and nameliche ine 
Jan Jet ham gledyej / and predej. Yef Je pokoc him 
prette uor his uayre tayle. and Je coc uor his kombe / 
hit ne is no wonder Jet kende ham hej y-yeue / an 
doj be hare kende. Ac man ojer wyfman / Jet hej 
wyt and skele / and wot wel Jet kende ne hej na3t y- 
yeue him Jet ilke ssroud / he ne ssel him na3t prede : 
of Je ssredinge of his bodye. ne of Je quayntises of his 
heuede. jeruore zayj Je wyse ine Je writinge. < ne glede 
Je na3t ine uayr ssroud.' And zaynte paul Jus zay[J]. 
pet Je wyfmen hi ssolle ham agrayji : mid sobrete. Jet 
is to zigge : be mesure / and wyj-oute ouerdoinge / be 
Je stat / Jet Je wyfman acsej. Yor zoje Jet ne is na3t 
wyj-oute ouerdoinge. Jet on wyfman. ssel habbe uor 
hare body ine one yere zuo uele payre of robes / and 
of diuerse maneres / huerof manye poure im^ten by 



sostened of pan pet is to mocha Ac yet eft yef hi but they are not 
weren ate ende y-yeue uor godes lone to J>e poure : yet tntV&TS^' 
hit were zomping. ac hi bye]? ofte y-ycue to rybaus pet Iute * 
is wel grat ze?me. Jjeruore me ssel loki mesure ine 
zuyche pinge be pe stat pet pe persone acsep ase ich 
habbe aboue y-zed. 

pe zixte stape of temperance and of sobrete is / pet The sixth step of 
ech loki guode mesure ine his contenonce / and ine his modeVaUoiTin 
beringe. Jpawne seneke zayp. Yef J? on art sobre and £S^ dthat 
atempred / mm pou hede pet pe steriynges of pine ]£?„* ^ante 
herte ne of pine bodye / ne by uoule ne onworpi. Vor foul or m y- 
of pe discordance of pe herte : comp pe discordance of 
pe bodie. Zome per byep zuo childhedi / and of zuo Some are so 
nice manure / pet hi makep ham-zelue to by hyealde e^t^eitf 
foles. Hit becomp wel to man of worssipe / and pet is % *£*** upon 
ine grat stat / pet he by wel ordine / and amesured ine Look that thy 
alle his dedes / and in alle his zigginges. and of uayre £££$,£. 
contenonce to-uore alle men / zuo bet non ne moie be ' led astra T by 

' » ■> thy example- 

nime of him kueade uorbisne / ne pet he ne by yhealde 

uor fol / ne uor child. Yor ase zayp a grat filosofe. 

' child of elde. child of wytte. and child of peawes : 

byep al on.' pe writinge zayp pet / pet child of an The child of an 

hondred year : ssel by acorsed. pet is to zigge. pet pe *£? bfacTrTed, 

ilke pet hep nolle elde / and leuej, ase a child : ssel by ^/JLSsh. 

acorsed of god. panne zaynte paul zayde of him-zelue. 

' J?o ich wes child : ich dede ase a child, ich p03te ase 

a child, ac zeppe ich com to elde of uol man : ich 

uo[rlet] alle mine childhedes.' Yor huo bet halt aid Hewhohoideth 

* an old man a 

man uor child : he hine halt uor foL And peruore child hoideth Mm 
zayp zaynte paul. ' E~e by na3t child of wytte. ac ine a °° ' 
queadnesse by lite.' ISou is hit pa?me guod ping and 
oneste. profitable / and worpssipuol to man an to wyf- Ever r mftn and 

s J woman shall so 

man / and nameliche to grat uolk. pet hi loki sceluolle order their con * 

. . duct that it be 

mesure / me berynge / me contenonce / and pet hi by decorous, profit- 

,, ill -I/it able, and honour- 

wel ordyne oueral. and be-uore god / and be-uore pe able before God 
uolke. And pis is pe zixte stape of pise trawe. 


observe moder- J^e zeuend stape is / to loki mesure ine mete and 

ation in meat and . . * p -i • i jr. 

drink. ine dnnke. Vor ouerdede of mete and of dnnke : dep 
moche harm ine bodie and ine zaule. ase ich habbe be- 

[Foi. 8i. b.] nore y ze ^ m Jperuore zayp oure lhord ine bis spelle 

Load not the * Nimep ye hede / pet youre herten / ne by ygreued / 

Bins o7giuttony ne y-charged of glotounie / ne of dronkebede. , Jpet is to 

and drunken- Z ^ Q j ^ j )QU ne ^ 01ler( i i n g e f me t e and of drinke. 


Sobrete lokep mesure ine mete and ine drinke. pet me 
of excess in meats ne maki ouerdoinge. Of pe ouerdoinges pet me wes y- 
the chapter woned to do ine drinke and ine mete / ich habbe yno3 

giuttony'stleated yspeke ine pe dra3fe of vices huanne pet ich spek of pe 
of ' zeraie of glotunie / to huam pis mrtue huerof ich habbe 

yspeke / zuo is contraiie specialliche. and peruore ich 

nelle naranore hyer speke. 

Nou hest pou y-herd pe stapes huerbi pis traw wext 
Moderation is to and notep. and yef pou wylt ywyte pe bo3es of pise 
virtues! ma trawe : yzi3 alle pe opre mVtues / pet byep y-contynent 

ine pis boc. and pon sselt yuinde oneral pise mVtu. 

Yor ase ich habbe yzed aboue / and y-ssewed. J)is 

utrtue zet mesure in alle pe mVtues. hueruore ich 

zigge / pet alle pe opre mVtues byep bo3es of pise, uor 
it is a fair tree, hy hyre ssewep ine alle pe opre bo3es. ])et traw berp 
peace of heart, we l uayr frut. and wel smakinde. pet is pais of herte. 
He who hath this ase ich habbe aboue yzed. Vor huo pet hep pise 

virtue is joined to . .. - 

God by charity, mrtue : ne hep pe herte zuo to-deld uram pe loue of pe 

and is separated -n / ^ t t ■% i i • , , ■ 

from the world's wordle / and zuo y-yoyned to god be chante. pet is 

love » charite : loue of god. Yor hi zet alle opre pinges ine 

and so he resteth uoryetinge pet ne byep na3t ydy3t to god. And ine 

comfort and bliss, zuyche manyre pe herte him restep ine god. huer hi 

hep al hire contort, hire blisse / and hire lost, pet 

such bliss setteth pasep alle opre lostes. Zuych comfort / zuych lost / set 

theSart^haTi/ 11 J> e ^ ol J g° st ine herte )> et is uolmad ine pe mVtue of 

^tf J%. sobret6 / * Qt com > of P e y ef > e of w y sdome / a « e ich 
habbe aboue yzed. Yorzope he pet zuich pays of herte 

mi3te habbe / and yuele : he ssolde hi?n resti ine god / 

pet is pe ende / and pe uoluellinge / and pe somme of 


his wylnmges. he ssolde bi y-blissed ine Jise wordle / 

and ine be obre. uor he ssolde habbe y-wonne be ilke Tbe peaceable are 

* * mm blessed and are 

blissinge Jet god behat ine his spelle to ham Jet Jise called God's sons. 

ilke pais lokede wyj-oute brekinge. uor he zayj Jet hi 

byej yblissed Je paysible. uor hi ssolle by y-cleped 

godes zones. J>o byej? payzible / Jet zayj zaint austin / ^o^ are peace .j 

Jet alle Je steriinges of Je herte ordayne J / and zettej J^^^g^ 1 

onder be lhordssipe of ri^te scele and of be goste. ]3os & e heart °y tne 

lordship of reason. 

byej ari^t y-cleped children / uor hi berej Je anlik- 

nesse of hire uader / Jet is Je god of loue and of pais. 

aze zayj zainte paul. and Jamie pays and loue of god / Peace and the love 

is Jet Jing Jet mest makej man anlikni to god. and Je uke God. 

eo7i[t]rarie to Je dyeule Jet is godes uo. Efterward / 

hi byej y-cleped godes zones, uor hi uol^ej al hare 

uader wel nier Jamie eni o Jer. uor pays / and loue / him 

uoljej more nyer : Jamie eni oJ?er virtue. Efterward / are called God's 

hi doj Je workes of hire uader. uor god ne com in-to d^God'Two^ks! 67 

Jise wordle / bote tomaki pays be-tuene god and man. S^o^ 1 "* 

be-tuene man and angle, be-tnelne! man and himzelue. make **** with 

l j God and man. 

J)awne Jo he wes ybore / Je angles zonge uor Jet pays [Foi. 82. a ] 

Jet god hedde y-bro^t in-to erje. and Jeruore Jet Je 

uolk ne ssolde zeche bote pays. jeruore Jamie Jet hi 

byej godes zones / hi byej yblissed ine Jise wordle God's sons are 

-i .-• A , .-n , ,. , , , , blessed in this 

be special grace. Ac Je like olissinge ssel by uolmad WO rid by special 
huamie hi ssolle by ine payzible possession of Je £J^ eir blis8 ^ 
eritage of hire uader / bet is of be riche of heuene huer P erf « ct ed in 

c i j j heaven, 

hi ssolle by ine zikere pays, ine pese uoldo / huer alle 
lostes ssolle by uolueld. huer ne may by no kuead / 
ne zor3e / ne aduersete / ne defaute. ac abundance / where is no sin, 

/ iiT i sorrow, or adver- 

and plente of alle guode. blisse and loye wyj-oute sity, 

ende. j)et ssel by pais worjssipuol / lostuol / and everlasting peace. 

eurelestinde. Pais Jet pasej / and ouergej wyt. ase 

zayj zaynte paul. And zejje Jet hi pasej alle wyttes : 

hi pasej alle wordes. Yor herte non ne may Jenche / ^^ten'ofthf 10 

ne mamies tonge telle : huet Jing is Jet pais Jet god greatness of this 

hej behote his urendes. And Jeruore ich ne ssolde by 



wherefore i were bote a wlaffere ne zigge ping to pe uolle. And peruore 
attempt to de- i°b nelle non more zigge. ac hier ich wille endi mine 
scribe it to the matire> To j, e blisse of oure r^de j to huam by alle 

worpssipe. pet ous lete wonie ine his uela3rede / huer 
is lif eurelestinde. 

This book is come 
to an end, 
May God his bliss 
us send ! 

This book is 
written in the 
English of Kent 
for lewd men, for 
fathers and 
mothers, &c, 
to keep them from 
sin, so that their 
consciences maybe 
The author's 
name signifies 
* Who as God/ 
and may God 
give him the 
bread of angels 
and receive his 
soul when dead. 

N.B. This book 
was finished in 
the Eve of the 
Holy Apostles 
Simon and Judas, 
by a brother of 
the cloister of St. 
Austin of Canter- 
bury, in the year 
of our Lord 1340, 

[pater nosier.] 
Our father that 
art in heaven, &c. 

[aue Maria ] 
Hail Mary ! 


)?is boc is ycome to pe ende : 
Heuene blisse god ous zende. Amen. 

]S r ou ich wille pet ye ywyte hou hit is y-went : 
pet pis boc is y-write mid engliss of kent. 
Jpis boc is y-mad uor lewede men / 
Yor uader / and uor moder / and nor oper ken / 
ham uor to bei^e uram alle manyere zen / 
J?et ine hare inwyttte ne bleue no uoul wen. 
' Huo ase god ' is his name yzed / 
pet pis boc made god him yeue pet bread / 
of angles of heuene and perto his red / 
and onderuonge his zaule huanne pet he is dyad. 

Ymende. pet pis boc* is uolueld ine pe eue of pe 
holy apostles Symon an Iudas / of ane broper of pe 
cloystre of sanynt austin of Canterberi / Ine pe yeare 
of oure lhordes beringe. 1340. 

Yader oure pet art ine heuenes / y-hal^ed by pi 
name, cominde pi riche. y-worpe pi wil / ase ine 
heuene : and ine erpe. bread oure echedayes : yef ous 
to day. and uorlet ous oure yeldinges : ase and we uor- 
letep oure yelderes. and ne ous led na3t : in-to uond- 
inge. ac vri ous uram queade. zuo by hit. 

Hayl Marie / of ponke uol. lhord by mid pe. y- 
blissed pou ine wymmen. and y-blissed pet ouet of 
pine wombe. zuo by hit. 

Ich leue ine god / uader alnri^ti. makere of heuene / 


and of erpe. And ine iesn crat / his zone on-lepi / i believe in God 

ii i i • / n i i i o the Father Al- 

oure Ihord. pet y-kend is / of pe holy gost. y-bore of mighty, Maker of 

Marie Mayde. y-pyned onder pouns pilate. y-nayled a a ndYn JeLuT *' 

rode. dyad, and be-bered. yede doun to helle. pane christ » &0 - 

pridde day a-ros uram pe dyade. Stea3 to heuenes. 

zit ape ri3t half of god pe uader al-mi^ti. pannes to 

comene he is / to derae be qnike / and be dyade. Ich i believe in the 

' r M / r J Holy Ghost, &c. 

ydeue ine pe holy gost. holy cherche generalliche. 

Mewnesse of ha^en. Lesnesse of ze?mes. of ulesse 

arizinge, and lyf eurelestinde. zuo by hyt. [Fol 82 b>] 

Uor to sseawy pe lokyngeof man wyp-ircne. pellyche ^^eulneLe / 

ane norbysne / oure lhord ihesu crist zayb. ' bis uorzobe and drede : ^ 
J I j r j r hy8 wende i int0 

ywytep. pet yef pe uader of pe house wyste huyche loueofgod.] 

time pe pyef were comynde : uor-zope he wolde waky / the house knew a 

and nolde na 3 t polye pet me dolue his hous.' Be pise ^omZ^ 

uader of house me may onderstonde / pe wyl of skele. and guard his 

to huam bedongep moche mayne. )303tes. and his The Father of the 

house is the will 

besteriinge. wyt. and dedes / ase wel wyp-oute : ase of Reason, that 

. . hath many at- 

wyp-mne. pet is to zigge / huych mayne / to moche tondants, as 
slac / and wylles uol ssel by : bote yef pe ilke uaderes emotions', sense, 
stefhede hise strayny / and ordayny. Vor zope yef he ^^^u 
hym a lyte of his bysyhede wyp-dra3p : huo may zigge / ^ sloth f ul y^ess 
hou pontes, eien. earen. ton<?e. and alle obre wyttes : active - 

r 7 ? m ° . Ifthe reason is 

beeomep wylde. Hous. is in wyt / in huychen pe idle, the thoughts, 
uader of house wonep. pe hord of uirtues gaderep. Vor become wild. 
huych hord : pet ilke zelue hous ne by y-dolue / £^7^ 
he3lychehe wakep. )5er ne is na 3 t on pyef : ac uele. ac l^l^ e Jl ot 
to eche xurtue : ech vice waytep. fr&jles he3lyche by ^ one thief but 
be byeue : is onderstonde be dyeuel. a-ye huam and his The chief thief is 

r r J > * l J the Devil, the rest 

kachereles / pe ilke zelue uader / pa3les yef he ne were are his catchpoies. 
na^t onlosti : his hous mid greate strengpe wolde loky. 

))e uader of pe house / ate uerste guoinge in: he zette The Father of the 

sle3pe / to by doreward. pet y-knaup huet is to uorlete : sieight (Prudence) 

and huet ys to wylny. huet uor to bessette out of pe keeper. °° F " 

house, huet uor to onderuonge into pe house. Mxt j^^^ h 1!™ppose 

pan : ha zette strengpe, pet pe vyendes / pet sle3pe zent ^ e ^prudenoe 


to zygge / to keste out : streng]?e wy]?dro 3 e. ]?et his 
SffiidS^ uoule lostes wy]?-dro 3 e: and wy]?-zede. Ki 3 tnesse 
to^each its own uorzo]?e ssel zitte amydde / Jet echeft his o 3 en yefj?. 
At what time the Hueruore : huyche time be byef is comynde / me not. 

thief will come J Y Y J . . 

one knoweth not. ac eche tyme me ssel drede. )?ise zuo y-di 3 t : na 3 t longe 

to ]>e wakynde J?e slep of zenne benym]?. Yor al J>et 

sieight lets some lyf is to waky. Zome messagyers slesbe ssel lete in. 

messengers in to JT 

give warning. J?et zome J?inges mo 3 e telle / pet me may a-waki myde. 
The messenger of Jpus pe messagyer of dya]?e acsej? inguoynge : he is on- 
an entrance, deruonge. Me him acse]? * huo he ys. hnannes he com]?. 

and claims a 

dead silence, and huet he he]? yso 3 e. He ansuere]?. he ne may na 3 t 
"i am Dread, and z igg e : °ote yef J?er by he 3 liche clom. Huych y- 
Death^whols graunted : pus he begyn]?. * Ich am drede / and be- 
coming upon jenchinge of dya]?e. and dyaj? comyde : l ich do you to 
l l comynde?} wytene.' Sle 3 ]>e spec]) uor alle. and acse]?. 'And huer 
"Wherets Death? * s nou )> e ^ e dyaj?. an( ^ huanne ssel he come?' Drede 
Hme 1 ? S " &n he za ^- * ^ c ^ wot we * J 7 ^ ^ e ne a ^yt na 3^ to comene / and 

^swT^ 8 * n «^ e ^ ^ e * s * ac f ane da y / °f er f 3 ' 116 ty me °^ n ^ s 

hut is nigh at comynge : ich not.' Sle 3 J?e zay]?. ' And huo ssel come 

and a thousand myd hyre 1 ' Drede zay]?. ' A ]?ouzend dyeulen ssolle 

with her, come mid hire, and brenge mid ham / greate bokes / 

book b sf nggreat and bernynde hokes / and chaynen auere.' Sle 3 ]?e zay]?. 

burning hooks, < ^nd huet wy n e j, w a mid alle ban?* Drede zayb. 

and fiery chains. d j j j «/ t 

in the books are ' Ine pe bokes bye]) y-write alle pe zennen of men. and 

written men's . . . . 

sins. hise brenge]? / J?et be ham hi mo 3 e ouercome men. of 
huychen pe zennes ]?erinne byef ywryte. ]?et bye]? to 

The hooks draw hare ri 3 te. Hokes hi brenge]? / }?et ]?o ]?et bye]? to hare 

the bodies, ri 3 te ouercome}? : hire zaulen be streng]?e : of pe bodye 

chains are they dra 3 ej? out. and hise bynde]? mid ]?e chaines / and in 

into heii!" raWn to helle hise dra 3 e}?.' Sle 3 J?e zay]?. 'Huaraies comste? 

[Foi. 83. a.] Drede zay]?. ' Yram helle. Sle 3 J?e zay]?. ' And huet is 

Dread says he 

comes from heii, helle. and huet yse 3 e]?e ine helle ? ' Drede zay]?. ' Helle 
drably wideband is ^J d I wy]?-oute metinge. dyep / wy]?-oute botme. 
fan offl™ Intoier- Yo1 of brene °H>olyinde. Yol of stenche / wy-oute 
rowand d darkne"ss com V 3 '™ OW1 ' ft er i s zor 3 e. ]?er is ]>yesternesse. ]?er ne is 
non ordre. per is groniynge wy]?-oute ende. J?er ne is 


non hope of guode. non wawtrokiynge of kueade. Ech T **™} s ™ h °P e 

pet perinne is : hatep him zelue : and alle opren. J?er abundance of ills. 

ich yze3 alle manyere tormens. pe leste of alle / is more 

Jamie alle pe pynen pet 111036 by y-do ine pise wordle. 

ber is wop. and grindinge of teb. per me gep uram There is weeping 

x 00 jj and gnashing 

chele in to greate hete of uere. and buope onpolyinde. teeth. 

bere alle be uere / ssolle by uorbernd. and myd The soul shall be 

' ' . tormented by the 

wermes ssolle by y- wasted / and na^t ne ssolle wasti. wormofCon- 

Hire wermes / ne ssolle na^t sterue. and hare ver ne 

ssel neure by ykuenct. No rearde ne ssel per by y- 

hyerd / bote, wo : wo. wo hy habbep : and wo hy 

gredep. Jpe dyeules tormentors pynep. and to-gydere 

hy bye J? y-pyned. ne neure ne ssel by ende of pyne : 

ober reste. bellich is helle / an a bousend zy be worse. Hell is even worse 

a a ^ • T- ' i.n/ J 1. A -i. thanallthisby 

And pis ich yze3 ine helle / and a pousendzipe more a thousand times, 
worse. J?is ich com uor to zygge you.' Sle3pe zayp. * God Prudence says, 
wet ssolle we do. Nou bropren and zostren y-hyrep shall we'do?" 
my red. and yuep youre. Bye]? sle3e. an wake]) ine Be watchful 
youre bedes / porueynde guodes. na3t onlyche beuore an prayer u • 
gode : ac be-uore alle men.' Jjolemodness zayp. ' Do « world's 
we to worke godes nebsseft. / ine ssrifte / and ine Aeneas in shrift 

' ' and in psalms. 

zalmes : glede we hym. bye]) sobre / and wakye]) / 
uor youre uo pe dyuel / ase J)e lyoun brayinde ge]) 
aboute ban : bet he wyle uor-zueke.' Strengbe zayb. strength says, 

r r J 7 or J r "Withstand the 

' Wypstondep hym : stronge ine byleaue. Bye]) glede devil by belief, 
ine god. Clopep you mid godes armes. pe hauberk of ciothe you with 

_ _ -. . ,, , , /»ii, God's armour." 

ry3t. pane sseld 01 beleaue. nymep pane helm 01 nelpe. 

and pe holy gostes zuord : pet is godes word.' Ry3[t]nesse Equity says, 

zayp. ' Lybbe we sobrehche. ryuollyche an bonayrelyche. 

Sobrelyche : ine ous zelue, ry3tuollyche : to oure 

emcristen. bonayrelyche : to god. pet we nollep pet me 

do to ous zelue : ne do we hyt na3t to opren. and pet 

we wyllep pet me do to ous zellue : do we hit to opre prudence says, 

i , , 1 • • j. » en 1- u < u * " Another messen- 

men. and uor zope pet is r^t. ble3pe zayp. 'peris ger awaits with . 
anoper wyp-outepe gates uayr. and gled. hitpingppehe <£^\^ 
bre[n]gpglednesse.' Ry3[t]nesse zayp. 'onderuongep hym. received. 



The messenger 
enters and says 
that he is * Love 
of everlasting life. 1 

He asks for silence 
and peace. 

Equity says that 
his demand is 

The messenger 
says that he 
comes from 

and that he has 
seen God as in a 

[Fol. 83. b.] 
"I saw the ineffable 
and indivisible 
majesty of the 
Holy Trinity : 

thelight therefrom 
dazzles the eyes, 
and surpasseth all 

I saw Christ on 
God's right hand, 

and He bears the 
wounds and 
tokens of his 
passion in his 

Next to Christ 
I saw the Virgin 

[1 godes ? or 
zones ?] 

who was inter- 
ceding r ov us. 

be cas he ous ssel gledye. uor j?es ilke uerste : grat- 
lyche he ous he]? y-mad of-dret.' Ble^pe zay]? to j?e messa- 
gere. * Guo in. and huo fou art. and huawnes J?ou 
comst. and huet J?ou hest yzo^e : zay ous.' J)e mes- 
sagyr zay J?. 'Ich am loue of lyue eurelestynde. an 
wylnynge of J?e contraye of heuene. Yef ye me wylle]? 
y-here : habbejj amang you. elom / and reste. Nayt 
uor zo]?e amang gredynges and noyses : ych ne may by 
yherd.' Ri3[t]uolnessezay]?. < Yef we longe godes drede/ 
and be-J?enchinge of dya]?e were stille : ry3t hit is / J?et 
J?e spekinde / wel more we by stille.' Wylningge of J?e 
lyue wyp-oute ende / zay]?. ' Jperuore byej? stille / and 
yhere]? myd wylle. Ich come uram heuene. and 
Jelliche Jinges ich y-ze3 ]?er. pet no man ne may 
dyngneliche zigge. J^les zomfyng ich wylle zigge : 
ase ich may. Ich yze3 god. ac be ane sseawere ine 

6 Ich yze3 ]?e ilke onspekynde / an on-todelinde 
mageste of j?e holy trinyte. be-gynnynge / ne ende ne 
he]?. Ac and ly3t J?er-inne wone]? / J>et me ne may na3t 
come to. Vram J?o ly3te byej? y-forsse mine e3en / and 
J?e zy3fe Jjyester. Hyt ouergej? uorzo]?e alle wyttes / 
and alle zy3]?es. J?e ilke bry3[t]nesse. and ]>e ilke uolnesse. 
j^les a lytel ich yze3 oure lhord iesu crist / ine ri3t 
half zittinde. pet is to zygge : ine ]?e lyue wy]?-oute ende 
regnynde. pty he ouer alle sseppes by zuo uayr : pet 
ine him wylnep pe angles to zyenne. Yet nou pe 
wounden and pe toknen of pe passion he he]) ine his 
bodye. huermyde he ous bo3te. be-uore pe uader uor ous 
stant uor to bydde. Ich y-ze3 nyxt iesu crist pe ilke 
blisfolle mayde / and moder pe ilke zodes 1 / and oure 
lhordes iesu cristes / myd alle worpssipe and reuerence / 
y-nemned marie / ine pe wonderuolle trone zittynde / 
aboue alle pe holy ordres of angles / and of men : an- 
he3ed. hire zone iesus uor ous byddinde. and to huam 
hi is uol of merci. Ac pe ilke wonderuolle mageste / 


and pe b^tnesse of J?e moder / and of pe zone : ich ne 

my3te na3t longe bolye / ich wente myne zhbe nor to Next i turned my 

, . . •->/«// j ->y sight to the order 

yzi / pe ilke holy ordres of J?e gostes : pet stondej? be- of blissful spirits. 

uore god. of huichen pe enrelestinde holynesse of pe 

zitye of god / an of pe lone, ne hit ne ssel lessi : ne hit 

ne ssel endi / ac eure wexe and blefjj. Ac na3t pe ilke 

degrez / and dingnetes / heryinges alsuo / huyche hyre 

makyere hy berej) no man nollyche Jenche / ne na3t ne 

ma y D y y^03 to telle. Jterefcer be pro fetes ich y-ze*. Thereafter i saw 

it i. • i til ii.i.,, 7 the prophets and 

and pe patnarkes wonderlyche glediynde me bhsse. nor patriarchs 
]?et hy yze3en ine goste : uolueld hy jzep. J?et ine longe 
anoy onderuynge / pet ouet of blysse wyp-oute ende 
chongeden. Ich y-ze3 pe apostles ine tronen zittynde. and the apostles 
pe trib3 / and J>e tongen / alle preste. and of poure / 8ittin s° nthrone8 * 
and of zyke : zuo blisuolle and holy / of oure lhord iesu 
crist / and zuo he3e / yno3 alneway ich am wondrinde. 
Ich y-ze3 / ac uollyche ich ne my[3]te al yzy / be innnmer- i saw the innu- 

-, , tip ii i merable fellow- 

able uelajrede ol pe holy niartires / mid bhsse and ship of the holy 

worpssipe / y-coroimed. Jet be pe pinen of pise time / mdrtyr8, 

huyche hi beren to po blisse / pet wes ysseawed ine 

ham : hy come perto. Hyre holynesse / and hyre 

blysse: long time ich me lykede. Ich yze3 to be i saw the blessed 

iiii n P , , heap of confessors 

biyssede heape ot coniessoavs. amang Imam / men and teachers of 

apostles / and techeres /Jet holy cherche mid hare ° y 

techinge wereden. and alsuo uram alle heresy e / wy [p]-oute 

wem habbep yclenzed : sseawep. and hy uele habbep 

y-ta3t. ssynep ase sterren / ine eurelestynde wy[p]-oute 

ende. J)er byep Monekes pet uor claustres / and uor Therewere monks 

strayte cellen. wel moche / an clyerer panne pe zonne : katVe^unT™* 

habbe]? wonyinges. Vor blake and uor harde kertles / 

huyter fane pe snaw. and of alle zofthede / and 

nesshede / clopinge habbe]) an. Vram hare e3en / god 

wypep alle tyeres. and fane kyng hy ssolle ysy ine hys 

uayrhede. Alast / to pe ueh^rede of may dynes ich 

lokede. of huychen / blysse / sseppe / agray binge / and fellowship of 


melodya. huyche none marines speche : dingnelyche 



and heard their 
fair song. 

[Fol. 84. a.] 

Sleight inquires 
of the messenger 
concerning the 
life of the blessed. 

He is told that 
they live, enjoy, 
love, rejoice, 
praise, are swift, 
and are in 

They live an ever- 
lasting life free 
from all pain. 

Their life is the 
sight of the 

They taste of 

God's counsel and 

dooms, and learn 

the causes of 


They love God 

with an infinite 


They rejoice in 

God and of their 


They have as 
many blessings a 

and their joy is 



may telle. And hy zonge pane zang : pet non oper ne 
may zynge. Ac and pe zuete smel ine hare regyon / 
zuo zuete ys : pet alle manyre zuete smelles ouereomp. 
And to hare benes : onre lhord arist. to alle opren : 
zittinde he lhest.' Sletye zayp. ' Hyt lykep pet pou 
zayst. Ac uor of echen of pe holy ordres / wondres 
pou hest y-zed : we hyddep pet pou zigge ous / huet is 
hare dede in mennesse / and huet is pe c<muers[ae]ion of 
nela3rede : zay ous.' j)e wylny[n]gge of pe lyne wyp-oute 
ende zayp. * Vor zope ich wylle zygge. j)e dede of alle 
ine mennesse / ys zeueuald. Hy lybbep. hy smackep. 
hy louyep. hy byep glede. hy heryep. hy byep zuyfte. hy 
byep zikere.' Sle^pe zayp. * ])&$ ich zomdel pis onder- 
stonde : uor ham pet lhestep / of echen zay.' "Wylnynge 
of pe lyue wy-oute ende zayp. ' Zuo by hyt. Hy lybbep 
be lyue wyp-oute ende. wyp-oute enye tyene. wy-oute 
enye lessinge. wyp-oute enye wypstondynge. Hyre lyf 
is pe zy3pe and pe knaulechynge of pe holy trinyte. ase 
zayp oure lhord iesus. pis is pet lyf wyp-oute ende / pet 
hy knawe pe zope god / and huam pe zentest iesu crist. 
and peruore ylyche hy byep / uor hy y-zyep : ase he is. 
Hy smackep pe redes and pe domes of god. Hy 
smackep pe kendes/and pe causes/ and pe begynny[n]ges 
of alle pynges. Hy louyep god wyp-oute enye com- 
parisoun. uor pet by wytep huerto god his hep y-bro3t 
uorp. hy louyep ech opren : ase ham zelue. Hy byep 
glede of god onzyginde. hy byep glede of zuo moche of 
hare 03ene holynesse : and uor pet ech louep opren ase 
him zelue. ase moche blisse hep ech of opres guode : ase 
of his 03ene. peruore by ziker / uor eurych hep aseuele 
blyssen : ase he hep uela3es. and aseuele blissen to 
echen : ase his 03ene of alle. and peruore eureich more 
louep wypoute comparisoun god : pet hym and opre 
made / panne him zelue / and alle opre. More hy byep 
glede wyp-oute gessynge of godes holynesse : panne of 
his 03ene / and of alle opre myd hym. Yef panne on 


onneafe nymj) al his blisse. hou ssel he nyme zuo uele 

and zuo manye blyssen ? And beruore hit is yzed. guo The command is, 

. , . ,, - , J & 'Go into the bliss 

into j?e blysse ot fyne lhorde. na^t pe blisse of J>ine of thy Lord.* 

lhorde / guo in to pe. nor hy ne may. Jperefter / hy 

heriej) god wyf-oute ende / wyf-oute werynesse. ase hyt 

is y-wryte. Lhord / y-blyssed by J?o j>et wonyef ine 

]?yne house / in wordles of wordles : ssolle herye pe. 

Zuyfte hy byef. uor huer J?et pe gost wyle by : uorzofe They are swift, 

pe? is Jet body. Alle hy byef my[,]tuolle. Zykere hy ^£^ 

bye> Of ZUyche lyue. of ZUO moche Wysdome. Of ZUO They are secure 

moche loue. of zuo moche blysse. of zuyche heryinge. of tothi f "feofbiisa 

zuyche holynesse. fet non ende. non lessynge. non 

uallynge doun ssolle habbe. Lo alyte ich. habbe yzed 

to you. of fan fet ich yzej ine heuene. "Na^t uor zofe 

ne may zigge / ase ich yze^ / ne na^t ase hy hjep : ne 

my^te ysy.' Sle3fe zayf. 'Vorzofe ine heuene we onder- strength asks, 

stondej? fet }>ou were, and zop J?ing per J?ou yse^e. and separate as from 

zoj) fou hest y-zed.' Strengfe zayjj. <Huo ssel ous to- Chri8t ' s love ? " 

dele uram cristes loue 1 tribulacion. of er zo^e. and ofre. 

zykere byej>. uor nofer dyaf / ne lyf. and oJ>re.' Ey3t Right says, Turn 

zayjj. <DoJ> out fane uerste messagyer. hyt ne is na^t Dread! me8Senger 

^t j?et he bleue ine pe house / myd J>e ry3tuolle. Yor [FoL 84. b.] 

ry3[t]uolle loue : de]j out drede.' Strengfe zayf. * guo out forioveofGod 

drede. fou ne sselt na3t by ine oure stedes.' Drede putteth out fear - 

zayjj. < Huet habbe ich mis-do. do. do. ich uor guode 

zede.' Temperancia zayf. ' Brofen and zostren / ich Temperance com- 

j . , mands Dread to 

zigge to you. naramore smacky / fanne be-houef. ac go out willingly, 
smacke to sobrete. })ou drede / guo out myd guode wylle. 
fole fane dom / Jjet ri^t hef y-demd. be auenture pe 
my3t eft by onderuonge. yef wylnynge of lyf wyf-oute 
ende / of erhuyl let of.' j)e makyere zayjj. Jjus / f us / Thus let us cast 
nou ssel enrich hys heuynesse / ssake a-way / uram ^eZZfZf™ 
drede / to fe loue of fe heuenelyche contraye him-zelue ^^ king " 
wende. Zuo by hit. 


Understanding Naminore ne is be-tuene ane manne / and ane beste : 


between a man bote ine onderstondynge. Na^t of opre pinge ne 

Glorify thee not glorefye pe. Of mVtues pe prest pe / of bestes pou sselt 

SiefsuVpSee h Y ouercome. Of zuyfthede pe prest Je / of ueb^n pe 

in swiftness. worst ouercome. Of uayrhede J>e prest J)e : hou moche 

The peacock is ua y r i s j ne f, e ueperen of be pokoce / huerof art bou 

fairer than thou. J r r r r i r 

God's image con- more worp ? of godes sseppe. Huer is godes sseppe ? 

sists in thought . 

and understand- Ine penchinge / and ine onderstondinge. Yef pou 

panne peruore art betere paraie a best / uor pet pou hest 

penchinge / huerby pou onderstans[t]. pet a best ne may 

onderstonde. J}er-uore uorzope : man is more betere / 

Man's light con- pa?me a best. Lijt of man is ly3t of po3tes. Lijt of 

thought PUnty ° f f°^es aboue f>03tes is. and ouergep alle fortes. Yet 

The untrue, the e ft .0. men / ne byeb nast byestre. ne byeb na;t 

evil, thieves, &c, ' J r 7 rJ . 

are dark. ontrewe. om^tuole. queade. robberes. wrecben. louieres 

Light exists, hut of pe wordle. J)ise uor zope byep pyesternesse. Ly3t 

we go away from . 

it. ne is na3t awaye : ac ye bye J> awaye / uram ly^te. pe 

biind! a eS US blynde ine pe zoraie : be]) pe zonne present, ac be is 

uram pe zonne. Joeruore ne byep na3t pyestre. Yet 
The world is eft. pe wordle pyestre. uor pe louyeres of pe wordle. 

byep pyestre. and pe wordle is quead. uor J)o J>et wonyep 

ine wordle bye]? queade. ase a quead bous. na3t pe 
Christ died for us, walles : ac po pet wonyep perinne. Yet eft. crist ne 
out sS. WaS W1 " hedde no pyng bueruore be ssolde sterue : and dyad 

be is. pou best bueruore : and to sterue pou best 

Suffer patiently 0nWOr )> ? W y lne m Y d g Uod ™Y&Q to polye I be J?yne of- 

and with a good seruynge / pet be polede myd guode wylle. pet he 
God made angels wolde delyury / uram pe dyape eurelestinde. Yet eft. 
wo^ms. aS SmaU ^e nuam P e t angel is ymad : be bim is ymad pe smale 
The one is worthy werm. Ac pe angel is worpy to pe beuene : pe werm 
ot f i!er a of earth! to J> e er f e - 1> Q ilke pet made : be dy 3 te. Yef be dede 
pane smale werm in-to beuene : pe woldest bym wyp- 
Tetwouidstthou n y me - Ye f 1^ wolde maki angles of uoule stynkynde 
reprove God if he ulesse : bou woldest bym wybnyme. And nast uorban : 

place the worm m ' J J r J ? r 

heaven? nyxt ban deb god. and bades be ne is na^t to wyb- 

But God is not to ^'-ro r ? ? J? 

be reproved. nymene. Vor alle men of ulesse ymad : buet byep hy 


bote wermes 1 and of wermes / he makeb angles. Yet Men ar <> worms, 

„ , _ _ and of worms 

ett. nuycn nerte me arerej : ech may y-zy. J?et na$t ]>e God makes 

heuynesse of ulesses wylle beuore ygreued / auore ual]) / &n8& ** 

ere hit by arered. Ac ech him zelue y-zy bere / J?e The heart must 

heuynesse of his ulesse : yue wyl be wyj,dra 3 ynge. Jet £ ?£££££. 

he clensy : Jet he arere to god. zuo by hit. Hayl godes 

moder Marie / Mayde uol of j?onke / god by myd j?e / 

y-blyssed by Jjou / ouer alle wyfmen. And y-blyssed 

by oure Lhord iesus / jjet zuete ouet / of )>yne wombe 

yblessed. zuo by hit. Mayde / and moder mylde. uor Maid and Mother 

loue of j>ine childe : Jet is god an man : Me Jet am zuo ^wiWfrom'shT 

wylde / uram zenne Jou me ssylde : ase ich Je bydde meshield - Amen - 

can. amen, 


Page 1, 1. 3, wycked. The definite form wyckede is required 
after the definite article. 

Page 1, 1. 15, dra^e. The prefixed y is omitted on account of 
the preceding by. 

Page 6, 1. 2, huich . . . by, whatsoever that it may be; 1. 9, 
toppe = above. This preposition is frequently used by Shoreham, and 
seems peculiar to the Kentish dialect ; 1. 18, okse\=acse\= demands, 
requires ; op of zo\e, oath of truth. 

Page 8, 1. 6, be his wytinde =by his willing = he being willing = 
willingly ; 1. 23, and — and, both — and ; 1. 25, yhyealde = liolden = 

Page 9, 1. 12, arizinges is used to translate the 0. Fr. 
moeuementes; 1. 17, takinges, touchings, handlings, 0. Fr. atouche- 

Page 10, 1. 1, ssel = owes. It has this sense occasionally in 
Chaucer ; 1. 15, ywyte . . . yherd, known, seen, or heard. 

Page 11, 1. 2, his = her. 

Page 13, 1. 19, al to, O. Fr. iusqua ; 1. 20, huer . . . made 
[zitte]. The Fr. is ou il se sist ; 1. 24, of-guo, deserved. . 

Page 14, 1. 22, huer . . . an == Fr. ou il aura vescua ; 11. 28, 30, 
sseawynge renders the Fr. revelacion, vision. 

Page 16, 1. 33, wyttes = wytes, fault. 

Page 17, 1. 24, ouerweninge, Fr. sourquidrie ; 1. 25, folebayrie = 
over-boldness; 1. 26, ydeie blisse=zl?Y. veynglorie ; 1. 32, voulhede, 
Fr. vileynye = crime, disgrace. 

Page 18, 1. 4, ingratitude = 0. E. unkyndenesse. 

Page 19, 1. 12, renay = renegate, apostate. The Midland copy 
reads * he may ivel be cleped renegate ; ' 1. 2, ine lokinge, in custody ; 
1. 10 from bottom, deuines = deuineres. 

NOTES. 273 

Page 20, 1. 16, j)e, the reflexive pronoun = thou thyself. 

Page 21, 1. 16, opweninge — upiceening; opniminge = uptaking, 
enterprise, and hence presumption. The Fr. text has sorquidance 
(O.E. surquidrie) and presumpcion. See p. 22, 1. 2, where 
opniminge translates Fr. emprise; 1. 18, worth, Fr. valoir; 1. 19. 
may, Fr. pooir ; 1. 20, mo^e, Fr. puet; conne, Fr. savour; 1. 21, 
caw, Fr. set; mo$e, pooir; 1. 22, conne, Fr. savour; 1. 26, onlepi- 
hede = singularity, cf. 1. onlepi, singular, 1. 30. It often signifies 
only, alone. 

Page 22, 1. 18, onwor\i, Fr. despire = despise, cf. onworjmesse and 
onwor\hede = Fr. despit ; 1. 20, bisemers, mockings, derisions, Fr. 
gas; 1. 21, bismerep, Fr. moke; 1. 31, take = teke = may teach. 

Page 23, 1. 2, f Hinges = fryings. Fr. fritures. Stevenson 
printed sriinges, and it is apparently so in the MS. ; 1. 3, ari^thalf 
and alefthalf= our modern expression right and left = on both sides ; 

I. 6, folliche yeue = Fr. folement doner, to give foolishly (or as 
Chaucer would say, fool-largely) ; 1. 16, fole heryinge, foolish prais- 
ing = flattery, Fr. vaine loenge ; 1. 17, yhered = praised, from hery 9 
herie, to praise, line 19 ; 1. 24, ydeleblisse = vain-glory. 

Page 24, 1. 4, aye == again == Fr. ou devers, auorye = de par ; 

II. 7, 8, ivyt wel . . . of-healde. Wit, Veil for to devise (discern) ; good 
memory well to retain; 1. 11, atempres—YT. attemjrre, tempered, 
moderated, contented ; 1. 23, Iheuedi hap, Dame Fortune ; 1. 24, 
hare hue^el, her wheel ; page, 25, 1. 34, sotil, Midi. Vers, sli^he ; 
1. 35, uoulhedes, Fr. ordures, halkes, Fr. repostailles. 

Page 26, 11. 18, 19, ne sselt . . . by, * Thou shalt never learn 
what man is until he is where he desires to be ; ' 1. 22, let, ceaseth ; 
1. 23, papelard, Fr. papelart, flatterer, deceiver. 

Page 27, 1. 4, calouwe mous, the hat. Fr. chauue soriz ; 1. 29, 
awar$ede = ¥t. maloite, schrewd, wicked. 

Page 28, 1. 34, hollyehe, Fr. sainement = sainglement = entiere- 

Page 29, L 30, iverreres = werres = wars. 

Page 30, 1. 20, ' effterward wre]>e,' wrepe is an error for hate. 

The Fr. text has haine. 

Page 31, 11. 4, 5, onlusthede, Fr. paresce; tyene, Fr. anui; 1. 10, 


274 NOTES. 

\onnliche = thinness, scantiness. The Fr. text has tenuites, and the 
Midland MS. reads tendernesse. J^onneliche should evidently be 
penneleche or yinneleche = thin-ness, the -leche being the same ter- 
mination as in knowledge, O.E. knowleche; 1. 11, Iheucliche, Fr. 
tenuremeut, Mid. Yers. slakly. Stevenson printed Iheneliche. Cf. 
Iheuc in 1. 13. 

Page 32, 1. 17, onssriuel, Fr. perreceus. This word does not 
occur in Bosworth's A. Sax. Diet. It seems to be = un-shrifel, 
Mid. Yers. recheles, negligent, careless, from A. S. serif an, to care for; 
1. 17, sleuuolle = sleup-uolle, slothful, see sleawolle in 1. 13; 1. 22, 
onwoneth, Fr. desacoustume ; on-wone therefore comes from the O.E. 
wone, habit, custom, wont, and signifies to cease to do what has been 
customary or habitual ; 1. 23, Efterward . . . sleuuolliche. The 
Fr. has i Apres vient negligence, car qui bien fait delaiement nest pas 
merueil le sil le fait negliiaument.' Here we see auerst = Fr. 
delaiement = delayingly, from A.S. fyrst, delay, respite. 

Page 33, 1. 12, op-let = Fr. sormaine, fr. surmener, ' mal mener, 
maltraiter ' (Eoq.). 

Page 34, 1. 27, wynnynge boldeliclie, Fr. en aquestier ardaument ; 
of-healdinge streytliche, Fr. en retenir restreignaument ; 1. 31, 
gauelinge, Fr. usure ; 1. 34, Jcuedhedes, Fr. malignites. 

Page 35, 1. 7, \e lieifyes, Fr. les montes; cf. heyinge, profit, 1. 16 ; 
1. 9, ivedde-dyade = mortgage, Fr. gage mort, see dead-wed, p. 36 ; 11. 
16, 17, chapfare mahiinde = covenant (bargain) making ; 1. 24, lenep 
nayt, &c, i.e. lendeth not themselves. 

Page 36, 1. 6, time-zettere ontrewe. Fr. has termoiors desloiaus ; 
1. 20, vendonginge, Fr. vendenges, vendage, vending, sales. 

Page 37, 1. 20, seruons. The Fr. serians shows that this word 
should be seruons (constables). 

Page 38, 1. 27, tayles, cornees. Fr. tailles, coruees. The latter 
term signifies a duty on beasts and corn ; 1. 30, of Mr en = du leur = 
of theirs. 

Page 39, 1. 5, ssepes, payments, wages, Fr. loier ; 1. 8, niminges, Fr. 
exactions; 1. 11, mesteres men, officials; 1. 15, ac . . . yzed, but some 
are continued (above that) in addition to that that is here related ; 
1. 17, yerne = erne = earne, run ; 1. 23, playneres, Fr. playntif, bezech- 

NOTES. 275 

inges, Fr. peticions ; L 25, playteres, Fr. auocas ; 1. 28, yulemde = 
fugitives ; 1. 28, wypsettingges, exceptions = Fr. barres. 

Page 40, 1. 7, be-uelynge = defiling = false accusations; 1. 20, 
bezide-zitteres, Fr. asseseurs ; 11. 23, 24, yhet = yhed = had, 
Fr. en; 1. 33, em7es = Fr. hereges = heretics. Stevenson explains 
this wrongly as witches. 

Page 42, 1. 7, denyes = Fr. deenez, deaneries. 

Page 44, 1. 2 from bottom, romongours, Fr. maskignons = inaqui- 
nons, fraudulent dealers, from 0. Fr. ramander, baisser le prix. 

Page 45, 1. 9, hysians = Fr. hiziaus, heralds. Kempen = Fr. 

Page 47, 1. 26, fo Aare wytivde. Fr. a son escient. 

Page 48, 1. 1, out of nyede == unnecessarily. 

Page 51, 1. 11, teue. Stevenson printed tene, as if = tin ; but 
teue = fo-ewe = yesterday evening, and it translates the Fr. dersoir. 

Page 52, 1. 13, huet non = al-huet non = until noon. Fr. iusqua- 
none. Cf. al-huet ni$t, p. 52, 1. 12. 

Page 56, 1. 8, ssast = ssla^st, slay est; 1. 19, ^c/i w??/ZZe a lite take 
of the zennes, &c, I will a little touch of the sins, &c. 

Page 57, 1. 1, euele telle, Fr. misconter; eontacky, Fr. bareter. 

Page 63, 1. 10, for a-mes read a mes = Fr. mes. 

Page 66, 1. 19, godelinges, Fr. maudiscons; cf. godelinge, p. 65, 
= Fr. maudire ; 1. 28, atwyt, blame, the word reprouep has been 
erased in the MS. 

Page 87, 1. 12, huet hi is y-do = until they do them ; huet = 
al-huet = until ; is = his = them. Fr. tant soit parfais. 

Page 96, 1. 14, in one wytte = in one sense. 

Page 101, 1. 6, \ou sselt loue, &c. =Thou owest him love, &c. ; 
1. 16, uela^est = joinest, cf. uela^e, accessory; uelayrede, p. 102; com- 
panionship, fellowship. See p. 102, 1. 12, where we?«3eJ?=joiiieth. 

Page 103, 1. 24, boystoyse, O.E. bostwise, boisterous, blustering. 
This is the earliest approach to the form bosteous or bostous, which 
has given rise to boistei*ous. 

Page 104, 1. 16, mot Jer ne is no gelt. The Fr. text has, car il 
nia nul trespas semen t. 

Page 106, 1. 29, out of smak = out of taste = disagreeable. 

18 * 

276 NOTES. 

Page 108, 1. 10, wyndejf = uynde\ = findeth. 

Page 111, 1. 32, of hiren, of herself. 

Page 112, 1. 15, greate, Fr. gros ; 1. 25, piecaille ne to chenaille — 
cattle nor to dogs. The MS. reads cheuaille, which is evidently 
wrong. The translator seems to have been unable to render these 
French terms into English. 

Page 113, 1. 4, ope, above. The Fr. has sor (sur). 

Page 116, 1. 21, re/ye, Fr. mo voir; ne rocky, Fr. crouller; move 
nor render unsteady ; rocky = to rock, and is equivalent to the 
O.E. wagge — wag. 

Page 120, 1. 31, Ac . . . zone; more is wanted before panne, 
as the construction is, But wherefore are they called gifts of the 
Holy Ghost more than gifts of the Father and of the Son % 

Page 121, 1. 23, \e yefpe of drede is \e doreward to \e greate 
\reste, The gift of dread (fear) is the doorkeeper to the great crowd ; 
1. 23, uordep, Fr. esterpe. The Midland MS. reads ' drawej) up.' 

Page 123, 11. 14, 15, hi ous dep beknawe and to byknawe, she 
causes us to know and be known. Byknawe = by yknawe = be 
known; 1. 21, dyereoninge, precious union. Chaucer has onedin = 
united (pret. pi.) ; 11. 31, 32, Love of hope feeleth the smell and 
seeketh. Love of Charity taketh, and seeth, and swalloweth, and 
holdeth ; 1. 32, zikp = zi^J? = sees, zuelyp = Fr. gouste, tasteth. 

Page 128, 1. 21, ysnes, irons, fetters, from ysn = iron ; 1. 2 from 
bottom, ivrik]) = ivrity — hideth. 

Page 129, 1. 20, ca arrieres. The Mid. MS. renders this phrase 
by to-fore ; 1. 34, ' Man may longe,' &c. This quotation occurs in 
the Eeligious Poems printed by Wright in the Owl and Nightingale. 

Page 130, 1. 22, cornardyes = cosnardies, deceits. 

Page 131, 1. 4, calketreppen, Fr. pieges, see Glossary; 1. 5, 
anhet, Fr. embrasee ; 1. 7, wy^te, uy^te = fight. 

Page 132, 1. 21, anone is a-none = m no. 

Page 134, 1. 16, bouer^e is for bor$e — s&Ye, not for bou$e == 
bo$e, bow, be obedient. 

Page 135, 1. 25, J?e wytyeine thenykke = the halter (rope) round 
the neck. 

Page 137, 1. 3 from bottom, ssel ayt, owes aught (anything). 

NOTES. 277 

Page 139, 1. 14, ze$ = zeA*J>, seeketh ; cf. ivecp (1. 2, p. HO) for 
we^p =i weigheth. 

Page 140, 1. 25, hassasis. Thus the word stands in the Fr. and 
Eng. text. It is our modern word assassin. 

Page 141, 1. 6, ingnel, 0. Fr. ignaus, O.E. delyuere, active. 

Page 143, L 11, y-zicp = j-zi^p = seeth ; 1.24, atloJces — nt 
Whitsuntide (Pentecost), seep. 163, 1. 3 from bottom. Lo&-Sunday 
= Whitsunday, occurs in Shoreham's poems. 

Page 147, 1. 2, angrice, Fr. angoisse ; 1. 3, aw\f\ec$p = awrekp = 
wreaketh, avengeth. 

Page 150, L 4 from bottom, fowfte=rule, line. This is the 
word in the Fr. text. D. Michel was evidently unable to 
translate it. The Midland MS. for pricke an boune reads merk and 

Page 154, 1. 1 from bottom, [eyse]. The Fr. text has eas. 

Page 155, 1. 3, zene^p is here plural, and should be written 
zene^ep ; 1. 3, foruions is the O. Fr. foruoions. 

Page 161, 1. 14, dep auerst, putteth in delay. See uerste = to 
delay, respite, cause delay. See p. 173, 1. 16 ; 1. 20, be strmgpe — 
forcibly, by force; cf. no strengthe = O.E. no fors = no matter; 
1. 34, Vor = or. 

Page 167, L 25, erpan pet pe kuen his do an = ere that (before) 
that the queen putteth it on ; his = her, and refers to robe, which 
is considered as feminine. 

Page 171, 1. 5 from bottom, sest geus ; so the words stand in the 
Fr. text. The Mid. MS. translates geus by euele pieces (evil 

Page 173, 1. 22, y-kuegt = y-kue(n)gt = O.E. ykueynt = 
quenched. Cf. dreynt = drenched, &c. 

Page 178, 1. 24, uor wone makep maister. This passage 
literally signifies i for habit makes master,' and is equivalent to our 
phrase, 'practice makes perfect;' cf. page 181, 1. 4, where yealde 
wanes = old habits. 

Page 182, 1. 16, ' be-uleap and ethep [h]are onderlinges, flay and 
eat their subjects : be-uleap = be-ulea^ep = be-flayep = flay, fleece, 



Page 184, 1. 12, wely-holpe = wel y-holpe = well-holpen (suc- 

Page 187, 1. 24, [cftTja^rao^. The MS. has aymont, but the Fr. 
text shows that diaymont = diamond, is the correct reading. 
Page 193, 1. 4, pet (for pen ?) po = than those. 
Page 194, 1. 10 from bottom, and hoi = and [is] yhol = and is 

Page 195, 11. 9, 10, in = inn, lodging. 

Page 196, 11. 1, 2, in-to pe greade of pe poure = unto (at) the sup- 
plication of the poor ; 1. 8, hedinge = secresy ; cf. O.E. hidlinges, 
secret places. 

Page 198, 1. 23, ' comep pe ' should be comej? ye. The participle 
yblissede is plural, the singular being yblissed ; cf. acorsede, in 1. 

Page 203, 1. 5, ne = nor, seems wanted after uondinge. 
Page 204, 1. U,fortin. This word is taken out of the French 

Page 205, 1. 21, hit dra$p to smac, maketh it tasty. 
Page 207, 1. 9 from bottom, talyinde, Fr. contant. 
Page 210, 1. 3 from bottom, God ne is natf goth to uede mid 
leauesy God is not a goat to be fed with leaves. 
Page 231, 1. 14, wy-oute = wyp-oute, without. 
Page 237, 1. 16, zikp = zi$p = sees. 
Page 241, 1. 9, hed, an error for heald, held, esteemed. 
Page 244, 1. 21, hihere, an error for ihere, hear. 
Page 247, 1. 2 from bottom, and his sselt do drinke, and thou 
shalt cause them to drink. 

Page 248, 1. 2, Jcuel$ = quel]? == welleth, springeth, or wells up. 
Page 249, 1. 2, maked = makep = makes. The preterite would be 
makede; cf. p. 248, 1. 29. 

Page 251, 1. 2 from bottom, is spek = ich spek, I spake. 
Page 252, 1. 31, misbylefde = misbylefinde = unbelieving (ones) 
= unbelievers. Chaucer has misleved = misbeleued = miscreant ; 
but mysbyleuinde occurs on page 69 of this work. 

Page 253, 1. 10, zekp = zek 3 = seeketh ; 1. 11, uel ine pe aye = 
the skin in the egg. The Mid. MS. reads- < straw in the egg. 1 



Page 254, 11. 16, 19, ges, 0. Fr. ges. Liens pour attacher les 
oiseaux de proie (Koquefort). 

Page 254, 1. 23. The pronoun hare (their) seems to require 
men instead of man. 

Page 264, 1. 12, hejliche clom, a profound silence ; 1. 14, corny de 
may be an error for comynde == coming ( = is about to come), or for 
comep = comes — is coming ; 1. 22, chaynen auere, chains of fire ; 
auere ===== a fire ; L 30, comste = comest thou ; 1. 32, yse^e\e = 
yse$e-}e = what didst thou see ; 1. 34, Irene on-)>olyinde, intolerable 

Page 265, 1. 1, wantroki ynge = lack ; wan=xm, as in O.E. 
wantrust, wanhope, &c. ; trocJciynge = failure, want. The wan 
seems to be intensitive ; 1. 18, yue\> youre = yeue\ yeare = giveth 
ear ; youre would signify yours ; L 27, helm of hetye = helmet of 
salvation; 1. 29, ryuollyche = ry^tuollyche = rightfully, righteously; 
L 35, hit yingp pe = hit \ingp pet, it appeareth that. 

Page 266, L 1, he cos = per-haps, per-chance; L 2, of-dret == of 
dread = adread, afraid; 1. 6, wylnynge of \e contraye of heuene = 
desire of the kingdom (country) of heaven ; 11. 9 — 11, Yef . . . stille. 
If we, on account of * God's Dread ' and ' Bethinking of Death,' were 
still (silent), right it is that thee speaking (whilst thou art speaking) 
we should be much more silent; 1. 13, myd wylle = willingly ; L 20, 
Ac and, but also ; 1L 25, 26, ine ri^t half zittinde, on the right hand 
sitting ; 1. 31, zodes === zones = of the son. 

Page 268, 11. 13, 14, 'pa^ . . . zay. y Though I understand some- 
what of this, (yet) for them that listeneth tell (in detail) of each (of 
these particulars, Le. how they live, enjoy, &c., see 11. 11, 12) ; 1. 30, 
by ziker = \hy\ by[ep] zilcer ; they are in security; 1. 32, ase his 
o^ene of alle = as is possessed by all. 

Page 269, 1. 2 from bottom, supply and before to. 

Page 270, 1. 4, pe prest J?e = thou pridest thyself; uele^n 
is an error for ule$en = flies ; pe worst, thou shalt. 


A! ah! 51, 71. 

A, on, a ]>e, on the, 12, 64, 114, 
156, 214. 

Abandones, free, 247. 

Abatye, Fr. abatre, to abate, less- 
en, 28. 

A.b.c.e., 1. 

Abegge (pret. ahotfe), to suffer or 
atone for, pay for, 73. It cor- 
responds to the later English 
able; A.S. a-bicgan. 

Abide, pp. delayed, 239. 

Abyd, imp. delay, 173. 

Abide, Abyde, await, remain, 51, 
113, 19,4 ; endure, 166 ; refrain, 
242 ; A.S. abidan, bidan. 

Abide, Abyde {pi. pret.), abode, 

Abide]?, Abyde]?, remaineth, 72, 
86; look for, await, (pi.) 146, 

Abidinge, delay, 173. 

Abit, Abyt, abideth, waiteth for, 
awaiteth, 128, 143, 194, 169, 
211; bear with, 174. 

Ablent, blindeth, 16; ablende, to 
make blind, occurs in E. of 
Gloucester, 208 ; Chaucer uses 
blende, pret. yblent, in the same 

Abod (pret. of Abyde), abode, de- 
layed, 173. 

Abomynable, 49. 

Abot, Abotte, abbot, 178, 219; 
Abbotes, 67. 

Aboue, above, 13, 15, 35. 

Aboute, about, 30. 

Aboutestondinges, circumstances, 
174, 175. 

Abstinence, 236. 

Abundance, 261. 

Abyde. See Abide. 

Ac, but, 6, 10, 16, et passim. 

Accidye, sloth, 16. 

Accombringe, destruction, ruin, 
182. The root of this word is 
comber, as in encumber, Du. 
Jcomber, loss, adversity. Ger. 
hummer, trouble. 0. Fr. en- 
combrer, to hinder, vex, annoy. 



Acorded, accorded, united, 153. 

AcordeJ), agreeth, 60, 147, 151, 
153 ; uniteth, 256. 

Acordi, to accord, agree, 151, 152. 

Acorsed, pp. accursed, 66, 138. 

Acorsede, p/xt accursed ; 57, pp. 
pi. 189, 198. 

AcounteJ?, counteth, 137. 

Acquayntonce, acquaintance, 143. 

Acsede, asked, 178, 190, 208, 
222, 239. 

Acsest, askest, 207, 209. 

AcseJ?, sing, asketh, demandeth, 
prays for, requireth, 53, 54, 99, 

; 109, 180, 209, 221, pi. 111, 
116, imp. 209. 

Acsi, Acsy, Acxy, to ask, de- 
mand, require, inquire, claim, 
101, 110, 139, 151, 198, 209, 

Acsinge, asking petition, ques- 
tion, 208, 209. 

Acsinges, Acsingges, askings, ques- 
tions, petitions, 129. 

Acsynge, false claiming, Fr. chal- 
enge, 139. 

Active, 199. 

Adauntef, tameth, 167; Fr. 
dompter, donter, to tame, daunt, 

Adopcion, Adopcioun, adoption, 
101, 102, 146. 

Adoun, downwards, 247. 

Adra^e, pp. drawn, 174, 218. 

Adrayngt = adreynt, pp. drown- 
ed, drenched, 107, 248. 

AdraynkJ) = maketh drink, 251 ; 

A.S. a-drencan, to drench, 

drown, pret. drencte, pp. ge- 

Adrenche, to drown, 50. A.S. 

Adrenche J>, drowneth, 50. 
AdrengJ), gives drink, 92. 
Adreynct, drowned, 239. 
Adreynten, pi. pret. drowned, 50. 
Aduenture. See Auenture. 
Aduersari, Adversarie, 109, 170, 

Aduersete, Aduersite, Adversetes, 

27, 30, 68, 84, 125, 168, 181, 

Afaited, feigned, 212; O. Fr. 

Affayted, trusting, 75. 
Affeccioun, affection, 151. 
Afrounti, to be offended, 229 ; 

Fr. affronter (from Lat. frons, 

the forehead). 
Age, 5. 
Agelt, sinneth, trespasseth, offend- 

eth or sinneth against, trans- 
gress, 5, 19, 65, 125. 
Agelt, pp. sinned, 20. 
Agelte, to sin, commit trespass, 

15 ; A.S. agyltan, to offend, 

sin against. 
Agelte)?, pi. sin, 6, 72. 
Agerse = a gerse, in grass, 36; 

A.S. gers, gcers. 
Aginne, Agynne, to begin, 32, 

168, 197. A.S. agynnan. 



Aginnynge, Aginninge, Agyn- 
ninge, beginning, 16, 31, 166, 
Agonne, pp. began, 165. 
Agrayped, pp. prepared, 14, 56, 
89, 244; ready, 140; estab- 
lished, 147. 
Agrayjje]?, directs, orders, advises, 
81, 119, 125, 138, 140; deck, 
pi. 176, 195, 216. 

AgrayJ?i, to prepare, set in order, 
array, dress, direct, 55, 76, 
148, 173; to ornament, 216, 
258; to set (sail), 183; O.K 
greida, to make ready. 

Agrayfinge, sh. adorning, 229, 

Agrayjinges, decorations, orna- 
ments, 176, 216, 226. 

Agrand, on the ground, 91. 

Ak, Ake, but, 6, 18, 55, 62, 69, 
97. See Ac. 

Akse, ask, 184. 

Aksede, asked, 239. 

Aksejj, asketh, demands, re- 
quires, 13, 18, 103, 109, 163, 
208, 222. 

Aksinge, asking, 197, 198. 

Aksy, ask, 113 ; see Acsi, acsy. 

Ak]? achetb, 51. 

Al, adj. sing, all, 13 ; sing., 15. 

Al, adv. quite ; al uol, quite full, 
191 ; al ripe, quite ripe, 28 ; 
al quic, quite alive, 67. 

Al alsuo, just as, 66. 

Alast, lastly, last, 69, 118. 

Aid, old, 16, 48, 104, 124,219. 
Alday, Aldaye, adv. all day, 75. 
Ale=Alle, 233. 
Alefte, on the left. Alefthalf, on 
the left side (on the other 
side), 23, 38. 
Alfpeny, halfpenny, 193. 
Algorisme, calculation, compila- 
tion, numbering, 1. 
Alhuet = until, unto, 26, 33, 36, 

51, 74, 109. 
Ali3t, Aly3t, enlighteneth, light- 
eth, 77, 81, 88, 105, 115, 121, 
122, 185, 249; kindleth, 66. 
Ali3t, Alj^pp. enlightened, 105, 

109, 201. 
Ahjte, Aly^te, to enlighten, 109 ; 

A.S. alihtan, to enlighten. 
Ah^te, Aly3te, pp. pi. enlightened, 

201, 243. 
Ali3teJ>, enlighteneth, 204, 205 ; 
maketh bright, beautiful, 229. 
AH3 tynge = alighting, jenkindling, 

incitement, 221. 
Ali3tynges, passions, 204. 
Alle, adj. pi all, 1, 5, 6, 10, et 

Alls, pr on. all, 10, 11. 
Allen (to), all, 145, 188. 
Allone, alone, 142. 
Almi3ti, almighty, 1, 5, 12. 
Almoner, 190. 
Alneway, always, 84, 178. 
Al on, the same, all one, 259. 
AloseJ, make famous, 199. 
Alosi, to render famous, re- 



nowned, 183. Cf. O.E. los, fame, 
Fr. los. 
Alouer, everywhere, 81. 

Alouwe, Alowe, to praise, to be 
praised, 95, 227, 233 ; 0. Fr. 
alouer, to praise, from Lat. 

Alozed, famed, 16. 

Alse, as, 8, 15. 

Alse-moche-ase, Also-moche-ase, 
Alzo-moche-ase, as much as, 
15, 19, 28 ; A.S. alswd, also ; 
for the form al-se f cf. O.E. 
whose = who so. 

Alsuo, Alzuo, also, 51, 57. 

Alj>a3, although, 19. 

Aljjeruerst, first of all, 27, 51. 
Atyer = aller, A. S. aire, gen. 
pi. of all. 

Al)>erworst, worst of all, 17. 

Al-to,unto, 1, 13, 14, 215. 

Altogidere, all to gather, 59. 

Al-wet = alhuet, until, unto, 197. 

Aly3t, Aly^te. See klty, Ali^te. 

Amang, among, 65, 103. 

Amanzinge, cursing, excommuni- 
cation, 189 ; O.E. amanse, to 
curse, from A.S. amansumian, 
lit. to disjoin, and hence to 

Amaystre]>, mastereth, overpower- 
eth, 129. 

Ambicion, 17, 22. 

Amended, pp. 30. 

Amendement, 32, 83, 148. 

Amendes, amercements, fines, 

debts, 37, 38, 113; amends, 

corrections, 147, 148, 180. 
Amendi, to amend, 30, 31, 39, 

40, 74. 
Amendinge, amendment, 31, 170, 

179, 180. 
Amerd, marred, spoiled, 124, 125, 

217 ; O.H. Ger. marrjan, to 

hinder, make void; Du. merren, 

to obstruct. 
Amerre]?, pi. mar, spoil, 130, 

203, 204, 220, 229. 
Amer]?, AmerrJ?, 205, 217. 
Ames, a but 1 62. 
Amesured, moderated, tempered, 

Amesure]?, moderates, tempers, 

Amidde, Amide, amid, 128, 143. 
Amonestep, admonishes, 8, 101, 

102, 128, 145, 195. 
Amote, ant, emmet, 141 ; A.S. 

Ampayri, impair, 10 ; Fr. em- 

pirer, to make worse, from Fr. 

pis, pire, worse ; Lat. pejor. 
Amydde, 95. See Amidde. 
An, and, 4, 6, 7, 8, et passim. 
An, Ane, A, prep, on, in, 1, 7, 14, 

51, 156, 214. 
An, adv. on, 167, 244; A.S. 

and O. S. an. 
An, Ane, art. a, 11, 14, 15, 18, 
25, 29, 31, 37, 43, 50, et pas- 
sim; ace. 161. 
Ana3t, nought, 59. 



Ancheaysoun, Ancheysoun, rea- 
son, cause, 47, 258, 259 ; Fr. 

And = & aw, if, 65. 

Andzuerede, answered, 190. 

Ane, one, 117. 

Aneuen, at last, 168. 

Anfermi, affirm, 152. 

Anginnynge, beginning, 31. 

Angle, angel, 20, 21. 

Angles, angels, 20, 21. 

Angrice, hurt, harm, 146. 

Angrisi, terrify, hurt, harm, 146. 
A.S. agrysan. 

Anhand, in hand, 22, 164. 

Anhaste, in haste, 31, 45, 60, 68, 
70, 189. 

Anhe3, on high, high, 85, 95, 
125; upwards, 45, 46. 

Anb^e]?, increases, is increased, 

Anh^i, exalt, elevate, raise, 23; 
from O.E. he$, high; AS. heg, 
heah, high. 

Anhet, heated, kindled, 108, 131 ; 
A.S. On-hcetan, to heat, in- 

Anhonged, hanged, 241, cf. Eng. 

Anhongej), hangeth, 51. 

Anhongi, to hang ; A.S. an- 
hon> to hang. 

Anhyaldi, Anhyealde, pp. = an- 
healde = an - halden, with- 
holden, forbidden, 152. 

Anioynj, to enjoin, 172. 

Anlich, like to, 186. 

Anliche, Anlyche, image, like- 
ness, 145. 

Anlicned, Anlycned, Anlikned, 
Anlykned, compared, likened, 
like to, 61, QQ, 101, 227, 232. 

Anlicnesse, Anliknesse, Anlyc- 
nesse, likeness, 87, 88, 100, 
101, 105, 111, 145, 201, 244; 
A.S. an-lic nes. 

Anlicny, Anlykny, to be like to, 
resemble, 101 ; compare, 157, 

AnlikneJ?, Anlykne]?, is like to, 
16, 32, 81 ; compareth, 91 ; 
are like to, 242. 

Anlyke, alike, 227. j 

Anone, in none, 132. 

AnoJ?erne (ace), another, 162. 

Ano]?re, def. another, 25, 175. 

Anoj?ren, Ano]?rene (ace), an- 
other, 91, 155, 175, 186, 249. 

AnoJ?res, anothers, 197. 

Anoy, sb. 267. 

Anoylinge, anointing 14. 

Anoy]?, annoyeth, 162 ; It. an- 
noiare, from Lat. in odio. 

Ansuere, answer, 194, 214. 

Ansuerede, Ansurede, answered, 
178, 208, 239. 

Ansuere}), answer, 56, 264. 

Ansuerie, Ansuerye, Answery, 
to answer, 67, 213. 

Ansuerie]?, 159, 

Ant, and, 68. 

Antempered, attempered, 224. 



The author seems to confound 
the an in this word with the 
an or a in anhongi, anheyi, &c. 

Anpayri, impair, 237. 

Anuenymed, envenomed, poi- 
soned, 50. 

AnnenymeJ?, poisons, 27. 

Aparceiuy, to perceive, 131. 

Aparceyuef, perceive, 57. 

ApayreJ?, impairs, 237. 

Apeluchier, 253. 

Apert, Aperte, open, clear, plain, 
11, 134, 203. 

Aperteliche, openly, 13, 26, 59, 
70, 96, 162, 201, 244. 

Apocalipse, 14, 183. 

Apostate, 19. 

Apostel, 41, 213. 

Apropred, appropriated, 40, 41, 
120, 235. 

A quern e, to please. See Queme. 

Aquench, imp. quench, 130. 

AquencJ, quencheth, 207. 

Aquitti, acquit, set free, 137. 

Aquyked, pp. kindled, 203, from 
quyk = quick, alive. 

Aquyttep, acquit, release, pay, 

Arblast, Arblaste, arbalast, 47, 71. 

Arbytres, arbitress, 154. 

Archangle, 1, 4 

Archer, 45. 

Ardontliche, ardently, 51. 

Aredy, Already, ready,- 121. 

Arere, raise up, elevate, stir up, 
excite, 31, 61,65,74,178,179, 

210 ; imp. 156, 217 ; subj. 217. 
Arerede, Arered, pret. and pp. 

raised, 14, 24, 86, 200, 203, 

Arere]?, raiseth, 23, 85, 129 ; raise, 

pi., 66, 125; exaggerate, 136. 
A^nesse, timidity, slowness, 32 ; 

A.S. earg, inert, timid, evil. 
Ari3t, Ary^t, aright, 70, 74. 
Ari^t-half; Ary$t-half; on the 

right side, on the one side, on 

this side, 23, 38, 40. 
Arise, inf. 35 ; imp. 51 ; pp. 

arisen, 24, 121. 
Arise J>, sing, ariseth, 52 ; arise, 

pi., 57. 
Arist, ariseth, lusteth, 30, 47, 49, 

50, 186. 
Arize, arise. See Arise. 
Arize Jj, arise, pi., 56. 
Arizinge, resurrection, 13, 14; 

rising, 52 ; lustful emotions or 

desires, 11; emotion, 147. 
Arizinges, lusts, 9. 
Amies, 162, 165, 265. 
ArmeJ), armeth, 25, 111, 180. 
Armure, 170, 203, 240. 
Arn, eagle, 61 ; A.S. earn. 
Aros, arose, 7, 13, 173. 
Arrogance, 21. 
Art, 65. 

Article, 12 ; articles, 252. 
Arwe, arrow, 66. 
Asayd, tried, essayed, 117, 142. 
Asayled, pp. assailed, 157. 
Asaylede, pret. assailed, 249. 



AsayleJ), assaileth, 17, 31, 157, 
166, 168, 181, 182. 

Asayli, to assail, 169, 

Asaylinges, assaults, 84, 117, 166, 

AsayJ?, essayeth, 168. 

Ascaped, escaped, 166. 

AscapeJ?, AskapeJ), escapetli, flee 
away, 180, 209, 210. 

Ascapie, Askapie, escape, 56, 
131, 172. 

Ase, as, 6, 7, 8, et passim. 

Ase-moche-ase, as much as, 9, 

Ase-wel, as- well, 256. 

Aslaky, to slacken, 253. 

Aslepe, asleep, 199. 

Asoyli, absolve, 172. 

Asoyny, to strive, "busy, 242. 

Aspid, Aspide, espied, seen, 142, 

AspieJ?, AsepieJ?, look after, 
watch, 253, 255. 

Aspiinges, watchings, spyings, 

Aspif, spieth, 173. 

Assencion, 213. 

Asterue, kill (by depriving of 
food), 240. 

Asterued, starved, enfamished, 

AstoneJ), astonish, 130. 

Astonie, astonish, 126, 257 ; as- 
tonish is Fr. estonner (Lat. at- 
tonare, to thunder at), to as- 
tonish, amaze ; but astonie, O. 

E. stomiie, to dull the senses, 
is from the A.S. stunian, to 
strike, stun. 

Astore]?, victualeth, 112. 

Astorie, store up, victual, 136. 
R. of Gloucester uses as-tore, to 
store (a place), 11. 375, 385 ; 
Fr. estorer, to erect, build, 
garnish; Lat. instaurare, to re- 
pair, renew. 

Astranglede, strangled, 48. 

Astranglef, strangleth, 65. 

Astrangli, to strangle, 50. 

AstruJ), destroys, 17 = astrude\ 1 
A.S. strudan, to rob, spoil, 

Asummed, reached the summit, 
completed, 168. 

Atamed, subdued, 152. 

Ate, at, 13, 14, et passim. 

Ate-laste, lastly, 104. 

Atempres, Attempre, temperate, 
moderated, 24, 153, 254. 

Atenende, Ate-ende, lastly, 128, 

Ate-uerste, firstly, 127. 

Aj?e, on the, 242. 

Atrayt, O.Fr. atrayt, continuously, 
protractedly, 50. 

Atuytinge, blame, reproof, 194. 

Atuy tinges, reproaches, 194. 

Atwyt, reproacheth, reproveth, 

Atwyte, Attwyte, to reproach, 
reprove, tivit, 198 ; A. S. ad- 
witan, ivt'tan, to blame. 



Atwytinge, reproaching, twitting, 

65, 194. 
Auarice, 16, 34, 38, 102, 147. 
Aube, priest's vesture, 236. This 

word is the same as alb, a white 

Auenture, adventure, hap, chance, 

18, 20, 27, 168. 
Auer, a-fire, on fire, 205. 
Auere, fiery, 264. 
Auerst, delayingly, in delay, 32, 

161 ; A.S. fyrst, first, a space of 

time, delay, respite. 
Auerst, adv. first, 5, 20, 32, 

Auocat, advocate, 127. 
Auoncejj, advanceth, 68. 
Auonci, to advance, 82. 
Auontage, advantage, 209, 210. 
Auore, before, 271. 
Auoreye, Auorye, towards, with, 

before, against, as regards, as 

to, 1, 18, 24, 124, 129, 168, 

172, 186, 207, 213, 222. 

Auoreye = aiwre-aye; auore = 

before; aye = again, towards. 
Auoud, avowed, acknowledged, 

Auouerie, Auoerie, adoption, 101, 

146 ; Er. avouer, to avow; Lat. 

Autorite, authority, 147, 221. 
Awakede, woke, 128, 199. 
Awa^ede, shrewd, wicked, cursed, 

27 ; A.S. awerged, accursed. 
AwrecJ>, Awrekj?, wreketh, taketh 

vengeance, punishes, 68, 73, 
115,147. SeeWreke. 

Awreke, pp. punished, 74, 83. 

Awreke, avenge, punish, 9, 59, 

Awrekinge, vengeance, 8. 

Awynne, regain, 85. 

Ayans = ayens, against, 6. 

Ayder = either, each, 53. 

Aye = ay en, against, 1, 5, 6, 7, et 
passim; as to, 24 ; towards, 

Ayeanward, on the contrary, 49. 

Ayen, back, again, 36, 56, 58, 
85; against, 170. 

Ay en-bite, remorse, 1. 

Ayens, against, 6, 18, 29, 98, 115 ; 
towards, 156, 163. 

Ayen-uallinge, apostasy (again- 
falling), 116. 

Ayen- ward, Aye-ward, on the con- 
trary, 48, 49, 56. . 

Ayen-we3e, again-weigh, consider, 

Ayen-wy3te, down-bearing, 247. 

Ayen-yefte, Ayen-yefj?e (again- 
gift), recompense, 120. 

Ayen-yerne, recur, run to, 220. 
See Yerne. 

Azenkte, pret. caused to sink, 

Azet, setteth, setteth out, 140. 

Aze wel, as well, 89. 

Azide, aside, 216. 

A3t, ought, 194. 

A3t, owe, 137. 




Bal, ball, 179. 

Balance, balance, peril, 30, 91. 

Bald, for beald, bold, 105. 

Barat, bargain, also fraud, deceit, 
39, 46, 61, 75, 82; O.Fr. 
bareter, to lie, cheat, beguile ; 
Sp. baratar, to truck, exchange. 

Bargayn, unfair dealing, 9; O.Fr. 
bargainer, to chaffer, also to 
wrangle, haggle. 

Baronage, 58. 

Baronyes, 38. 

Baroun, 38. 

Barouns, 38, 85. 

Baselycoc, basilisk, 28 ; Gr. 
fiaffi\i<TKos, a king. This form 
of the word is used by Chaucer 
in the " Persones Tale." 

Batayle, battle, 83, 117, 167, 

Batayles, 91. 

BaJ?e}>, bathes, 167. 

Baylifs, bailiffs, 122 ; Lat. bajulus, 
Mid. Lat. bajula, 1, a bearer ; 
2, a nurse ; 3, a tutor. From 
bajulus comes Fr. bailli. 

Baylyes, the jurisdiction of a 
bailiff (a term once applied to 
persons holding high offices, as 
regents, &c.) ; hence a king- 
dom, 26. 

Bay)?, buys, 23, 76, 90, 91, 194, 
241. See Begge, to buy. 

Be, by, 1, 6, 7, 8, et passim; for, 

13; though, 12; A.S. be, bi, 

Beat, beateth, 30, 69, 116. 
Beate, to beat, 210, 236. 
Bea3, bowed, 239 ; A.S. bugan, 

beogan (pt. beah, beag, pp. 

bogen, bugen). 
Beca3t, pp. beguiled, ensnared, 

54, 125. 
Becharme, charmeth, 257. 
Beches, beech trees, 23. 
Beelepie]?, Beclep]?, embraceth, 88. 
Beelepie J?, pi. plead for, 40. 
Becleppe, to embrace, clip, 46 ; 

A.S. be-dyppan. 
Becleppe, to raise a clatter, 66 ; 

A.S. clappan, to clap, move ; 

cf. O.E. clappe, talk. 
Becleppe]?, clasps, embraces, 15. 
Becleppinge, embrace, 96. 
Beclept,^>p. embraced, 15. 
Beclepte, pret. embraced, 240. 
Becom, became, 6, 240. 
Become]?, pi become, 78, 92. 
Becom]?, becomes, 19, 43, 51, 91. 
Bed, prayed, 191, 215 ; A.S. bced, 

pret. of biddan, to pray. 
Bed, 31 ; obliq. cas. bedde, 177. 
Bedeawe]?, bedewe]?, moisteneth, 

Bedele, messenger, 37. 
Bedeles, 39, 43; A.S. bydel, a 

preacher, messenger; Eng. bea- 
Bedes, prayers, 141 ; A.S. bed, a 




Begge, to buy, 17, 23, 36, 41, 

44, 78, 83; to redeem, 95; 
A.S. bycgan, to buy. 

Beggeres, beggars, 36. 

Begge]?, buys, 36, 44, 139 ; buy, 
pi. 39, 41. 

Begginge, buying, 38. 

Beginne, to begin, 150. 

Beginne]?, pi. begin, 17, 60, 

Bcginnynge, Begynnynge, begin- 
ning, 70, 72, 76, 97. 

Begin]?, BegynJ), begins, 51, 65, 
67, 88, 99, 108, 131, 181. 

Begynne]?, pi. 1 7. 

Begonne, 2 pers. pret. sing, be- 
ganst, 71. 

Begyled, pp. beguiled, 76. 

BcgyleJ), beguileth, 16. 

Behat, promises, 64, 170, 179, 
181,183,201; A.S. behatan, 
to promise, vow (pret. behat, 
pp. behaten). 

Beheste, promise, vow, 67, 144, 
225 ; A.S. bihces. 

Behestes, pi. of behest e, 98. 

Behinde, Behynde, behind, 10, 

45, 130. 

Behofsam, needful, 99, 192; A.S. 

behofian, to behove, to need. 
Behorewed, defiled, dirtied, 237. 
Behot, promises, 97, 179. See 

Behote, inf. to promise, 162. 
Behote, pp. promised, 13, 65, 67 ; 

vowed, 231. 

Behote]?, promiseth, 40, 42; pi. 

promise, 65. 
Behotinge, entreaty, 207. 
Behotinges, pi. of behotinge, 40, 

Behouede, pret behoved, 128. 
BehoueJ?, behoveth, 58, 79. 
Beknauleeliinge, confession, ac- 
knowledging, 32, 77. 
Beknaust, confessest, 100. 
Beknawe, beknow, confess, 69, 

123, 132; A.S. be-cndwan, to 

Beknawe]?, pi acknowledge, 132. 
Beknawynge, knowledge, 126. 
Bekneu, acknowledged, 215, 216. 
Beleaue, Beleue, Byleaue, belief, 

2, 11, 14, 19, 29, 72, 106, 

Beleaue, Beleue, Bileaue, believe, 

12, 13, 151, 203. 
Belef]?, believeth, 19,139, 151. 
Beloke, comprehended, 97 ; A.S. 

belucan, to loch up, enclose. 
Beles, boils, 224; Du. buile, 

boil, swelling. 
Beleuinge, abiding, continuing, 

176. See Bleue, Bleuinge. 
Belonge]?, appertain to, 12, 17. 
Belouk}), includes, 99. 
Bench, 130. 

Bend, bond, tie, 48 (tie of mar- 
riage), 220. 
Bendes, bonds, 77 ; A.S. bend, a 

bond, band. 
Bene (/), prayer, petition; 




Benen, pi. prayers, petitions, 
3, 99, 102, 114. A.S. ben. 
Benefices, 42, 96. 
Benefices, benefits, 96. 
Benes, prayers, petitions, 25, 51, 
74, 90, 97, 105, 180. 

Bene]?e, beneath, 108, 126. 

Benime, Benyme, to rob, deprive 
of, steal, 39, 59, 68, 79, 86, 
117, 181. See Mme, Nyme. 

Benim]?, BenymJ, Benime]?, Be- 
nyme]?, 3rd pers. sing, and pi. 
of benime, 23, 29, 32, 38, 39, 
68, 76, 77, 79, 86, 108, 218, 
223, 248. 

Benome, taken from, 143. 

Benote]?, employs, uses, 90 ; A.S. 
notu, use ; bi-niotan y to enjoy ; 
notian, make use of, employ. 

Bequide, bequest, will, 112; A.S. 
be-cive'dan, to bequeath ; cwide, 
a testament, judgment. 

Bekuydes, bequests, wills, 38. 

Berdone, burden, 84, 141. 

Bere, a bear, 14, 15, 60. 

Bere, to bear, 8, 21, 56, 83, 
118; wear, 90; enjoy, possess, 

Bere, 1st p. sing, bear, 64 ; 2nd 
p. sing, borest, 20 ; subj. pres. 
may bear, 217. 

Bere, barley, 141; A.S. bere; 
barley = bere + lie (older forms, 
barlic,berelic1i) ; the 7/c=A.S. 
leac = plant, leek ; cf. garlich, 
hemlock (old form liemlic). 

Bere-blisse, Bear-bliss, 72. 
Bere]?, Ber]?, bears, produces, 8, 
20, 29, 78, 88, 97, 195, 217 ; 
pi. bear, 97, 231. 
Berieles, tomb, sepulchre, 12, 

26, 228 ; A.S. by r gels, a se- 
Berinde, bearing, 96, 144. 
Beringe, birth, 130, 213. 
Beringe, burial, 5. 
Berke, to bark at, 179. 
Bernde, burnt, 242. 
Berne, to burn, 163, 173, 225; 

subj. pres. 212. 
Bernes, barns, 30 ; A. S. bem, 

(— bere-em, a store-house for 

Berne]?, Bern]?, sing, burns, pi. 

burn, 43, 74, 204, 206, 229. 
Bernide === Berninde = burning, 

Berninde, Bernynde, burning, 49, 

73, 107, 173, 203, 205, 207. 
Bernindeliche, ardently, 31. 
Berninge, sb. burning, 205, 206. 
Bernston, brimstone, 49, 130. 
Berobbe]?, pi. rob, 39. 
Ber3e, save, preserve, 197, 251. 
Besme, broom, 172 ; A.S. besma, 

a broom, besom ; besmas, rods ; 

S. Prov. Eng. bissam, the heath 

Besmet, Besmetted, defiled, be- 

smutted, 32, 229; A.S. be- 

smitan, to besmut, defile. 
Besnewed, made white as snow, 



81 ; besnewed seems to stand 

for besneawed. 
Besset = be-shut, enclosed, 94 ; 

included, 97; A.S. scyttan, to 

lock up, 
Besset, shut, 231 ; kept secure, 

232. See Ssete, to enclose, 263. 
Best, beast, 4, 14, 51; obliq. 

case, beste, 2, 14, 15. 
Besteriinge, emotions, 263. 
Bestes, beasts, 82. 
Bestrepe]?, Bestrepf, root up, 123, 

127, 144, 150, 185, 201 ; A.S. 

best ry pan, to strip. 
Bet, better, 195. 
Betake, pp. assigned, 198; taken, 

247 ; A.S. bet mean, to assign, 

Betake]?,^?, assign, 36; give, 235. 
Betere, better, 7, 16, 24, 100, 

BetocneJ?, Betoknej), sing, and pi. 

betokeneth, betoken, 15, 203, 

222, 236. 
Betoke, subj. should give, 89, 

Betokned, pp. betokened, 199, 

203, 236. 
Betoknede, pret. betokened, 236. 
Betuene, Betune, between, 66, 

Be]?, bath, 74 ; A.S. bmd, be\ian, 

to bathe. 
Be)?ench, imp. remember, bethink, 

130, 146. 
Bej?enche, remind, 101 ; bethink, 

174, 178; repent, 172; AS. 

BeJjencheJ?, imp. bethink, con- 
sider, 81, 242. 

BeJ?enchinge, bethinking, memory, 
remembrance, 105, 188, 203 ; 
rejjentance, thought, fore- 
thought, 183, 184, 233. 

Bejeng]?, bethinks, remembers, 
considers, reminds, 18, 100, 
152, 177, 246. 

Be^te, bethought, 156. 

Beualle, befall, 107, 118. 

Beualle, pp. befallen, 49. 

Beual)>, befalls, 174. 

Beuealde, befolded, wrapped, 188; 
A.S. befealden, befolded. 

Beuele]?, pi defile, 228. 

Beuelst, defilest, 230. 

Beuelj?, defileth, 178, 229; A.S. 
befulan, to defile; befyled, de- 

Beuelynge, defamation, false ac- 
cusation. It signifies, literally, 
defiling, 40. 

Beuil, befell, 191. 

Beuki^eJ?, flay, hence to fleece, 
rob, plunder, 38 ; A.S. beflean, 
pret. beflog, to flay. 

BeuleaJ?, pi. beulea^ep, rob, fleece, 
182, 218; see Beuk^eJ?. 

Beulejj, pi. avoid, 61. 

Beuliynge, be-flying, eschewing, 
avoiding, 121. 

Beuk^e, pi. pret. avoided, re- 
nounced, 77, 78. 

19 * 



Beuly, Beuli, to fly from, flee, 

avoid, 9, 15, 60, 74, 86, 121, 

139, 178, 179, 205; A.S. 

befleon (befleogan), to flee away, 

Beuly3)j, Beuly 3 1, avoideth, 73, 

75, 136, 226. 
Bewepe, to weep. 
BewepJ?, beweepeth, 51. 
Beyende, beyond, 165. 
Beyete, begotten, 130, 147, 224; 

A.S. be-getan (pt. begeat, pp. 

begeaten), to beget. 
Bezeche, beseech, 194. 
BezecheJ?, Bezechi]?, pi. beseech, 

98, 106, 115. 
Bezechinge, petition, 97, 116. 
Bezechinges, petitions, 97 ; com- 
plaints, 39. 
Bezek]?, beseecheth, 117. 
Bezenge, singe, 230 ; A.S. besen- 

gan, to singe. 
Bezengf, singes, 230. 
Bezet, placed, beset, 102, 152. 
Bezest, besettest, 213. 
Bezette, inf. to beset, occupy, 

Bezette]?, besetteth, 207. 
Bezide, beside, 105, 126, 220,240. 
Bezuyke, pp. beguiled, 76 ; A.S. 

beswican, to beguile, deceive; 

O.E. swike, to deceive, swikere, 

a deceiver. 
Bezuykere, traitor, 171. 
Bezuykinge, Bezuykyinge, treason, 

28, 43 ; deceit, 61. 

Bezuykiinges, Bezuykynges, 

frauds, 23, 61. 

Bezyinge, be-seeing, forethought, 
183, 184. 

Bi, be, 49, 105, 135, 136, 163, 
177, 220. 

Bide = bidde, imp. pray, 210. 

Bidde, we, let us pray, 127 ; 2nd 
pers subj. 114. 

Bidde, Bydde, pray, entreat, sup- 
plicate, 1, 5, 7, 49, 52, 87, 99, 
194, 207, 209, 210, 211, 212; 
A.S. biddan. 

Bidde J?, prayeth, 211. 

Bidde]?, Byddef, pi. pray, 99, 113, 
114, 116,117, 210, 219; imp. 

Biddinde, praying, 219. 

Biddinge, command, 12 ; en- 
treaty, 194. 

Biddinges, Biddynges, commands, 
38, 42; prayers, 219. 

Bied, Bief, Bye]?, are, 138, 157, 
200, 204. 

Bihote. See Behote. 

Biginnynge, beginning, 138. 

Bileaue, Byleaue, Byleue, belief, 
19, 176, 186. 

Bint, binds, 15, 33. 

Bisemere, scorn; pi. bisemeres, 
bisemers, mockings, derisions, 
22, 52, 58, 156 ; A.S. bismer, 
reproach, mockery. 

Bisemere]?, mocketh, 22; A.S. 
bismerian, to mock, insult. 

Bisihede, care, 228. 



Bismol, busi-ful, officious, 226. 

Bissop, bishop, 189. 

Bissopes, Bissoppes, Bissoppe, 
189, 191, 236. 

Bissopriches, bishopricks, 42. 

Bist, biddest, 209. 

Bisye, busy, officious, 58. 

Bisyhede, Bysihede, Bysyhede, 
labour, care, 164, 228; pas- 
time, 231, 

Bit, Byt, prayeth, asketh, 110, 
114, 116, 134, 209, 211, 218, 

Bit, biddeth, 116, 145. 

Bite, sb. bite, morsel, 223. 

Biter, Byter, sing, bitter, 82, 

Bitere, pi. bitter, 83. 

Biterhede, Byterhede, bitterness, 

Biternesse, bitterness, 15, 139, 

Bitep, pi. bite, 70. 

Bitinde, biting, pungent, 143. 

Biuaty, befalls, 57. 

Blame, 23. 

Blame]?, blameth, 17, 137. 

BlamyeJ), pi. blame, 59, 79. 

Blasfemej?, blaspheme, 30. 

Blasfemie, to blaspheme, 70. 

Blasfemies, Blasfemyes, blasphe- 
mies, 45, 69. 

Blasfemye, blasphemy, 57, 69. 

Blaup, puffs, 32. 

Blawe, blow, 168. 

BlaweJ), pi. blow, 24. 

Bleche, pale, 53; A.S. bide, pale; 

blcecan, to fade, bleach. The 

root still exists in blight 
Blechest, hurtest, 147. 
Blechef, injures, defaces, 40, 1 1 5 ; 

harms, injures, 238 ; A.S. 

blmco, spot; Match, a blotch. 

Shoreham uses blokne, to be 


The thridde day he (Christ) aros a3eyn 
Of the throitt (tomb) ther men hine 

leyde, in tokene 
That, man, thi body arise schel 
Of deithe nanmore to blokm. (p. 4.) 

Blefde, Blefte, remained, 12, 59, 

BlefJ? = bi-leveth, remains, abides, 
30,47,91,177; A.S. be-laifan 
(pret. belcefde), to leave. 

Bleften, £>?. remained, 189. 

Blench, change, 130; Blench is 
the soft form of blinJc. 

Blende)), pi make blind, 33 ; 
A.S. Meridian, to blind. 

Blest, blast, 203; A.S. bl'est, 

Ble>eliche, joyfully, quickly, read- 
ily, 20, 50, 65, 100, 102, 177. 

BleJ>elaker, more quickly, readily, 
69, 140, 180; A.S. Hide, blithe, 

Bleue = bileue, to remain, con- 
tinue, endure, 120, 203, 225, 
245 ; persevere, 232 ; remain 
in (curl), 177 ; A.S. belkfan, to 
leave. See Blefde, Blefte. The 



O.E. bileve, beleve, signifies to 

remain, abide, continue. 
Bleuindeliche, perseveringly, 141, 

Eleuinge, abiding, continuance, 

dwelling, 47, 72 ; perseverance, 

constancy, 215, 232. 
Blisfolle, blissful, 75,118. 
Blisse, Blysse, Blysce, /. bliss, 

14, 71, 90. 
Blissede, adj. def. blessed, 70, 87. 
Blissen, blessings, blisses, 93. 
Blisses, blessings, 77. 
Blissinge, blessing, 97, 183, 243. 
Blissinges, blessings, 97. 
Blisuol, blisful, 148. 
Blisuolle, def. f blisful, 118, 

Blisuolliehe, blisfully, 94. 
Blipe, glad, 87, 132; ready, 

eager, 85. 
Blod, blood, 1, 41, 87; olliq. 

case, Mode, bloode, 107, 111. 
Blody, bloody, 46. 
Blondere, flatterer, one who 

speaks blandly, 61. 
Blonderes, flatterers, 60, 61, 177. 
Blondinge, flattery, 10, 57, 75. 
Blondingges, 141. " With, Hand- 
ing ne with boste." Shoreham's 

Poems, p. 14. 
Blynde, pi. blind, 56. 
Blyssedhede, bliss, 97. 
Blyssinges, blessings, 97. 
Boc, book, 1, 2, 5, 14, 70, 124. 
Bocherio, butchery, slaughter, 64. 

Fr. boucher, from boc, a goat. 
Boc-house, library, 1. 
Bocle, buckle, 236. 
Bodi, body, 236. 
Bodilich, bodily, 200. 
Bodiliche, Bodylyche, adj. pi. 

bodily, 90, 119, 212. 
Bodye, body, 10, 14. 
Bodyes, bodies, 8. 
Bodylich, adj. sing, bodily, 72 ; 

corporeal, 111, 146. 
Bok, book, 42. 
Bokes, books, 42, 61. 
Bolde, pi. bold, forward, 216. 
Boldeliche, adv. boldly, 34, 63. 
BonteJ), bolteth, sifteth, 93 ; cf. 

S. Prov. Eng. bunt, to sift corn ; 

Eng. bunting, from Bret, bunta, 

Eng. bunt, to knock, push. 
Bor, boar, 69. 
Bord, Borde, table, 235. 
Bore, pp. born, 221. 
Borgesye, citizenship, 161. 
Borgeys, Borgeyse, burgess, citi- 
zen, 161, 216. 
Boryeis, citizen, 161. 
Boryinde, piercing, 6Q ; A.S. 

borian, to bore. 
Bo^eJ?, take in pledge, 36. 
Bosme, bosom, 163. 
Bost, beast, 71. 
Bosyne, sound, 137; A.S. by sen, 

Bote, but, only, except, 5, 22, 65, 

Boterel, toad, 187. 



Bote-yef, except, 6, 7, 10, et 

Botme, bottom, 140 ; A.S. botm. 
Botoim, button, 86, 134. 
Boue^e =bor3e, save, 134. 
Bougercn, heretics, 258. 
Bougre, heretic, 19. 
Bougres, heretics, 69, 134 (it is 

derived from the Bulgarians, a 

Slavonian tribe). 
Boundes, limits, 207. 
Boune, O.Fr. a reed, rule, 150. 
Bourdedest, jestedest, 20. 
Boure, chamber, 226 ; A.S. bur. 
Bouje, to obey, be obedient to, 

bow to, 8, 20, 21, 68, 140. 
Bouje]?, pi. obey, 143 ; sbj. 68 ; 

A. S. bligan, to bend. 
Boi^inde, prone, lit. bending to, 

B0113, imp. obey, 194. 
Bou3inge, sb. bending, inclining, 

B0U3 J?, inclineth, 1 54 ; obeys, 20, 

140, 141. 
B03, bough, 2, 3, 4, 17, 65 ; boje, 

obliq. case, 22, 23, 58. 
Bo3es, boughs, 3, 4, 17, Q5, 68, 

191, 219. 
Bo3e, bow, 45. 
Bo3en, pret. pi. obeyed, 84. 
Bo3sam, obedient, 59. This word 

still exists, in buxom, O.E. 

boghsam, bughsom. 
Bo3samliche, obediently, 70. 
Bo3samnesse, obedience, 101,140, 

Bo3te, bought, 133. 
B03J?, B0U3J?, obeys, 184. 
Boys toy se, boisterous, 103. 
Brayinde, howling, roaring, 73. 
Bread, bread, 113; obliq. c. bread e, 

113, 235. 
Brecj? = breaks, 40. 
Brech-gerdel, a girdle, 205. 
Bredale, bridal, wedding, 118, 223. 
Bred ales, marriages, 75. 
Brede, breadth, 105. 
Bredgome, bridegroom, 233. 
Brek, broke, 16. 
Breke, to break, 51, 52, 116. 
Breken, pt. pi. broke, 64, 2 1 3. ; 
Breke]?, pi. break, 41. 
Brekjj, breaks, 7, 8, 16, 41, 178. 
Brekinge, breach, 48, 261. 
Brekynde, brittle, breaking, 82. 
Bren, bran, 210. 
Brenge, imp. pi. bring ye, 1. 
Brenge, to bring, 87. 
Brenge]), pi. bring, 33, 83. 
BrengJ>, brings, 118, 128, 141, 

Brenston, brimstone, 73. 
Bres, brass, 203. 

Bridel, obliq. case, bridle, 249, 254*. 
Bri3t, bright, pure, 74. 
Bri3te, adj. pi. pure, 73, 108. 
Bri3te, adv. clearly, 72. 
Bri3tliche, brightly, clearly, 150, 

Bri3tncsse, Bry3tnesse, brightness, 

81, 82, 143, 200. 



Broches, brooches, 229. 
Bronches, branches, 9. 
Brondes, brands, 205, 240. 
Brotel, brittle, 129 ; A.S. breotan, 

to bruise, break ; 0. Norse, 

Brotelhede, brittleness, poverty, 

BroJ>erhede, Broperrede, brother- 
hood, 110, 146. 
Brofren, brethren, 101, 102, 149. 

This form is used by Shoreham. 
Bro3te, brought, 118, 190. 
Bryad, bread, 107, 110, 111. 
Bryest, breast, 175. 
Bryesten, breasts, 247. 
Buones, bones, 64, 148. 
Burdes, jests, 56 ; Er. bourde, a 

jest ; Bret, bourd, deceit, joke. 
Busse, bush, 28. 
By, to be, 7, 14, 88 ; is, 7, 14, 

16, 85 ; are, 9. 
Byad, offered, 41 ; A.S. bead, 

from beodan, to offer. 
Byat, beateth, 100. 
Bydde, Bidde, to pray for, 98, 99, 

113, 114. 
Byddynges, Byddinges, prayers, 

petitions, 100 ; entreaties, 40. 
Byddef, pi. pray, 107, 109, 113, 

116, 117, 118. 
Byeam, beam. 
Byenne, to be, 131, 169. 
Byet, Bye]), are, 1, 3, 6, 8, 66 , imp. 

Byet, begetteth, 181, 

Byete, subj. beat, 191. 
Byetinge, begetting, 216. 
Byginninge, beginning, 11. 
Byinge, being, 82, 103. 
Byknawe, acknowledge, confess, 

123, 182. 
Bylef), believeth, 19. 
Byleue, Byleaue, belief, 11, 12, 

19, 69, 101, 112, 114. 
Bynime, rob, deprive of, 39. 
Bynt, ByndeJ), bindeth, binds, 

77, 97. 
Byrie, bier, 258. 
Bysemeres, scorns, derision, 63. 
Bysi, busy. See Bisye. 
Bysihede, Bysyhede, diligence, 

care, anxiety, 55, 93 ; occupa- 
tion, amusement, 231. 
Bysihedes, occupations, 165. 
Bysinesse, labour, trouble, care, 

Bysye, pi. busy, officious, 226. 
Byt, bites, 61, 62, 66. 
Byt, biddeth, prayeth, 29, 110, 

Byter, bitter, sour, 82, 129. 
Bytere,^>Z. 150. 
Byte]), pi bite, 61. 
Byf = bye]), are, 17, 26, 102. 
Byuealde, befolded, 8. 
Byuly, avoid, 134. 
Byzylyche, busily, 79. 

Cachie, catch, to drive out or 
from, 178; O. Fr. charier, 
cachier ; cf. modern phrase 



'caught off.' See Glossary 
to ' Genesis and Exodus' 
' Cacchyn, away, fugo, agito, 
abigo, effugo.' Pr. Parv. 
Calices, chalices, 41. 
Calketreppen, pits or snares, 131 ; 
A.S. calca-trippa, trap, snare ; 
cf. Fr. chausse-trappe, caltrap, 
tribulus, murinus (Wr. Voc. 
140), K. Alys, 1. 60, 70. See 
note on this word in Promp- 
torium, vol. i. p. 59. 
Calowe-mous, bat, 27 ; A.S. calu, 
caluw, bald ; O.H. Ger. chala- 
wer, bald. The bat is some- 
times called a reremouse, from 
the AS. hrere, raw. 

Can, knows, 58, 94, 135. 

Candele, /. candle, candelle, 102 

Caorsins, Sarasins, usurers, 35. 

Capiteles, chapters, 1. 

Capiteles, capitals, 43. 

Capons, 38. 

Cardinales, Cardinals, adj. pi. car- 
dinal, head, 3, 123, 124. 

Cardinals, sb. 124. 

Carkejj, produces, 230. 

Caroyne, carrion, 86. 

Carten, carts, 35. 

Cartere, carter, 160. 

Cas, case, chance, as in be-cas = 
perchance, 36, 42, 70, 115. 

Castel, Castele, castle, 1, 43, 
121, 154; pi. casteles, 149. 

Catel, wealth, 35, 36; O.Fr. 

catel, chatel ; Lat. capitale. 
Cause, 224. 
Cedre, cedar, 131. 
Cellen, cells, 267. 
Chacej?, drives, 171. 
Chald, Cheald, cold, chilled, 47, 
138, 152, 170; A.S. ceald, 
cdld, cold. 
Chalenge, false claim, 34. 
Chalenge]?, pi. accuse, 43 ; O.Fr. 
chalenyier ; Lat. calumniarl. 
See Glossary to Hampole's P. 
of C. 
Chalis, chalice, 167. 
Chambren, chambers, 224. 
Chancelier, chancellor, 243. 
Chapele, chapel, 56. 
Chapfare, Chapuare, chaffer, un- 
fair dealing, 34, 35, 44, 90, 
120 ; pi. cheapfares, 36, 45. 
Chapfari, vb. to chaffer, trade, 
162; A.S. cedp, a bargain, 
sale ; ceapian y to buy ; feriau, 
to bear, carry. 
Chapitele, Chapitle, chapter, 136, 

Chapman, merchant, 77, 158 ; 

pi. chapmen, 76. 
Chapuare, chaffer, 191. 
Charge]?, loadeth, 97 ; see R of 

Gl. 13, 416. 
Charitable, 145. 
Charite, 79 ; pi. charites, 83. 
Charmeres, charmers, 69. 
Charmes, 43. 
Chast, Chaste, chaste, 203, 221. 



Chastete, Chastetee, 4, 159, 181, 

Chaste J>, chastise, 17, 69, 100, 

147, 156. 
Chasthede, chastity, 230. 
Chasti, to chastise, chasten, 8, 

148, 15S, 221 ; O.Fr. chastier. 
Chastinge, chastening, chastise- 
ment, 68. 

Chastisement, 17. 

Chastliche, chastely, in purity, 

Chaynen, Chaines, chains, 214, 

Cheake, cheek, 248. 

Chealde, pi cold, 242. 

Cheap, cheape market, 36 ; ' grat 
cheap/ ' greate cheape,' abund- 
ant, plentiful, 256. Cf. cheep ; 
pretium. Pr. Parv. 

Cheapfare, chaffer, 35, 36. Bee 

Cheapfares, chaffers, bargains, 36, 

Cheas, chose, 77. 

Cheaste, chiding, strife, 30, 65, 
66; pi. cheastes, 57, 138; 
A.S. ceast, strife, dispute, con- 
tention. See Piers Plough. 
L 8946. 

Chef, chaff, 62, 137, 138 ; obliq. 
case, cheue, 210; A.S. ceaf ; 
O. Dutch kaf. 

Cheker, chess-board, 45, 46. 

Chele, chill, cold, 75 ; A.S. cele ; 
O.H.Ger. chuoli;pl. Cheles, 124. 

Chenaille, O.Fr. dogs, 112. 
Cherche, church, 7, 8. 
Cherchen, churches, 30, 43. 
Cherchetounes, church-towns, 41. 
Cherl, churl, 76; A.S. ceorl ; 

O. Dutch keerl (vir, rusticus) ; 

pi. cherles, 112. 
Ches, chess, 52. 
Cheue, chaff, 210. See Chef. 
Chewynge, sb. chewing, 111. 
Chide, 67. 
Chidinge, sb. chiding, strife, 30, 

65, 66. 
Chiere = chere, cheer, 155, 193 ; 

O.Fr. chere, countenance, en- 
tertainment, cheer. 
Chiese, Chise, Chyese = clieose, 

86, 93, 101, 165 ; A.S. ceosan, 

to choose ; O. Sax. Mosan. 
ChieseJ?, pi. choose, 45. 
Child, neut. 58, 84 ; obliq. case, 

childe, 82. 
Childbedde, 224. 
Childhede, childhood, 82. 
Childhedes, childishnesses, 207. 
Childi, to bring forth a child, 

224. See Orm. 156. CMUin, 

parere (Pr. Parv.). 
Chinne, chin, 50. 
Chise, choose, 93. 
Chomberier, chamberer, 171. 
Chombre, chamber, room, 215. 
Chonge, change, 104. 
Chongep, changeth, 129 ; pi. 

change, '42. 
Chongi, to change, 104. 



Chonginde, clianging, 104, 105, 

Chyaste == cheaste, strife, 67. 
Chyese, choose, 86. 
Cliyest, chooseth, 126. 
Chyewe = clieowe, to chew, 111; 

A.S. ceowan, O.H. Ger. clilu- 

ivan, to chew. 
Chyeze]?, pi. choose, 1 65. 
Chyezinge = cheosinge, election, 

Cite, city, 49 ; pi. cites, 43, 

Clauen, claws, 61; A.S. eld; 

O.Sax. clawa ; O.H. Ger. chloa ; 

pi. chlawen, claw. 
Claustres, cloisters, 267. 
Clene, clean, pure, 73. 
Clenlich, Clenliche, adj. clean, 

45, 216. 
Clenliche, cleanly, in purity, 6, 

48, 76, 120, 138. 
Clennesse, purity, 75, 201, 202. 
Clensi, Clensy, to cleanse, purify, 

75, 137, 271 ; A.S. clamsian. 
Clenze]?, cleanseth, 73, 74, 88, 

106, 171. 
Clepede, called, 190. 
Cleper, clapper (of a mill), 58 ; 

O.Dutch, kleppen, pulsare, 

Clepest, callest, 100. 
ClepeJ), calls, 17, 21, 22, 26, 58, 

72, 78, 79, 81, 168. 
Clepie]?,^Z. call, 69, 72, 74, 112, 


Clepie, to call, 42, 43, 64 ; A.S. 

cleopian, clypian, to call. 
ClepiyJ) = clepye]), call, 111. 
Cleregye, Clergie, Clergy e, clergy, 

learning, 16, 18, 71, 78, 81, 

Clergyes, sciences, 89. 
Clerek, Clierk, clerk, scholar, 23, 

25, 49, 78. 
Clerekes, Clerkes, Clierkes, scho- 
lars, 39, 42, 46, 78. 
Clernesse, clearness, brightness, 

Cleuiinde, Cleuiynde, cleaving, 

persistent, lasting, convincing, 

54, 98, 107; A.S. cleofian ; 

O.H. Ger. cJileben, cleave, stick 

Cleuiyndeliche, completely, 103. 
CliepeJ? = clepejj, calls, 125. 
Cliene, clean, 224. 
Clier, Clyer, Clyre, clear, 24, 78, 

104, 159, 167 ; O.Fr. cle?\ 
Clierliche, Clyerliche, clearly, 88, 

155, 174, 243. 
ClifJ), Clyi>, climbs, 131, 132, 

145, 219 ; A.S. clifan, to ad- 
here to ; O.IS r . Jclifa, scandere. 

Cf. O.E. claveren, to climb ; 

Dutch Maveren ; Dan. klavre, 

to climb. 
Cliue, Clyue,to climb, 23, 26, 89, 

127, 162. 
Cliuen, pret. pi. climbed, 126. 
Cliue}>, pi. climb, ascend, 164, 




Clom, silence, 266. See Clomsed, 

in Glossary to Hampole. 
Clop, cloth, 45 ; obliq. case, clofe, 

188 ; pi clothes, 47, 128. 
CloJ>ede, pt. clothed, 133. 
Clope}), imp. clothe, 265. 
Clopinge, sb. clothing, 154, 165. 
Cloystre, cloister, 151, 242. 
Cloystrers, 67. 
Clyerer, clearer, 267. 
Coccou, Cockou, cuckow, 22, 59. 
Col, coal, obliq. case, cole, 82, 

126, 205; pi. coles, 205; A.S. 

Collacious, 155. 
Colour, Colur, Colurs, 15, 62, 81, 

•Colrik, 157. 
Colt, Colte, 185, 220. 
Collier, Colure, dove, 142; A.S. 

culfre, a dove, pigeon; O.E. pi. 

Coluer-hous, dove-cote, 142. 
Com, came, 26; imp. sing. 185. 
Come, inf. to come, 87, 98 ; subj. 

pi. 93, 116; imp. pi. 137. 
Comen, pi. pret. came, 130. 
Comene, gerund, to come, 106, 

Come]?, pi. come, 27, 91, 92. 
Cominde, Comynde, coming, 264. 
Comyde= Corny nde, coming, 264. 
Commun, Comun, Commune, com- 
mon, 37, 48, 102, 147. 
Communliche, commonly, 145, 


Communy, to share, 102. 

Comparer, 243. 

Comparisoun, 81, 92, 235. 

Compassion, 148. 

Complexion, 157. 

Comst, comest, 239. 

Comste, comest thou, 264. 

Com]?, Come]?, cometh, come, 18, 
19, 26, 51, 87, 89, 161. 

Comunliche, commonly, 145. 

Comynge^en, return, 87. 

ConceyueJ?, conceiveth, 136. 

Condecendre, condescend, 157. 

Condicion, 173. 

Condicions, conditions, 172. 

Conduef, leadeth, 122. 

Confermi, Confermy, confirm, 109, 

ConfermeJ?, confirm, 105, 106, 

Conferminge, confirming, 14. 

Confessour, 172. 

Confort, comfort, 96, 142. 

Conforted, 160. 

Conforte]?, comforts, 111, 160, 

Conforti, to comfort, 160. 

Confusion, Confuzion, 229. 

Conioun, 76. 

Conne, inf. to know, can, he ahle, 
21,70, 73, 94, 98, 104, 117, 
130, 148; pi. 46, 58, 59, 
82, 86, 100, 126, 132; 2nd 
pers. 118 ; A.S. cunnan. 

ConneJ?, pi. know, 249. 

Connynge, knowledge, 115, 122. 



Consayle, 122. 
Consentede, pret. 249. 
Consentemens, Consentement, 

consent, 11, 19. 
Consenti, to consent, 10, 73, 117, 

170, 176. 
Consentinge, 117, 176. 
Conspiracions, conspiracies, 23. 
Constance, constancy, 167. 
Contac, Contak, contest, dispute, 

15, 4=0; pi. Contakes, 63. 
Contemplacion, 204, 247. 
Contemplatif, Contemplatiue, 199, 

Contrarie, Contrarye, contrary, 

14, 136, 151. 
Contraries, 123. 
Contrarious, 28. 
Contraye, country, 130. 
Conuersacioun, 96, 112, 241. 
Coppes, cups, 30. 
Corage, courage, 164. 
Corde, 58. 
Corn, 62, 140;^>Z. comes (grains), 

Cornardyes, deceits, 130. 
Cornees (O.Fr.), customs or duties 

on corn and cattle, 38. 
Cornyeres, corners, 124. 
Coroune, crown, 168, 169. 
Corounede, pi. crowned, 234. 
Corounes, crowns, 15, 116, 169. 
Corsinge, Corsynge, cursing, 28, 

Cort, court, 137, 256. 
Cortays, courteous, 112; O.Fr. 

Cortayseliche, Corteisliche, courte- 
ously, 106, 118, 160, 195. 

Comp. Cortayslaker, 163. 
Cortaysie, Cortaysye, courtesy, 

civility, 36, 97, 98. 
Corteys, courteous, 21, 22, 35, 

113. See Cortays. 
Corteysye, Corteyzie, courtesy, 

75, 118; pi. corteysyes, 162. 
Cortoys, courteous, 100, 188. 
Corrupcion, 227. 
Corupt, 82. 
Cost, 58, 113, 119, 137, 176 ; 

O.Dutch host, sumptus, expen- 

Costes, expenses, 40. 
Costnede, cost, 145. 
CostneJ, costeth, 75, 121. 
Costningge, expense, 151. 
Costuolle, dear, expensive, 229. 
Cosyn, Cosyne, cousin, 89. 
Cou, cow, 56 ;pl. Ken, 191. 
Couaitise, Couaytise, Couaytyse, 

covetousness, 2, 11, 16, 34, 

125, 154. 
Couaytous, Couaytouse, covetous, 

80, 136, 154, 197. 
Couche, 171. 
Couent, convent, 110, 219. Cf. 

Covent Garden. 
Coueytise, covetousness, 137. 
Coupe, cup, pi. coupes, 35. ; 
Coustouse, expensive, dear, 228 ; 

O.Fr. const, expense, cost. 
Coufe, could, knew, 105, 126, 133. 



Coufien, Cofen, pi. could, knew, 
78, 168. 

Crammeles, crumbs, grains, 253. 

Crane, 56. 

Crayme, Creyme, clirism, cream, 
41, 93. 

Credo, creed, 12. 

Creft, obliq. case, craft, art, power, 
35, 45, 90, 116, 157; A.S. 
craeft, O.Fris. Icreft. 

Creftes, handicrafts, 178. 

Crete, cradle (cf. mod. Eng. 
crate), 137. Crate is generally 
derived from Lat. crates, wicker 
or hurdle work. It. crate, a 
hurdle ; hut crete, a cradle, may 
he from AS. crata, a cart. 

Cristen, sing. Christian, 93. 

Cristendom, Cristendome, Chris- 
tendom, christening, Chris- 
tianity, 64, 101, 145. 

Cristene, sing. def. form, Chris- 
tian, 165. 

Cristene, pi. Christian, 79, 93, 
114, 145. 

Cristesmesse, Christmas, 213. 

Cristni, to christen, baptize, 107. 

Cristninge, christening 14, 74, 
107, 119. 

Crokede, pi. crooked, 224. 

Croki, to crook, curl, 177. 

Crouche, cross, 111. 

Crouchen, crosses, 41. 

Cruelete, 15. 

Cryepe, = creope, creep, move, 
107 ; A.S. creopian. 

Curiouseliche, curiously, careful- 
ly, 176. 

Daies, days, 198. 

Damezele, damsel, 72. 

Damnede, 51. 

DamneJ?, condemns, 115. 

Damni, condemn, damn, 137. 

Danes = deanes, vales, dales, 39, 

59 ; dean, A.S. den, denu, is a 

common element in local names 

in the S. of England. 
Dar, dare, 32, 67, 70, 83. 
Daye (obliq. case of day), 7, 13, 

Dayes, days, 7, 13. 
Daynede, deigned, 76, 126. 
Daynej), deigneth, 18, 196. 
Da3es, messe da^es, days, 214. 
Deade, pi. dead, 86. 
Deadlich, deadly, 47, 223. 
Dead wed, mortgage, 36. 
Deajje (obliq. case), death, 87, 

129; deafes (gen. sing.), 130; 

A.S. dead. 
Deau, dew, 91, 136, 144; A.S. 

Deawe (obliq. case), dew, 91. 
Decendejj, descendeth, 123. 
Decendi, to descend, 123. 
Deceyued, deceived, 79. 
Deceyui, to deceive, 82. 
Deciple, disciple, 13, 96. 
Dedbote, satisfaction, amend, 32, 

33 ; A.S. dmd-bot. 
Dede, did, put, placed, caused, 



78,86, 114, 133,211,216. 
Dede, sb. deed, 10, 12, 21, 74. 
DoHon, pret. pi did, caused, made, 

72, 78, 181. 
Dedes, deeds. 10, 73, 137. 
Dedest, didst, 21. 
Defaced, obliterated, 190. 
Defayled, wearied, overcome (with 

weariness,) 33. 
Defaute, lack, want, 33, 73, 261 ; 

pi defautes, 73, 78, 108, 131, 

DefendeJ), defends, excuses, 22, 

DefendeJ?, pi defend, excuse, 38, 

Defendi, to defend, 157. 
Befouled, defiled, 167. 
Defoulent, defileth, 182. 
Defouli, defile, 221. 
Degres, Degrez, degrees, 123, 267. 
Del, deal, part, 17, 86, 175 ; A.S. 

Dele, to separate, 76 ; A.S. d&lan. 
Deles, Delles, divisions, parts, 17, 

50, 60, 153; properties, 125. 
Delices, delights, 24. 
DeliteJ?, delighteth, 47. 
Deliti, Delyty, to delight, 82, 91. 
Deliure, imp. deliver, 110, 118. 
Deliured, Delyured, pp. deliver- 
ed, 87, 118. 
Deliurede, pret. delivered, 95, 128. 
Deliuri, Delyuri, to deliver, 12, 

13, 103, 117, 198. 
Deliure J?, delivereth, 128. 

Deliureonse, liberty, 86, 

Delles, parts, 164. 

Delue, delve, dig, undermine, 

108 ; A.S. delf-an, to dig, delve. 
Delyty, to delight, 82. 
Delyury, to deliver, 270. 
Demde, judged, 175. 
Deme, to deem, judge, decide, dis- 
criminate, 13, 74, 76, 82, 126; 

A.S. deman, to judge. 
Demere, judge, 12, 62, 131, 138 ; 

A.S. demere, 
Demeres, judges, 39, 215, 227. 
Dem]>, judgeth, deemeth, 27, 28, 

74, 125, 138, 
Demynges, opinions, censures, 27. 
Denyes, deaneries, 42. 
Depe, to dip, 106 ; A.S. depart. 
Dep)>, dippeth, 107. 
Derie, to hurt, 126, 166; A.S. 

derian, derigcm, to hurt, harm, 

Deriynde, hurtful, injurious, 63. 
Deme, secret, 143 ; A.S. dyrne. 
Derrer, dearer, 36. 
Derye, to hurt, injure. See Derie. 
Deryinde, hurtful, injurious, 63. 
Des, dice, 45. 
DescendeJ), descends, 123. 
Descriuejj, pi describe, 168. 
Deserited, disinherited, 30. 
Desert, Dezert, 67, 131, 240. 
Desertesoun, desertion, 48. 
Desgised, distinguished, 97. 
DesgyzeJ?, disguiseth, 158. 
Desiri, to desire, 244. 



Desordene, inordinate, 46. 

Despayred, 34. 

Despendi, to spend. Despendep, 
spendeth, 19, 41, 53, 187. 

Despense, spending, eost, 21, 55. 

Despit, contempt, despising, de- 
spite, 19, 20, 21, 69. 

Desputede, 79. 

Desspendoure, almoner (trea. 
surer), 190. 

Dest, dost, 118, 129, 159. 

Destempringe, distempering, 153. 

Destineti, distinguish, 152. 

Destorbe, disturb. Destorbed, 
disturbed, 212. Destorbe]?, dis- 
turbs, 179. 

Destorbinge, disturbance, 225. 

Destrud, destroyed, 30. 

Destrue, to destroy, 28, 117. 

Destruep, Destrui]?, destroyeth, 
destroy, 35, 36, 43. 

Detraccion, 10. 

Dette, debt, 35, 120, 135, 222. 

Dettes, debts, 113, 115. 

DeJ?, doeth, causeth, placeth, 31, 
58, 67, 97, 102 ; < dej? aye,' 
break etb, doth against, 57. 

Deuines = deuineres, diviners, 19. 

Deuisi, deuise,name, tell, 73, 100, 
103, 144. 

Deuocion, Deuocioun, 33, 107, 
136, 210, 226. 

Deuouteliehe, devoutly, 134, 211, 
215, 225. 

Diaknen, deacons, 190. 

Diaymont, diamond, 187. 

Dich, ditcb, 57. 
Diciplines, 240. 
Diere, Dyere, dear, beloved, 36, 

44; dearly, 194. 
Dierjje, dearness, scarcity, 256. 
Dieuel, Dyeuel, devil, 15. 
Difference, 10, 210. 
Digneliche, worthily, 20. 
Diligence, 238. 
Diligent, 32, 220. 
Diligentliche, diligently, 70. 
Dingnete, dignity, 24, 112, 119, 

Dingnetes, Dyngnetes, dignities, 

26, 42. 
Dingneste, worthiest, 109. 
Dingnelyche, worthily, properly, 

Discord, 43, 75, 157. 
Discordance, 259. 
Discrecion, 242, 256, 255. 
Disete=Disese, sorrow, grief, 57. 
Disordene, inordinate, immoder- 
ate, unrestrained, 34, 48. 
Disordenliche, immoderately, 55, 

Dispendede, expended, 128. 
DispendeJ?, ) pass the time, spend, 
Despende]?, J 7. 
Dispoyly, spoil, rob, 45. 
Dissiplines, disciplines, 236, 250. 
Dissuol, dishful, 120. 
Distemperance, distempering, 153. 
Diuers, obstinate, 68. 
Diuers, Diuerse, diverse, different, 

15, 42, 124, 244. 



Diuerses, £>Z. various, 162. 

Diuersejj, differs, 124. 

Di3t, orders, directs, prepares, 11, 

24, 124, 147, 222. 
Dijte, to order, direct, ordain, 

separate, put from, 210 ; A.S. 

diht> a disposing, ordering; 

dihtan, to order, arrange. 
Di3te, should distribute, 147. 
Di3tere, director, 100 ; A.S. 

DijteJ?, pi direct, adorn, 7, 47. 
Di3tinge, decoration, adorning, 

24, 47, 215. 
Di3tinges, divisions, 17. 
Do, put, cause, 210; 247. 
Do, pp. done, 68, 124. 
DobbleJ), doblef, doubleth, 22, 

Doere, deer, 135. 
Doinde, doing, 194. 
Dol, division, 112. See Del. 
Doles, divisions, 17. 
Dolue, should delve, break into, 

Dom, obliq. case. Dome, doom, 

judgment, opinion, 6, 10, 13, 

37, 74 ; justice, equity, 113, 

124, 127, 148 ; A.S. dom. 
Domb, dumb, 1, 179. 
Dombe, pi. dumb, 56. 
Domes, verdicts, 40. 
Domesman, judge, 115. 
Domesmen, judges, 38, 44. 
Done, to do, to be done, 8, 9, 11, 

68, 74. 

Dong, obliq. case, Donge, dung, 
61, 75, 77, 81, 137, 216. 

Donghel, dunghill, 81, 230. 

Dore, door, 210, 255. 

D ore ward, doorkeeper, 121, 263. 

Dorilot, 177. 

Dorre, Dorren, pi. dare, 22, 32, 

Dorste, pi. durst, 143. 

Dors test, durst, 73. 

Do)), pi. doth, place, set, cause, 
69, 72, 73. 

Doumb, Doumbe, dumb, 51, 224. 

Doust, dust, 26, 108. 

D03, dough, 205. 

Do3ter, daughter, 26. 

Do3tren, daughters, 140. 

Draf, dreggs, 93. 

Dragoune, 174. 

Draye, dry, 137, 240. 

Dra3e, to draw, lead to, lead out, 
10, 12, 77, 79, 137, 186. 

Dra3e, pp. drawn. 

Dra3j?, draweth, leadeth, 15, 43, 
100; taketh away, 40, 41; 
treats, 45. 

Dra3eJ?, pi. draw, lead, 43, 147. 

Dra3)>e, treatise, 251, 260. 

Drede, fear, 4, 32, 74. 

Drede, doubt, 105. 

Drede)?, pi. dread, fear, 74, 84, 
86, 138. 

Dreduol, dreadful,fearful, cautious, 
timid, 14, 15, 16, 22, 70, 144. 

Dreduolle, pi. fearful, 116; ter- 
rible, 42, 70 ; horrible, 189. 




Dreduoller, more fearful, more 

cautious, 117. 
Drench, sb. drink, 130. 
Drenche, to drink; 3rd sing, 

Dringjj, 251, 248. 
Diet, dreadeth, 26, 34, 116, 125, 

Drinkeres, drinkers, 47. 
DrincJ>, drinketh, 137, 245, 247. 
Drink]?, drinketh, 95, 251. 
DrinkeJ), pi. drink, 248. 
Dronke, pp. drunken, 75, 107, 

127, 247. 
Dronkehede, drunkenness, 260. 
Dronkenese, drunkenness, 248. 
Drope, drop, 75, 91, 92, 189. 
Dropen, drops, 84, 92. 
Dropes, drops, 92. 
Dro3, drew, l e( l ou % l^. 
Dro3en, treated, 164* 
Dru3j?e, drought, 68. 
DryfJ), driveth, 75. 
DryngJ), drencheth, 248. 
Dyacne, deacon, 190. 
Dyad, Dyead, s. dead, 12, 71, 82. 
Dyad, dead, 126. 
Dyade, pi. dead, 13, 30. 
Dyade, obliq. case, 263. 
Dyadlich, Dyeadlich, s. mortal, 

deadly, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 73, 

110, 144. 
Dyadliche, Dyeadliche, pi. and 

def. form of the adj., 9, 70, 

Dyadliche, Dyeadliche, adv. 

deadly, 6, 7, 86, 225. 

Dyaf, deaf, 1. 
Dyakne, deacon, 225. 
Dyaknes, deacons, 235. 
Dyamod, = Dyamond, diamond. 
Dya]?, DyeaJ), obliq, case, DyaJ>e, 

dyeajje, 7, 12, 13, 23, 27, 69, 

70, 71, 72, 86, 95. 
Dyau, deau, dew, 144. 
Dyaue, Dyeaue, deaf, 189, 211, 

Dyead, dead, 240. 
Dyeadlich, mortal, 244, 247. 
Dyere, dear, precious, 36, 68, 79, 

Dyere, adv. dearly, 73, 133, 194. 
Dyep, Dyepe, deep, 211, 264. 
Dyepenesse, deepness, depth, 105, 

Dyeuel, devil, 15, 65. 
Dyeuele, obliq. case, 1, 16, 19, 86. 
Dyeules, devil's, 77. 
Dyeulen, Dyeules, devils, 17, 73, 

83, 86. 
Dyuers, obstinate, hard, 68. 
Dyuerse, pi. divers, 73. 
Dy3te, disposed, ordained, 270. 

Ealde, def. old, 169 ; A.S. eald, 

old. See Aid. 
Ealde, pi. old, 102, 166. 
Ealdinge, becoming old; 95, A. S. 

ealdian, to grow old. 
Eare, ear, 189. 
Earen, ears, 204, 249. 
Ech, obliq. case Eche, each, 11, 

12, 17, 18, 62, 71, 104. 



Eehedaye, each day, 16, 
Echedayes, adv. daily, 112. 
Echen (of, to, ine), each, 11, 13, 

63, 119, 121, 122, 124, 125, 

Eddre, adder, serpent, 26, 61, 

150 ; A. S. tueddre. 
Eddren, serpents, 61, 203. 
Edefie, 197. 
Eft, Efte, again, 12, 13, 33, 71, 

Efter, after, 66. 
Eft er J? an, afterwards, 24. 
Efterward, afterward, 24, 25. 
Eftsone, Eftzone, eftsoon, 73, 229. 
Elde age, old age, 11, 69, 71, 

220; A. S. eldo, yldo. 
Eldeste, eldest, 6, 104. 
Eldringes, elders, 35, 118; A.S. 

ealdor, an elder. 
Eles, O.E. oivels, awls, 66 ; A.S- 

ml, dl, awel, an awl, needle, 

Elifans, elephant, 224. 
Elleshuer, elsewhere, 211. 
Elmesse, alms, 17, 76. 
Elmessen, pi. alms, 198. 
Emcristen = O.E. evencristen, 

fellow-christian, 10, 199 ; A.S. 

em. (in comp.) even. 
Emeroydes, emeralds, 77. 
Emne, even, 151 ; A.S. emne. 
Emni, to make equal to, 16 ; A.S. 

Eniparement, becoming worse, 


Emperonr, Emperur, 71, 78, 100, 

Empire, Empirite, empire, 85. 
Emti, empty, 143; A. S. emtig. 
EmteJ, empties, 58. 
Enchauntemens, enchantments, 

Encheysones, Enchesons, causes, 

205, 206. 
Encheysoun, Enchesoun, Enchei- 

soun, Encheyson, reason, cause, 

68, 205, 206, 217. 
Endaunture, taming, 220. 
Ende, end, death, 33, 68. 
Endi, Endy,toend, 110, 113, 115. 
Endinge, death, end, 31, 71. 
Englis, English, 1. 
Englisse, pi. 5. 
Engrined, ensnared, entrapped, 

154. See Grine. 
Eni, Eny, sing, any, 16, 21, 89, 
. 115 ; obliq. case, enie, 119. 
Enie, Enye,^. any, 5, 21, 68. 
Enlefte, eleventh, 14, 49 ; A.S. 

endlufon, eleven ; endlyfta, 

Enne, ace. one, 129, 244 ; A.S. 

(Jen, one. 
Ennelepi, single, 75, the same 

145 ; A.S. amlepig, dnltpig, 

each, every, singular. 
Ententiflyche, attentively, 210. 
Entremes, entrees, 56. 
Entremetti, meddle with, 152. 
Enuenimed, Enuenymed, poison- 
ed, 27, 203. 

20 ; 



Enuenyme]?, EnueymeJ), poisons, 

26, 62. 
Enuie, Enuye, envy, 7, 16, 26, 

67, 75. 
Enuious, sing. 27. 
Enuiouse, pi. 27. 
Eppel, apple, obliq. case, epple, 

64, 82, 84. 
Ereges, O.Fr. heretics, 40. 
Eresye, heresy, 69. 
Eretiks, heretics, 182. 
Ermitage, hermitage, 250. 
Eritage, heritage, 36, 39, 101, 

Erl, earl, 71, 86. 
Erles, 224. 
Errour, 69, 70. 
Er]?an, before that, 160. 
Er>e, earth, 2, 5, 12, 67, 89. 
Erflich, earthly, terrestrial, 75. 
Erfliche, pi. earthly, 6, 149, 250. 
Erye, Erie, to ear, 214 ; A.S. 

erian, till, plough, ear. 
Esssse, ash, 137. 
Est, eatest, 54. 
Et, imp. eat, 50. 
Ete, to eat, 50, 51, 95. 
Etene, to eat, 51, 146. 
Eteres, eaters, 47. 
Etejj, pi. eat, 54, 61. 
Eth, eateth, 51, 52, 53, 95 ; imp t 

Ethe, Ethene, to eat, 52, 177. 
Ethen, pret. pi. ate, 206. 
Etheth,^?. eat, 182. 
Etinge, eating, 56. 

Euel, Euele, sing, evil, 85 ; 

disease, 202. 
Euele, pi. evil, wicked, 20, 66, 

69; adv. badly, wickedly, 68, 

Eueles, evils, ills, diseases, 153, 

Euelwyl, malice, 114. 
Eure, ever, 48, 71. 
Eurebleuinge, eternity, 105. See 

Eurich, Eurych, every, 268. 
Eureichen, Eurichen, ace. every 

one, 146. 
Eurelestinde, everlasting, 95, 97, 

Euremo, evermore, 5, 13, 14, 55. 
Eurinne, ace. everyone, 136. 
Ewangelist, 230. 
Examene]), examines, 184, 256. 
Examined, 137. 
Examini, to examine, 153. 
Excnsejj, excuses, excuse, 33, 61, 

Excusi, to excuse, 7. 
Exequitours, executors, 38. 
Exil, 215. 

Eyder, either, each, 6Q. 
Eyr, 62. 

Eyren, eggs, 174. See Aye. 
Eyrs, heirs, 102, 107. 
Eyse, ease, pleasure, 48, 24, 94. 
Eyses, pleasures, 204. 
Eysy, to ease, please, 82. 
E3e, eye, 75, 81. 
E3en, eyes, 19, 75, 81. 



Ey3te, eight, 45. 

F^tende, E3tende, eighth, 2, 10. 

FaileJ>, fails, 186. 

Faili, to fail, 209. 

Failinde, failing, slothful, 32. 

Faly, to fail, 173. 

Fauc, scythe, 251. 

Fauour, 230. 

Faylejj, sing. & pi. fails, fail, 33, 

68, 171, 210. 
Fayl$, to fail, 32, 195. 
Fayntise, deceit, 26. 
Fel, fierce, savage, 66. 
Felhede, fierceness, 29, 159. 
Fellaker, more fiercely, 174. 
Felle, def. fierce, 66, 50; fierce one, 

30 ; superl Felliste, 61. 
Feller, fiercer, 61. 
Felonie, Felonye, felony, crime, 

30, 67, 149, 150. 
Felonyes, crimes, 66. 
Feloun, felon, wretch, 29, 30. 
Feruent, 121. 

Feste, feast, entertainment, 156. 
Festes, feasts, 7, 26, 41, 213, 
Feure, fever, 29. 
Fiaunce, affiance, confidence, trust, 

Fiebble, Fyeble, feeble, 31. 
Fiebles, feeble ones, 148. 
Fieblene, ace. feeble, 227. 
Filosofe, Filozofe, philosopher, 

164, 126. 
Filosofie, philosophy, 164. 
Figure, 234. 

Fisician, Fisicien, physician, 143, 

Fisike, Fizike, physic, 53, 54. 
Flatour, flatterer, 257. 
Flatours, flatterers, 257. 
Flechchi, to flinch; waver, 253. 
Fleumatike, phlegmatic, 157. 
Flom, Flum, 95, 202, stream. 
Flour, flower, 230. 
Flour, 210. 
Flouref, flowers, 28. 
Flouringe, bloom, flowering, 36. 
Fol, Fole, foolish, 22, 23, 26, 46, 

64, 68. 
Fol, fool, 59, 205. 
Foleant, foolish, 244. 
Folebayrie, O.Fr. ambition, 17. 
Foles, fools, 86, 164, 212. 
Folie, folly, 70. 
Folies, Folyes, 10, 16, 52, 66. 
Folliche, foolish, 23, 43, 64. 
Folliche, foolishly, 141. 
Fornayse, furnace, 205. 
Fornicacion, 4, 6, 47. 
Forre, O.Fr. doubly, 59. This 

word is adopted from the Fr. 

Forriers, harbingers, 195. 
Fourme, form, 87, 220. 
Friinges, fryings, 23. 
Frotef, sub. rubs, 155. 
Frut, fruit, 38. 
Fructefide, 234. 
Fyeble, feeble, 157. 
Fyeblesse, feebleness, 33, 69. 
Fyebleste, feeblest, 148. 



Gabbejj, pi. talk, chatter, 69 ; 

A.S. gabban, to scoff. 
G&derep, pi. gather, 101. 
Gaderi, to gather, collect, 120, 

Gaderinge, gathering, 192. 
Gamelos, chameleon, 62. 
Ganglinde, jangling, chattering, 

Gardin, Gardyne, 94, 97. 
Gardins, 38. 
Gardyner, 94. 
Gauel, usury (exorbitant), 9, 35; 

A.S. gafol, tax, tribute. 
Gaueleres, money-lenders, usurers, 

35, 36, 135. 
Gauelinge, Gauelynge, usury, 34, 

Gauelockes, fetters, 207. 
Gelt, sin, trespass, guilt, 30, 104 ; 

Gelte, obliq. case, 74; Geltes, 

offences, 15. 
Gelti, Gelty, guilty, 175. 
Geme, game, gambling, 34, 45, 

Gememen, gamblers, 63. 
Gemene, game, play, 46. 
Gemenes, games, 45, 213. 
General, 14. 
Generalliche, generally, 9, 14, 16, 

Generalliche, catholic, 14. 
Gentil, Gentyl, 2, 75. 
Gentilesse, nobility, 89. 
Gentylete, 89. 
Gentile, pi. 89. 

Gerde, gird, 236. 

Gerdel, girdle, 236 ; obliq. case, 

gerdle, pi. gerdles, 236. 
Gerlondes, garlands, 71. 
Germayn (broker), 146. 
Gernier, Gerniere, garner, 191. 
Gerse, Gerze, grass, 28, 121. See 

Gerten, pi. girded, 236, 254. 
Ges, a short strap with ring at- 
tached round the feet of a 
hawk, 254 ; Fr. gects, from 
Lat. jacere, to cast. 
Gest, goest, 129, 130. 
Gest, guest, stranger, 249. 
Ge]j, goes, 56, 57. 
Gibet, gibbet, 128. 
Gily, Gyly, to beguile, deceive, 

15, 157, 238. 
Ginnes, snares, 54, 77, 131 ; Fr. 
engin, engine, instrument ; 
O.Fr. engin, fraud, craft. 
Ginninge, Ginninyge, Ginnynge, 
beginning, 12, 14, 16, 28, 32, 
Gled, glad, 265 ; pi. glede, 268. 
Glede, to rejoice, 265. 
Glede J?, rejoiceth, gladdens, 27, 

Glediejj, pi. be glad, rejoice, 238. 
Glediynde, rejoicing, 267. 
Gledlaker, the more gladly, 113. 
Gledliche, gladly, 54, 59, 187. 
Glednesse, gladness, 27, 238, 265. 
Gledye, to gladden, rejoice, 266. 
GledyeJ?, rejoice, 258. 



Gles, glass, 76, 82. 

Glorefye, 270. 

Glorifiejj, glorifies, glories, 25. 

Giose, 187. 

Giotonye, Glotunye, gluttony, 

Glotoun, glutton, 50, 53, 248. 
Glotoune, Glotounes, 50, 52, 55. 
Glotounliche, gluttonly, 111. 
Glotounye, Glotunye, Glotony, 

16, 50, 52, 55, 157. 
Glu, cement, 246. 
Godelef, pi. slander, 66. 
Godelinge, slander, evil speaking, 

Godelinges, slanderers, 66. 
Godhede, 12. 
Godspelle, gospel, 28, 50. 
Godspellere, Godsspellere, evan- 
gelist, 2, 12, 13, 14. 
Gost, Goste, ghost, spirit, 12, 54 ; 

Gostes, pi. 159. 
Gostlicli, sing, spiritual, 27, 29, 

Gostliche, pi 7, 8, 21, 41. 
Gostliche, ghostly, spiritually, 7. 
Goth = ^f, goat, 210. 
Goye, joy, 226. 
Graate, great, 133. 
Grace, 10, 15 ] graces, 17, 79. 
Graciouser, 24. 
GranteJ>, Graunte]?, grants, 7, 

Grantinge, Grauntinge, granting, 

consent, 10, 11, 47, 211, 212. 
Grantinges, Grauntinges, con- 

sents, 47. 
Grat, great, 17, 18, 19. 
Grater, Gratter, greater, 36, 79, 

Grateste, Gratteste, greatest, 41, 

44, 88, 140. 
Gratliche, greatly, 47, 156. 
Gratne, ace. great, 238. 
Grayns, 230. 

Greate, Greatte, pi. great, 19, 25. 
Greaten, dab. pi. great, 139. 
Gredden, pi. cried, 212. 
Grede, cry, boast, 22, 31, 212; 

A.S. grcedan, to cry, call, say. 
Grede Jj, proclaim aloud, 148. 
Gredinge, cry, 212 ; Gredynges, 

talking, chattering, 266. 
Grene)?, becomes green, 95. 
Grenhede, greenness, 28, 94, 97. 
Greny, to become green, 95, 97. 
Grese, 205. 

Gret = gredebh, crieth, 56. 
Greuejj, grieves, 142. 
Greui, to grieve, 39. 
Greuousliche, grievously, 47. 
Greynere, garner, 140. 
Grihond, Gryhond, greyhound, 

Grines, snares, 77. See Gryn. 
Grislich, horrible, 49, 74. 
Groche)), murmurs, 30, 34, 68. 
Grochi, to murmur, grudge, 67, 

Grochindeliche, grumblingly, 

grudgingly, 1-93. 
Grochinge, Grouchinge, murmur- 



ing, 2, 34, 43, 54, 57, 67. 
Grochinges, 67. 
Gromes, men, grooms, 210; A.S. 

gmna, a man ; O.E. gome. 
Grond, Grounde, Grunde, ground, 

1, 23, 34, 246. 
Groniynge, groaning, 264. 
Grunny, to grunt, groan, 67. 
Gryhond, greyhound, 75. 
Gryn, snare, trap, 47 ; A.S. grin. 
Guo, go, 32, 60. 
Guod, Guode, sb. good ; also 

goods, wealth, money, 5, 6, 10, 

13, 14, 41, 61. 
Guod, adj. good ; obliq. case, 

guode, 2, 6. 
Guoden, dot. pi. 72. 
Guodcheap, cheap, 44. 
Guod-doere, benefactor, 135. 
Guode, pi. good, 10, 51 ; def. 2. 
Guodes, goods, 2, 4, 18, 247. 
Guodhede, goodness, 79, 233. 
Guodne, ace. good, 238. 
Guodnesse, goodness, 18, 29, 99. 
Guodnesses, pi. 18. 
Guoinde, going, passing, tempo- 
ral, 120; wayfarer, 196. 
Guoinge, sb. going, 254 ; pi. Guo- 

inges, 231. 
Guonne, to go, 226. 
Guos, goose, 32. 
Guo]>, pi. go, 7, 34, 52. 
Gyly, deceive, 238. 
Gynnes, plans, devices, 28. See 


Ha, he, 10, 12, 23, 30, 49, 56. 
Habbe, to have, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11. 
Habbe, 1st pers. sing, have, 24, 

Habbe]?, pi. have, 8, 14, 22, 25, 

Haf == half, behalf. See Half. 
Half, side, hand, 1, 13, 72. 
Halke, corner, retreat, 210 ; A.S. 

heal, angle, corner ; Halkes, pi. 

Halle, hall, 102. 
Halt, holdeth, esteems, 15, 18, 

19, 23, 26, 128; observes, 

Haluedele, half-part, half, 36. 
Halues, halves, divisions, 16. 
Hal^ede, hallowed, 40. 
Ha^en, holy ones, saints, 6, 13, 

14, 72. 
Ha^en, holy one, 97, 72, 219 ; 

A.S. Jialga, a saint. 
Ha^e]?, hallows, 106, 237. 
Ha^i, Hal3y, to hallow, 7, 237 ; 

A.S. hdlgian. 
Ham, them, 5, 8, 13, 14, 50. 
Ham-zelue, themselves, 5, 16, 40. 
Hand, fern. 149; obliq. case, 

Honde ; pi. Honden, 235. 
Handle]), handle, 235. 
Handlinge, handling, touching, 

Hap, fortune, chance, 76. 
Hard, Harde, severe, 189. 
Harder, 174. 
Hardi, Hardy, 16, 83, 123. 



Hardiesse, Hardyesse, boldness, 
83, 162. 

Hardiliche, Hardyliche, boldly, 
hardily, 18, 75, 143, 208, 233. 

Hardnesse, severity, hardship, 
236, 240. 

Hardylaker, more boldly, 60. 

Hare, her, 76, 181. 

Hare, their, theirs, 72, 73, 144. 

Hare, to them, 116. 

Harkni, to hearken, 63. 

Harmi, Harmy, to harm, 9, 10, 
11, 23,63, 82. 

Harmuol, Harmuolle, injurious. 

Harnesses = hardnesses, hard- 
ships, 181. 

Harten = hearten, hearts, 223. 

Hassassis, assassin, 140. 

Haste. See An-haste. 

Hastede, made haste, 174. 

Hasteliche, hastily, 173. 

Hasti, to hasten, 174. 

Hastif, hasty, 183, 184. 

Hat, commands, 8, 78. 

Hateden, pi. hated, 72. 

Hatie, to hate. See Hatye. 

HatieJ), pi. hate, 43, 114. 

Hatte, is called, 1, 133, 150. 

Hatye, to hate, 73, 74, 101. 

Hatye]?, pi. hate, 72. 

Hauberk, 171. 

Haued, head. See Heaued. 

Hauedliche, capital, 15. 

Haued-zennes, head sins, deadly 
sins, 16. 

Hauene, haven, 183. 

Hazard, 171. 

Healde, hold, keep, observe, 

esteem, 5, 53, 65, 132, 160. 
HealdeJ), jdZ. hold, 145. 
Heap, Heape, collection, quan- 
tity, 130; assembly, 267. 
Heaued, obliq. case, Heauede, 

head, 1, 2, 16, 57. 
Heaueden, Heaudes, heads, 2, 14, 

15, 16. 
Hed = hield = held, 241. 
Hedde, had, 7, 13, 14, 15. 
Hedde, hid, 129. 
Hedden, had, 31, 77, 126. 
Heddest, hadst, 58. 
Hede, heed, caution, 32, 155. 
Hede, to hide, 44, 163. 
Hede]), pi. hide, 41. 
Hedinge, secrecy, 196. Robert 

of Gloucester used hudinge, 

secrecy. Cp. O.E. hidels, hiding 

place, lair. 
Heg, hedge, 232, 240. 
Hel, obliq. case, Helle, hill, 5, 82, 

Held, healed, 148. 
Helden, pi. healed, 96. 
Hele, heal, 129. 
Hele, to hide, 175. Hele]?, pi 

cover, 180; A.S. helan, to 

Helle, hell, 13, 15. 
Helles, hills, 59, 143. 
Helm, helmet, 265. 
Helpe, to help, 42, 102. 
Helpe, sb. helpe, 65. 



Helpinde, helping, 30, 62, 63. 

Help)), helps, 147. 

Helsny, entreat, 253 ; A.S. heal 

dan, 1. 
Helt, covereth, 177. 
Hel]>, heals, 144. 
HelJ?e, salvation, 265. 
Hennen, hens, 38. 
Her, imp. hear, 181. 
Her, obliq. case, Here, hair, 181. 
Herbe^eries, innkeepers, har- 

bourers, 39, 
Herber3i, to harbour, entertain, 

Here, hair, 176, 177. See Her. 
Here, hair cloth, 227. 
Heresye, 267, 
Here]?, pi. hear, 59. 
Here J?, praises, 136. 
Heretike, 19. 
Heretiks, 134. 
Herie, Herye, to praise, 23, 52, 

55, 78, 212; A.S. herian. 
Herie)>, pi. praise, 10. 
Heriynges, praises, 39, 267. 
Herkneres, hearkeners, listeners, 

Hert, hart, 216. 
Herte, heart, 3, 6, 8, 10. 
Herten, hearts, 46, 68. 
Heruest, harvest, 86. 
Herye, to praise, 78. 
Herye]), pi. praise, 108, 268. 
Heryinge, Heriynge, praise, 23, 

Heryinges, praises, honours, 267. 

Hes, hare, 55. 

Hest, (thou) hast, 20, 21, 31, 71. 

Heste, behest, command, 2, 5, 6, 

7, 8, 9 ; A.S. hces. 
Hestes, behests, commands, 5, 11, 

15, 103, 234. 
Het, hath, 90, 174. 
Het, commanded, 5, 239 ; A.S. 

hdtan (pret. had), to com- 
mand, ordain. 
Hete, heat, 55. Hetes, heats, 

Hef, hath, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15. 
Hette, Hetten, was called, 41, 

48, 67, 124, 184. 
Heued, Heaued, head, 31. 
Heuedes, heads, 15. 
Heuene, heaven, 6, 12, 13. 
Heuenelyche, heavenly, 269. 
Heuenryche, Heaven-kingdom. 
Heui, Heuy, heavy, 31, 44, 140. 
Heuinesse, heaviness, 4, 31. 
He we, cry, 195. 
Heyrone, 193. 

He^, sing, Ke^e, def. form & 
pi. high, 7, 16, 23, 25, 48, 60. 
He3e, adv. high, 23, 24, 26. 
He3emen, great men, nobles, 36. 
He3ere, higher, 44, 122, 133. 
He3e se, the high (open) sea, 182. 
He3este, Hejest, highest, 25, 109, 

He3eJ), exalts, exaggerates, 136. 
He3inge, profit, usury, 35. 
He3liche, chiefly, principally, 5, 

26, 27 ; profound, 264. 



He3nesse, highness, exaltation, 

97, 105 ; height, 89. 
He$nesses, highnesses, exalted 

stations, 24, 208. 
He3]?e, height, 24. 
He3]?es, profits, 35. 
Hi, she, 7, 16, 28, 37. 
Hi, they, 3, 8, 12, 13, 20. 
Hider, hither, 140. 
Hidouse, horrible, 161. 
Hidousliche, horribly, 6. 
HiealdeJ),^. hold, 160. 
Hier, here, 18, 116. 
Hiere, Hihere, to hear, 177, 244. 
Hi ere]), pi. hear, 256. 
Hierine, herein, 232. 
Hierst, hearest, 210. 
Hier J>, hears, 209. 
Hierjje, hearing, 54. 
Hild, held, 206, 226. 
Him, himself, 5, 6. 
Him-zelf, 5, 6, 34 ; obliq. case, 

Him zelue, 15, 21, 22, 24, 38. 
Hine, him, 7, 16, 31,52. 
Hire, gen. her, 24, 37, 49, 217. 
Hiren, (of) her, 111. 
Hiren, theirs, 38, 60. 
His, Hise, them, 5, 11, 15, 17, 

24, 26, 27, 28, 32, 36, 37, 38, 

40, 55, 58. 
His, Hise, her, 54, 58, 64, 97. 
Hit, it, 1, 8, et passim. 
Hoc, hook, 121. 
Hod, Hode, consecration hood, 


Hodes, hoods, 49. 

Hogges, hogs, 89. 

Hokes, hooks, 264. 

Hoi, whole, healthy, 51, 129. 

Hole, pi. whole, 148. 

Holen, whole ones, 205. 

Holer, more wholesome, 251. 

Holinesse, Holynesse, 25, 49. 

Hollyche, wholly, entirely, 28. 

Holylaker, more holily, 7. 

Holyer, whoremonger, 51 ; O.Fr. 

Holyhede, holiness, 247. 
Holyliche, Holylyche, holily, 74, 

102, 221. 
Holyiste, holiest, 54. 
Holywryt, 77. 
Hond, hand, obliq. case, Honde, 

Hond, hound, obliq. case, Hounde, 

55, 75, 155, 156 ; pi. Hondes, 

Houndes, 70, 179. 
Honden, hands, 31, 47. 
Hondred, hundred, 55, 234. 
Hondreda3te, hundredth, 234. 
Hondredsife, Hondredzipe, hun- 
dred times, 124. 
Hondreduald, hundredfold, 191. 
Honeste, honest, decent, 222, 

Honestliche, fairly, beautifully, 

Honger, hunger, 75. 
HongeJ), pi. hang, 40. 
Hongi, Hongy, to hang, to be 

hanged, 31, 57, 137, 218. 



Hony, honey, 60. 

Hope, trust, expectation, desire, 

5, 6, 12, 19, 29. 
Hope]?, trusts, 207. 
Hopye, to hope, 89. 
Hor, filth, 228 ; obliq. case, Hore, 

229 ; A.S. Horn, filth. 
Hord, treasure, 185, 241 ; A.S. 

Horde)), treasures up, 182. 
Hordom, whoredom, 79. 
Hordyere, treasures, 121 ; A.S. 

Hore-uroste, hoar frost. 
Horling, whoremonger, 52. 
Homes, 14, 15, 32. 
Hors, ?ieut. horses ; obliq. case, 

Horse, 35, 140. 
Hosebound, husband, 239. 
Hosiynge, Hosiinge, wearing 

hosen, 154, 177. 
Hot, 139. 
HoteJ?, commands, 122. See 

Hotere, commander, lawgiver, 109. 
Hotestre, hostess, 53. 
Hotinge, exiling, banishment, 148. 
Hou, how, 2, 3, 17. 
Hous, ohliq. case, House, pi. 

Houses, 41, 43, 172. 
Housebonde, Housebondes, 48. 
Huader, whether, 51. 
Huam, whom, which, 9, 16, 18, 

20, 148. 
Huan, whom, 17. 
Huanne, when, 6, 8, 11, 103. 

Huannes, whence, 115, 264. 
Huas, whose, 38, 60, 101. 
Hue, how, 47. 
Huer, where, 6, 13, 14. 
Hueran, whereon, 176. 
Huer-by, whereby, 24, 26. 
Huerine, Huerinne, Huerynne, 

wherein, 23, 31, 44, 109. 
Huermide, wherewith, 23, 176. 
Huer-of, whereof, 13, 16, 17, 24. 
Hueronder, where under, 221. 
Hueroppe, where up, 251. 
Hueruore, where for, 3, 80, 123. 
Huet, what, whatever, 4, 9, 20, 

26, 27, 34. 
Huet, lo ! 51, 59. 
Huete, wheat, 139, 141. 
Huetene, wheaten, 82. 
Hue3el, wheel, 24, 76. 
Huich, Huych, which, whatso, 

such ; pi. Huiche, Huyche, 

6, 38, 45, 52, 57, 100, 107, 

Huichen, Huychen, dot. pi. 

which, 7, 15, 91, 98. 
Huider, Huyder, whither, 115, 

Huiderward, whitherward, 131. 
Huile, Huyle, while, whilst, 7. 
Huils, whilst, 139. 
Humours, 129. 
Huo, who, 5, 7, 8, 10, 24. 
Huose, whoso, 110. 
Huyt, white ; pi. Huyte, Hwite, 

181, 228. 
Hy, she, 17, 26. 



Hy, they, 1, 3, 16. 

Hyalde, hold, 21, 54, 206, 220. 

Hyane, hyena, 61. 

Hyap, Hyeape, heap, 139, 159. 

Hyealde, to hold, esteem, 53, 54, 
58, 138, 154; to be observed, 
11 ; contain, 225 ; pres. subj. 
23, 59;^. subj. 147, 166. 
See Healde. 

Hyealde]?, pi. support, 35; be- 
lieve, 134; hold, 145. 

Hyelde, pi. held, 27. 

HyeldeJ>,^. hold, 124. 

Hyer, imp. hear, 257. 

Hyer, here, 66, 163. 

Hyer-be-uore, herebefore, 59. 

Hyere, to hear, 70, 154. 

Hyerere, hearer, 256. 

Hyere-zigginge, hearsay, 117. 

Hyer J>, hears, 256. 

Hyerfe, hearing, 231, 240, 256. 

Hyejinges, exaggerations, 63. 

Hyre, to hear, 231. 

Hyre, their, theirs, 72, 96. 

Hysians, heralds, 45. 

Iangli, to talk, chatter, 214. 
Iangledest, chatterest, 20. 
Icinge, itching, avarice, 16. 
Idi t, ordered, directed, 214 ; 

decked, 216. 
Ientilmen, gentlemen, 190. 
Iguo, gone, 242. 
leu, Jew, 43. 
Ileste)?, lasteth, 209. 
Ilich, iliche, like, 87, 202. 

like, same, 88. 

Ilore, lost, 241. 

Imad, made, 145. 

Ine, Inne, in, 203. 

Inguoinge, entrance, prelude, 72, 

Inhonest, dishonourable, 220. 
Inhonestliche, indecently, 177. 
Innocence, 141, 181. 
Inpacience, impatience, 67. 
Inwyt, Inwytte, conscience. 
Iogelour, 172. 
Ioie, Ioye, joy, 75, 156. 
Ioliuete, Iolyuete, jollity, 53. 
Ioine, Ioyne, 77, 88. 
Iornaye, journey, 253. 
Ioissejj, Ioysse)), rejoices, 25. 
Ioyaus, jewels, 206. 
Iowele, Ioyel, jewel, 112, 156. 
Irchouon, urchin, hedgehog, 142. 
Ire, anger, 147. 
Iroted, rooted, 247. 
IualJ?, befalls, 54. 
Iuele, to feel, 131. 
Iueles, jewels, 77. 
Iuggi, to judge, 130. 
Iustise, justice, 153. 
Izi, Izy, to see, 164, 173, 243. 
Izy3t, sees, 196. 
Ize3, saw, 158. 

Kan, can, knows, 22, 99 ; Kanst, 

Karoles, carols, 71. 
Kechene, kitchen, 171. 
Kembe, to comb, 177. 



Kempe, soldier, champion, pi. 

Kempen, 45, 50. 
Ken, Kenne, kin, 22, 37, 42, 48, 

Ken, kine, 191. 
Kende, Kennd, kind, nature, 18, 

37, 61, 189. 
Kendelich, Kendeliche, natural, 

24, 47, 90. 
Kenrede, kindred, 89. 
Kessinge, Kesinge, kissing, pi. 

Kest, kisses, 46, 90, 161. 
Keste, to cast ; Keste, cast, pret. ; 

Kest, casts, 66, 99, 171. 
Keste, kissed, 245. 
Kestinge, casting, 22. 
Kete, kite, 52. 

Klene, clean, pure, chaste, 5, 106. 
Klenliche, cleanly, chastely, 26, 

Klennesse, cleanness, purity, 205. 
Klensy, to cleanse, 235. 
Klerek, clerk, 42. 
Knaulechinge, Knawlechinge, 

knowledge, 106, 132, 200. 
KnawJ?, knows, 26, pi. Knawejj, 

Knewen, pi. knew, 246. 
Kni^t, Kny^t, knight, 36. 
Kny3thod, knighthood, 82, 161. 
Knotte, knot, 253. 
Kuead, Kued, Kueade, Kuede, 

adj. bad, wrong, sinful, sb. 

sin, evil, wickedness, 6, 8, 

11, 14, 17, 38, 39, 51, pi. 

Kueades, Kuedes, 17, 26, 52. 
Kueadhedes, Kuedhede, evils, 

sins, 101. 
Kueadlich, Kueadliche, Kued- 

liche, wickedly, badly, sinfully, 

5, 6, 8, 9, 40, 41. 
Kueadnesse, Kuednesse, sin, 

wrong, 10, 40. 
Kueaduol, Kueduol, sinful, 182. 
Kueme, to please, 21, 197; 

Kuem]?, pleases, 228. See 

Kuemynge, pleasing, 26. 
Kuen, Kuen, Quen, queen, 80. 
Kuel3 = kuel]?, wells up, 248. 
Kuenche, to quench, 204. 
KuencJ?, quenches, 62. 
Kuik, Quik, Kuikke, Quicke, 

alive, living, evident, 67, 98, 

134, 146. 
Kuit, kuyt, quit, free, pi. Kuytte, 

kuitte, 41. 

Lac, fault, 62. 

Lackes, faults, defects, 32, 33, 

136, 177, defilement, 201. 
Lackejj, fails, 210. 
Lamb, obliq. case, Lombe, 232, 

236 ;pl. Lambren, lambs, 138. 
Lang, long, obliq. case, Longe, 

99, 170, 218. 
Langnesse, longness, length, 105. 
Langour, 93. 

Large, liberal, 21, 23 ; Larger, 24. 
Largeliche, largely, liberally, 37, 

77, 147 



Largesse, liberality, 102, 159, 

Laste, Lasten, (ate) at last, 49, 

Laudes, 51. 
Launde, plain, 216. 
Layde, laid, 149. 
Layt, light, 66. 
Lay)?, lays, 41. 
La3e, law, 5, 7, 169. 
La3es, laws, 97. 
Leade, lead (plumb-line), 150. 
Leas, lost, 85. 
Leat, bowed, 239. 
Leaue, obliq. case of Leaf, 1 ; 

Leaues, 57, 59. 
Leawede, Lewede, lewd, laymen, 

39, 42, 46, 237. 
Leazinge, lie, 62. 
Leazings, Lezinges, lies, leasings, 

2, 58, 62, 63. 
Lea^inges = leazinges, lies, 61. 
Leche, physician, surgeon, 129. 
Lecherie, 9, 17, 41 ; Lecheries, 

Lecherous, 111. 
Lechurs, 55. 
Lecherusly, 128. 
Lechi, to heal, 174. 
Led, imp. lead, 116, 262. 
Ledde, pi. led, 96. 
Lede, to lead, pass, 44. 
LedeJ), pi. lead, pass, use, 50, 53. 
Ledinde, leading, enjoying, 168. 
Lefthalf, leftside, 152. 
LefJ>, liveth, 69, 134. 

Lefjj, believes, 182. 
Legge, to lay, 149. A.S. lecgan. 
Leme, limb, 47, 115; Lemes, 6, 9. 
Lemman, beloved, 230. 
Lenden, loins, 46, 236. A.S. 

Lende, lent, 37. 
Lene, to lend, 35. 
Lenere, lender, 35. 
LeneJ> , pi. lend, 35, 36. 
Leng, imp. delay, 194. 
Lenge, to delay, prolong, 173. 
Lenger, longer, 56. 
Leninge, sb. lending, 35. 
Lenten, 175. 
Lenf, lends, 6, 135. 
Lenynde, lending, 35. 
Lere, loss, 36, 46. 
Lesse, Les, less, 2, 28, 90, 118. 
Lesse J?, lessen, depreciate, 28, 

Lesse, to lessen, 175, 267. 
Lessoun, 135; Lessouns, 56. 
Lest, Leste, least, 36, 44, 84, 90. 
Lesnesse, forgiveness, 14, 263. 
Lessynge, diminution, lessening, 

Leste, to endure, 84. 
Lestynde, lasting, 84. 
Let, lead, 51, 115, 185. 
Let, letteth, 31, 181. 
Let, leaves, ceases, 17, 26, 97, 

111, 212,269. 
Lete, to let, permit, 56, 73. 
Lete, to leave, forsake, give up, 

74, 78, 117, 165. 



LeteJ), let, pi. 40, 42. 

Letejj, forsake, leave, 6, 77, 165. 

Lettre, lettres, 1, 40. 

Leth, leadeth, 200. 

Leuayne, leaven, 205. 

Leue, Leue]?, 60, 86, 89. 

Leue, dear, beloved, 113. 

Leve, Leue p, live, lives, 54, 62, 

74, 93, 141. 
Leuede, lived, 71. 
Leued, Leuedy, pi. Leuedys, 47, 


Leuere, rather, liever, 31. 

Leuest, livest, 194. 

Leueth, lives, 214. 

Leuinge, remainder, 73. 

Lewed, Lewede, layman, laity, 

Lezere, gleaner, 86. 

Lezinges, lies, 63. 

Le3e, to laugh, 161. 

Le3ers, liars, 19. 

Le3inge, laughing, 161. 

Le33e, to laugh, 111. See Lhe^e. 

Lhade, to lade, 178. 

Lhapwynche, lapwing, 61. 

Lhap]? = lheapj?, leaps, jumps, 

66, 155. 
Lheape, to run, spring, jump, 27, 

89, 93, 156. 
Lheape]?, pi. leap, run, 140. 
Lhene, lean, 53, 189. 
Lhest, listens, 61, 268. 
Lheste, to listen, 70, 133, 199, 

Lheste J), pi. 268. AS. Ihistan, 

to listen. 
Lhestninge, listening, 258. 
Lheuc, slow, loath, 31. A.S. 

wlceCj slack, remiss. 
Lheucliche, lukewarmly, slow, 

Lheuedi, Lheuedy, lady, 24, 53, 

57, 64. 
Lheuedy es, ladies, 215. 
Lhe3inges, laughter, 63. 
Lhe3J), laughs, 93. 
Lhe33e, to laugh, 58, 214. A.S. 

hlilian (pret. hloh). 
Lhip, Ihiep, leapt, 45. 
Lhord, lord, master, husband, 

obliq. case, Lhorde ; pi. 

Lhordes, 1, 6, 7, 20, 37, 54, 

Lhordinges, lords, 67. 
Lhordssip, Lhordssipe, lordship, 

54, 68. 
Lhoude, loudly, 212. 
Lhoue, obliq. case, loaf, 82. 
Libbe, Libbe]?, live, 28, 32, 34, 

53, 70, 74. 
Libbinde, Libinde, living, 13, 73, 

74, 149. 
Libelles, 40. 
Licnesse, Liknesse, likeness, 

pattern, 49, 92. 
Licuol, pleasing, delightful, 217. 
Liese, lose, 214, 
Li erne, imp. learn, 73. 
Lierni, to learn, 209. 
Lif, obliq. case, Liue, life, 72. 
Ligge, to lie, 31, 223. 



Likerouses, pleasant, delightful, 
47, 54. 

Like]), pleases, is pleasing, 63, 

Liki, to please, 215. 

Likinde, Likynde, pleasing, 62, 
63, 126, 214. 

Likinge (pi Likinges), pleasure, 
delight, 23, 46, 248. 

LikneJ), resembles, 88. 

Likni, to delight in, 245. 

Liky, to delight in, 177. 

Line, Linene, linen, 178, 236. 

Lingne, line, 160. 

Lioun, lion, 17. 

Lipars, leopards, 131. 

Lippen, lips, 210, 211. 

Lite, little, 28, 31, 43. 

Litel, little, 29. 

Lif, lieth, 31, 55, 83. 

Li3liche = li^tliche, easily, 249. 

Li3te, light, little, 11, 99. 

Lijte, Li3te, light, 270. 

Li3ter, easier, 78. 

Li3thedes, levities, 207. 

Li3tlaker, easier, sooner, 229. 

Li3tliche, Li3tyliche, easily, quick- 
ly, venially, 6, 9, 63, 115, 183, 

Loc, lock, 255. 

Lodesmanne, pilot, 140. 

Lodlakest, most loathsome, 49. 

Lodliche, obscene, 257. 

Lodlichhede, loathsomeness, 203. 

Loke, look, behold, 97, 129. 

Lokede, kept, 18, 204, 235 ; 

looked, 242. See Loki, Loky, 
Lokeden, pi looked, 245. 
Lokere, guardian, 21; pi Lokeres, 

220, 222. 
Lokes, locks, 151. 
Lokes, Whitsunday, 143, 163, 

Al here joyen a loh Sounday, 
And alle the that me aspye may, 
That hyre and (on) erthe felle, 
Ai fram Crystes ascencioun 
Al-wat (nntil) comthe hyre assumpcioun 
To thyssere loungy schelle. 

Shoreham's Poems, p. 127. 

Lokest, keepest, 93. 

Loke]?, look, 26, 89. 

Loke}?, keeps, 213, 248. 

Loki, Loky, to keep, be kept, 

observe, keep guard, beware, 

keep from, protect, save, 5, 7, 

8, 11, 39, 41, 42, 53. 
Loki, Loky, look, 43, 89 ; regard, 

consider, 195 ; A.S. locian. 
Lokinde, keeping, observing, 232. 
Lokinge, Lokynge, Lokingge, care, 

custody, award, decision, 8, 19, 

65 9 128, 158; < to J>e lokinge of,' 

as regards, 108, 109. 
Lokinge (ayen), looking back, 242. 
Lokinges, looks, 242, 245. 
Lombe, lamb, 236. 
Lompe, obliq. case of Lamp, 233. 
Lompen, lamps, 189, 218, 233. 
Londe, obliq. case of Land, 37 ; 

pi Londes, 36. 
Lone, loan, 35, 36. 
Longaynes, corners, 212. 




Longe, adv. long, 205. 
Longe, on account of, 266. 
Loren, lost, 235. 
Los, fame, 26, 28, 63, 116, 141, 

Fr. los. 
Losengeri, deceit, lies, 10, 23. 
Lost, obliq. case Loste, pi. Lostes, 

lust, desire, pleasure, 24, 46, 

72, 78, 82, 91, 92. 
Loste]?, pleases, 246. 
Lostuol, lustful, pleasing, pleasant, 

desirable, 80, 94, 110, 244. 
Lostuolle, Lostfolle, pleasant, 

desirable, 91 ; delicious, 158, 

Lostuoller, more pleasant, 92. 
Lostuolliche, greedily, 51. 
Louede, Loueden, loved, 52, 230. 
Louerede, love, 3, 145, 146. 
Loui, Louie, Louy, Louye, to 

love, 6, 31, 55, 62, et passim. 
Louie]?, Louye]?, loves, love, 6, 61, 

78, 210, 270. 
Louiinde, Louiynde, loving, 75, 

Louriinde, louring, 256. 
Louyeres, lovers, 270. 
Lozeniour, liar, 22. 
L03, Lo^e, low, 105, 138, 139, 

140; comp. Lo3er, 175 ; superl. 

Lo^este, 119, 122. 
Lo3eJ), diminishes, is lessened, 

humbles, 49, 136, 246. 
Lo3iiesse, humility, 246. 
L03V, to lower, lessen, depreciate, 

humble, 28, 216. 

Luxurie, 157. 
Lyad, lead, 141. 
Lyazinge, leasjng, lies, 63. 
Lyckestre, lickster; translates Fr. 

lecher esse, 56. 
Lyeaf, leaf, 62. 
Lyeas, lost, 203. 
Lyeasinge, lie, 60, 175. 
Lyeaue, leaf, 1. 
Lyeaues, leaves, 57, 96. 
Lyerne, Lierne, imp. learn, 70, 72, 

Lyernest, learnest, 73. 
Lyerne]?, LyernieJ?, learn, 36, 53, 

74, 75, 122, 133. 
Lyerni, Lyerny, to learn, 2, 34, 

70, 99, 135, 161. 
Lyese, to lose, 40, 57. 
Lyesinges, lies, 10, 57. 
Lyest, loseth, 33, 49, 52, 129. 
Lyeue, obliq. case of Lief, dear, 

117, 213. 
Lyexne]?, lies, 66. 
Lyeze]?, lose, 117, 149. 
Lye3e, lie, 218. 
Lye3e]?, Lye3e]?, lie, belie, 10, 22, 

44, 52, 56, 63, 129, 133. . 
Lye3inge, lying, 63, 143. 
Ly3ere, liar, 58, 62. 256. 
Lye3]?, lies, 63. 
Lyf, life, 70, 71 ; obliq. case, Lyue, 

Lyfno]?, livelihood, sustenance, 

Lykede, delighted in, 267. 
Lykerous, pleasant, 95. 



Lykejj, is like, 81. 

LykeJ>, delights, 178. 

Lyky, to delight in, ^27. 

Lykynde, pleasing, 80. 

Lykynge, likeness, 81. 

Lykynges, pleasures, 112. 

Lylye, 230. 

Lynx, 81. 

Lyte, little, 36. 

LyJ?, lies, 52. 

Ly3tliche, lightly, easily, 104. 

Mageste, majesty, 266. 
Magnamitie, 163, 164. 
Magnificence, 164, 168. 
Maimes, maims, sores, 135. 
Maine, Mayne, retinue, servants, 

household, 139. 
Maister, master, pi. maistres, 76, 

Make, masc. mate, 226. 
Maked = makefy makes, 249. 
Maki, Maky, to make, 27, 40, 

44, 47, 154. 
Makiere, Makyere, maker, creator, 

251, 267. 
Makiinde, Makinde, making, 35, 

Makynge, Makiynge, making, 

creation, creature, 1, 92, 218. 
Malancolien, Melancolien, melan- 
choly (one), 253. 
Malice, 26. 
Man, obliq. case Manne, pi. 

Men, gen. pi. Manne, 8, 9, 11, 

21, 24, 31. 

Manere, Maniere, Manire,Manyere 
(pi. Maneres, Manyeres), man- 
ner, mode, way, 6, 14, 15, 19, 
21, 23, 37, 146. 

Manhede, Manhod, Manhode, 
manhood, homage, 12, 19, 118, 

Manie, Manye, pi many, 26, 31, 

Mankende, mankind, 1. 

Mansla3j>e, Mansk^te, pi. Man- 
sla3j?es, manslaughter, homi- 
cide, 8, 30, 54, 57, 115. 

Manzinge, excommunicate, curs- 
ing, 148, 189. See Amanzinge. 

Marcat, Markat, market, obliq. 
case, Markatte, 23, 36, 42. 

Marchons, merchants, 36, 39. 

Mares, marshes, 250. 

Mariage, Manages, 39, 148. 

Marissi, to marry, 220. 

Markes, bounds, limits, 223. 

Martire, Martires, 53, 73,83, 166. 

Martired, 111. 

Martirement, martyrdom, 77. 

Materie = Matiere, matter, 49, 
118, 136. 

Matyns, 51. 

Maugre, 69. 

Mawe, to mow, 214. 

Mayden, pi. Maydenes, Maydines, 
12, 15, 48, 98, 118, 218. 

Maydenhod, maidenhood, 228, 

Mayne, family, household, domes- 
tics, 30, 129. 




Mayster, Maystre, master, 35, 68, 

Maystresse, mistress, 34, 206. 

Maystrie, mastery, 91, 92, 169. 

Ma^e, maw, stomach, 56. 

Me, one, they, 1 7. 

Mede, reward, payment, pi. 
Medes, 35, 42, 90, 169. 

Medi, to reward, 146. 

Medicine, Medicines, 22, 69. 

Medles, quarrels, 41, 66. 

Meduol, meritorious. 

Mele, meal, flour, 93. 

Melk, milk, 137, 177. 

Melle, mill, 24, 58, 141. 

Melodie, Melodya, 151. 

Melte, melted, 171. 

Memorie, 104. 

Menestrals, minstrels, 192. 

Menet, mint, 241. 

Menetime, meantime, 36. 

Meniynges, meanings, thoughts, 

Mennesse, communion, fellow- 
ship, 14, 268; A. S. ge-mdmnes. 

Mentel, mantle, 188, 221. 

Merci, Mersi, 28, 29, 137. 

Merciuol, merciful, 189. 

Mere, mare, 185. 

Merite, merit, 134. 

Merss, marsh, 251. 

Mes, mess, dish, 55, 56. 

Mesayse, Mezayse, Meseyse, un- 
easiness, sorrow, poverty, 185, 
191 ; to displease, 58. 

Messager, Messagier, Messagyer, 

messenger, pi. Messagieres, 
Messagyers, 151, 195, 211. 

Messages, 122, 189. 

Messe, mass, 20. 

Messe-daye, mess-day, 175. 

Messen, masses, 31, 32. 

Messinges, messes, dishes, 71. 

Mest, adv. most, 23, 26. 

Meste, adj. most, 72, 89. 

Mesteres, officials, 39. 

Mestier, craft, 187. 

Mestyeres, offices, 122 ; works, 
operations, 167. 

Mesure, Mesures, measure, mo- 
deration, 44, 51, 52, 53, 252. 

Mesuref, moderates, 254. 

Mesuri, to moderate, 252. 

Met, dreams, 128. 

Metal, 139. 

Metals, 167. 

Mete, Metes, meat, food, meats, 
9, 29, 51. 

Meteles, dreams, 164. 

Meter es, dreamers, 32. 

Metinge, dream, 143. 

Metinges, dreams, 32, 77, 92. 

Meyster, practice, 65. 

Mezel, leper, 202 ; Mezels, pi. 

Mid, Myd, Myde, with, by, 5, 10, 
12, 43, 44. 

Middel, Midel, Mydle, mean, 78, 
136, 249 ; superl. Midliste, 

Middelguodes, Myddelguodes, 
middle goods, 136. 



Milde, Mylde, meek, 133 ; comp. 
Milder, 24, 204. 

Mildehede, Myldehede, meekness, 
110, 133. 

Mildeliche, Mildelyche, meekly, 

Mildenesse, Myldenesse, meek- 
ness, 65, 131. 

Mildi, to make mild, become 
meek, 177. 

Miracle, Miracles, 56, 134. 

Misbeleuing, unbelief 134. 

Misbileue, unbelief, 13. 

Misbylefde, Misbyleuinde, un- 
believing, 69, 252. 

Misdede, misdeed, pi. Misdedes, 
113, 114, 135. 

Misdep, misdoes, acts wrongly, 

Misdo, sin, err, 19, 113, 115, 

Misdoere, 8, 132. 

Misdoinge, 157. 

Misdo]), pi. misdo, sin, 100. 

Misfalles, si. misfortunes, 84. 

Misge}), goes wrong, 94. 

Misleueep, disbelieve, 180. 

Misliki, displease, 257. 

MisnimJ), mistakes, errs, 160. 
See Mme, 

Misnimynge, error, 109. 

Mispayjj, displeases, 50. 

Misprayse, mis-praise, 136. 

Mis-ret, advises badly, mis-advise, 

Mis-sayJ?, Mis-zayJ, mis-says, 

slanders, defames, 8, 28, 62, 69. 

Mis-sede, Mis-zede, slandered, 
defamed, 132, 133. 

Mis-serued, served badly, 20. 

Mis-sigge, Mis-zigge, mis-say, 
slander, defame, 57, 189. See 

Mis-sigger, Mis-ziggere, slan- 
derer ; pi. Mis-siggeres, Mis- 
ziggeres, 256, 257. 

Mis-sigge J>, Mis-zigge J?,^?Z. slander, 
10, 70, 193. 

Mis-sigginge, Mis-zigginge, mis- 
saying, slander, defamation, 
65, Q6. 

Misual, misfortune, 30, 86, 182. 

Misualle, to turn out badly, mis- 
befall, 193. 

Miswende, to turn aside, go 
astray, 253; pi. Miswende]?, 22, 
40, 52, 67, 136 ; sing. Miswent, 
18, 27, 62. 

Mis-ziggere, slanderer; pi. Mis- 
ziggeres, 61, 136, 177. 

Mi$t, mightest, 57, 179. 

Mi$tQ 9 vb. might, 31 ;pl. Mi3ten, 
42, 52, 55. 

Mi3te, sb. might, 7, 15. 

Mi3ti, mighty, 103. 

Mi3tuol, powerful, 130, 237. 

Mo, more, 118, 135. 

Moche, Mochel, much, great, 7, 9, 
21, 57, 119, 181 ; to moche, 
exceedingly, 14. 

Mochelhede, Mochelnesse, great- 
ness, fulness, abundance, ex- 



travagance, 93, 117, 204, 218. 
Moder, mother, 8, 89. 
Modren, mothers, 67. 
Molde, mould, 95. 
Momenes, Momenettes, idols, 6, 

Mone, moon, 82. 
Monek, Moneke, monk, 219, 239. 
Moneye, Monaye, 26, 62. 
Mongenel, a warlike instrument 

for battering down walls, 116. 
More, more, greater, 7, 18. 
More]?, increases, exaggerates, 28, 

60, 175. 
Mori, Mory, to increase, 45, 79, 

175, 176. 
Morsel, pi. Mosseles, 24, 56, 248. 
Mortyer, mortar, 116. 
Mo^en, morning, 46, 108. 
Mostard (seed), 143. 
Mot, may, must, 52, 137. 
Mot, Mote, speck ; pi. Motes, 

108, 175. 
Mofe, mouth, 256. 
Moydrer, murderer, 171. 
Mo3e, Mo3en, may be able, 10, 

15, 21, 31, 86, 92. 
Muekliche, meekly, 65. 
Multepliest, 218. 
Multiplied 190. 
Musi, Musy, Muzy, to wonder, 

muse, amuse, 47, 104, 231. 
Myde, with, 50. 
Myny, to mine, dig, 108. 
Mysnyme, mistake, 55. See 


MysnymJ?, mistaketh, 83. 
Mys-sigginge, slander, defamation, 

My3ten, pi. might, 58, 165. 
My3test, mightest, 104. 
My3tuol, mighty, 83 ; pi. mj^t- 

uolle, 269. 

Nakedliche, nakedly, openly, 174. 

Namecophede, JSTamecoujmede, re- 
nown, fame, 25 ; A.S. nam- 
cu$, renowned. 

Nameliche, especially, 21, 44. 

Namore, Nanmore, no more, 27, 
49, 187. 

Nase, nose, 204. 

Naturel, natural, 18. 

!N~aJ?emo, neverthemore, 41. 

Nayle, nail, 43. 

Na3 = na3t, not, 222, 246. 

]STa3t, not, 18. 

Nawerelles, nowhere else, 210. 

Nebsseft, image, likeness ; A.S. 
neb, face. 

JSTele, Nelle, ne wile, will not, 
31,56, 71. 

Kerne J? = nimej), takes, 92. 

Nemne]?, names, 103. 

Nemni, Nemny, to name, men- 
tion, 49, 57, 164; A.S. nemnan. 

ISTenne, ace. none, 22, 30, 48. 

Nere, were not, 20, 86. 

;Nes = rce wes, was not, 26, 66, 72. 

Nesshede, delicacy, softness, 267. 

Netlen, Nettlen, nettles, 156, 



Nette, Nettes, net, nets, 77, 170. 
NeJ>, hath not, 84, 210. 
Neuerte, never-to, never yet, 99. 
Neure, never, 26. 
Neuremo, nevermore, 71. 
Newehedes, novelties, 151. 
Newen, (of the) new, 99. 
Newne, ace. new, 162. 
Ne3ebores,Ne3eboures, Ne3ybores, 

Ne33ebores, neighbours, 30, 36, 

Ne3en, nine, 45. 
Ne3ende, ninth, 38, 45, 49. 
Ne3leeJ>, approaches, 105 ; A.S. 

neah-lcecan, to approach. 
Nhesse, Nesssse, soft, 153 ; A.S. 

hncesc, soft, delicate, nesh. 
Nhesse J>, makes soft, 94. 
Nhicke, neck, 138, 216. 
Nice, foolish, 59. 
Niede, Nyede, business, need, 

necessity,emergency,^Z. Niedes, 

Nyedes, 30, 31, 36, 39, 52, 

63, 73, 95, 142, 151, 152, 168. 
Nieduol, Nieduolle, needful, 

necessitous, 36, 95, 110, 112, 

134, 151, 193. 
Nie3, Nye3, -nigh, near, 51, 76. 

Comix Nier, Nyer, nearer, 234. 
Nim, imp. take, 54. 
Nime, Nyme, should take, 55, 

148, 155 ; A.S. niman (pret. 

Nime, Nyme, to take, 37, 67, 77. 
Nimene, to take, 165, 166, 195. 
Nimere, taker, 248. 

NimeJ>, pi. take, 35, 38. 
Niminge, Nyminge, taking, un- 
dertaking, 21, 164; exactions, 
Niminges, undertakings, 183. 
Nim]>, NymJ>, takes, 22, 24, 30, 

32, 37, 49, 50. 
Nifinges, niggards, 154. 
Nixt, Nixte, Nyxte, next, neigh- 
bour, 30, 78, 79, 122, 182. 
Nijt, Nyjt, night, 51, 52 ; obliq. 

case, Ni3te, 52. 
Noble, 87. 

Nobleliche, nobly, 55. 
Noblesse, nobleness, 20, 22, 24, 

59, 60. 
Nobleste, 92. 
Nolde, sing., Golden, pi., would 

not, 64, 132, 173. 
boldest, wouldst not, 146. 
Nole, Nolle, Nolle]?, will not, 35, 
Norn, took, 45, 87, 88. 
Nome, pp. taken, 204. 
Nome, pi. took, 97. 
Non, None, no, none, 29, 64. 
Non, noon, 32, 

Nonen, none, 68, 134, 152, 157. 
Norice, nurse, 161. 
Noriches, nurses, 60. 
Norissede, nourished, 96. 
NorisseJ?, Norisset, nourisheth, 

21, 83, 140, 167. 
Norrissinde, Norrissynde, nourish- 
ing, 95, 112. 
Norissinge, nourishing, 112. 



Norissy, Norrisi, to nourish, 127, 

torture, 112, 113. 
Norj>ene, northern, 256. 
Not = ne wot, knows not, 25. 
Notaryes, 40. 
Note, profit, 247, 256 ; A.S. 

notu y nyt, utility. 
Note)?, flourishes, 260 ; A.S. 

notian, to use, enjoy. 
NoJ>er, neither, 130, 134. 
Nojiing, not-at-all, no wise, 192. 
Noty, to note, 118. 
Nou, now, 87. 
Noyse, 66 ; Noyses, 266. 
Novices, 155. 
No vis, novice, 155. 
Nykeren, mermaids, syrens, 61. 
Nykke, neck, 135; pi Nykken, 

Nymst, takest, 110, 111. 
Nyte]?, ne witeth, know not, 72. 

O, one, 186. 

Obedience, 140. 

Ofacsed, questioned, tried, 153. 

Ofdret, afraid, 266. 

Office, offices, 122, 124, 125. 

Official, 37. 

Offre, offer, 194; Offrede, offered, 

Ofguo, deserved, 13. 
Ofguoinge, deserving, merit, 215, 
Of halt, restrains, refrains, 178. 
Ofhealde, Ofhyealde, to keep 

back, withhold, restrain, re- 

frain, 9, 24, 38, 46, 177; pp. 

OfhealdeJ?, Ofhyaldef, keep 
back, withhold, 38, 39, 41, 78. 

Ofhealdinge, sb. withholding, 34. 

Ofhild, restrained, 190. 

Ofrendes, offerings, 41. 

Ofringe, offering, 229. 

Of served, deserved, 131. 

OfserueJ?, deserves, 222. 

Ofseruinge, deserving, merit, 114. 

Oftake, overtake, 43. 

Oftyened, very angry, 66. 

Oksen, oxen, 243. 

OkseJ) = akseth, ask, demand, 54, 

Oly, oil, 136. 

Olyfont, elephant, 84. 

On, one, 9, 48 ; ' al on ' = the 
same, 15. 

Onarmed, unarmed, 170. 

Onbint, Onbynt, unbinds, 97. 

Onblissed, unconsecrated, 41. 

Onbo3sam, disobedient, 21. 

Onbo^samnesse, disobedience, 33. 

Onbynde, unbind, 172. 

Onbynde]?, pi unbind, 40. 

OnchargeJ?, unloads, 97. 

Onclenlich, Onclenliche, un- 
cleanly, impure, 42. 

Onclennesse, uncleanness, 203. 

Onconnynde, ignorant, unknow- 
ing, 59. 

Onconnynge, ignorance, 131. 

Onconnynghede, Onconnynd- 
hede, ignorance, 33, 40. 



Oncoufe, uncouth, strangers, 37, 

193, 253. 
Ondelff), digs up, 61. 
Onder, under, 12. 
Onderbere, support, 84. 
Onderlinges, underlings, subjects, 

39. 4 

Ondernime, undertake, 83, 123. 
Ondernim]>, surprises, 173. 
Onderstanst, understandest, 270. 
Onderstant, understands, 56, 129, 

Onderstonde, to understand, 14 ; 

undertake, 131 ; pp. 14, 57; 

pret. Understod ; subj. Under- 

stode, 138 ; imp. Understand, 

1 29. Onderstondef, pi 79. 
Onderstondinge, Onderstond- 

ingge, understanding, 24, 56, 

Onderuangjj, receives, 33, 65, 

Onderuinge, Onderuynge, pi 

received, 101, 267. 
Onderuonge, to receive, 14, 100; 

pp. received, 14. 
Onderuongep, pi receive, 38, 42. 
Onderuonginge, receipts, income, 

37, 172. 
Onderuot, underfoot, 85, 184. 
Onderzek]?, searches out, 184. 
Onde]>, opens, 189. 
Ondo, undo, 106, 107, 136. 
One, alone, 103, 104. 
Onen, dat. one, 101, 102, 190. 
Onest, honest, decorous, decent, 

45, 214. 
Onestete, decency, 53, 224. 
One]?, unites, 88. 
Onhede, unity, oneness, solitude, 

79, 142. 
Oninge, Onynge, union, concord, 

65,67,135, 153; i?Z. Onynges, 

Onjoini, unjoin, 107. 
Onkende, unkind, unnatural, 188. 
Onknawyndliche, unknowingly, 

Onleak, unlocked, opened, 67. 
Onlepi, Onlepy, Onelepi, one, 

same, single, 12, 13, 14, 21, 

73, 88, 101. 
Onlepihede, singularity, 21. 
Onlepiliche, Onlepilyche, only, 

55, 76, 175. 
Onlosthede, disinclination, sloth, 

31, 153, 163. 
Onlosti, idle, 170, 174. 
Onlyche, only, 265. 
Onneafes, Onnyeajje, scarcely, 

hardly, 15, 18,19,28,29,174, 

Onpay]?, displeases, 50. 
Onri3t, unright, 39, 221. 
Onri^tuol, Onri^tuolle, wrong, 

unlawful, 39, 270. 
Onssriuel, careless, 32. 
Onspekynde, ineffable, 266. 
Ontodelinde, indivisible, 266. 
Ontrewe, untrue, unfaithful, dis- 
v honest, 18, 36, 37, 270. 
Ontreuje, untruth, 17, 218. 



Ontreweliche, untruly, dishonest- 

ly, 44. 
On))ank, displeasure, 69. 
Onpoliynde, Onjjolyinde, intoler- 
able, 265. See ftolie. 

OnwoneJ), discontinues, 32. 

OnworJ, sb. shame, displeasure, 
adj. poor, hateful, mean, 35, 
49, 132, 215, 270. 

Onworjje, imp. despise, 196. 

Onworjjede, despised, 77. 

OnworJ?est, despisest, 20. 

Onworjjef, despises, 8, 34, 79. 

Onworfhede, contempt, 29, 175. 

Onwor]>i, unworthy, to hold un- 
worthy, despise, 22, 64, 84, 
162 ; A.S. unwor^ian, to dis- 

Onworjjlych, unworthy, 132. 

Onworjmesse, contempt, 9, 168. 

Onwri, discover, lay hare, 174. 
See "Wraye, Wri. 

Onwri J), opens, 58. 

Onwi^e, uncovered, 244. 

Onwry3e, openly, 88, 112. 

Onwyt, folly, 82, 83. 

Onwythede, folly, 19. 

Onwytynde, unwittingly, 37. 

On-zauwed, unsaved, lost, 184. 

Onzyginde, invisible, 268. 

Op, Ope, up, above, over, upon, 
39, 54, 236, 240. 

Oparizinge, ascension, 213. 

Opbere, upbear, support, 30. 

Openede, opened, 96. 

Openi, to open, 130. 

Openliche, openly, 65, 73. 
OphebbeJ, heave (lift) up, 217. 
Opinions, 69. 
Oplet, to starve, 33. 

Opniminge, Opnymynge, under- 
taking, enterprise, 22, 83, 84. 

Opnome, uptaken, possessed, 143. 

Oppe, open, 253. 

Oprisinge, resurrection, 227. 

Op^t, upright, 56. 

Op J>et, upon that, so that, 232. 

Opweninge, overweening, pre- 
sumptuous, 21. 

Opwexeth, grow up, increase, 75. 

Ordaynede, 7. 

OrdayneJ), Ordeynejj, 29, 123, 
153, 260. 

Ordayni, Ordeyni, to set in order, 
subject to, 94, 152, 263. 

Ordenliche, Ordeneliche, orderly, 
temperately, 125, 151. 

Ordinance, 125. 

Ordine, orderly, not inordinate, 
153, 259. 

Ordre, order, 48. 

Oreysonne, Oreysonnes, prayer, 
prayers, 51. 

Orible, Orrible, horrible, 43, 137. 

Orped, valiant, 183. 

Ost, host, 67. 

OJ?, oath, 6, 64 ; obliq. case, of e, 
Q5 ; pi. opes, 64. 

Oj?er, or, 9, 10. 

Oj?er, other, second; pi. oJ>re, 6, 

Operlaker, otherwise, 91, 94. 



Ojjerhuil, Oferhuyl, sometimes, 

21, 30, 40. 
Oj?ren, dot. pi. 136. 
Oj>rene, Ofrenne, ace. other, 8, 

9, 10, 11, 21, 27, 28, 29, 30, 

66, 175. 
Oueral, everywhere, 25, 35, 173. 
Ouercom, overcame, 169. 
Ouercome, inf. 167, 168. 
Ouercominge, victory, 169. 
Ouercom]?, overcomes, 117, 149, 

Ouer-dede, excess, 55. 
Ouerdoinge, excess, 258, 260. 
Ouergej), overgoes, surpasses, 34, 

OuerguoJ), pi. surpass, overgo, 

OuerHche, Ouerlyche, above, 123. 
Ouerlinge, ruler, 8, 122, 141, 

Ouerjjraup, overthrows, 168. 
Ouerprawef, pi. overthrow, 136. 
Ouerwenere, presumptuous (one), 

21, 22 ; pi. Ouerweneres, 59. 
Ouerweninde, overweening, 169. 
Ouerweninge, presumption, 1 7, 

21, 29. 
Ouer-yernp, transgresses, over- 
runs, 323. See Yerne. 
Ouet, fruit, 27. 
Oule, owl, 27. 
Oure, hour, 54. 
Oure, our, ours, 19. 
Oures, prayers, 112. 
Ournemens, ornaments, 140. 

Ous, us, 117. 

Outguoinge, outgoing, 190. 
Outkestinge, out-casting, offshoot; 

pi. Outkestinges. 
Outnime, Outynome, Outnome, 

except, 221, 250. 
Outrage, Outtrage, extraordinary 

thing, excess, extravagance ; 

pi. outrages, 19, 54. 
Oxi, to ask, 114. 
Oyle, oil, 93. 
Oynement, ointment, 93. 
030, 03en, 03ene, own, 17, 21, 

22, 28, 39, 48. 
03eneres, proprietors, owners, 37. 
03ninge, possession, 37. 
O3]?, owneth, 9. 

Paci, Pasi, to pass, pass away, 

191, 214. 
Pacience, 166. 
Paneworjje, pennyworth, 90. 
Pans, pence, 190. 
Parfite, perfect, 185. 
Parfitlyche, perfectly, 144. 
Parti, to part, 107. 
Partiner, partner, 253. 
Pasinde, passing, temporal, 209. 
Pasindeliche, temporally, 172. 
Passion, Passioun, 142. 
Patroyllart, provincial, 211. 
Paye, to please (sing, payp, pi. 

paye}>), 182, 216. 
Payenes, pagans, 235. 
Payinges, pleasings, 216. 
Payse, peace, 162. 



Paysible, Payzible, peaceable, 261. 

Penonce, penance, 221. 

Peregrinage, pilgrimage, 187. 

Perilousliche, perilously, 254. 

Perle, pearl (of the eye), 158. 

Perseuerance, 208. 

Perseuerantliche, perseveringly, 

Pese, peace, 261. 

Pesen, pi. pease, 120. 

Pette (obliq. case of pet), pit, 207. 

Pe]>, PeJ?e, path, 127, 185. 

Pilgrime, 253. 

Pine, torment; pi. Pinen, tor- 
ments, 130, 131, 265. 

Pine]?, torments, 141. 

Piteus, Pitous, piteous, merciful, 
144, 150. 

Plait, pleading, law-suit, 39. 

Piastres, 148. 

Playneres, plaintiffs, 39. 

Playni, to complain, 132, 190. 

Play teres, advocates, 39. 

Play tinge, pleading, 162. 

Playty, plead, 99. 

Plente, plenty, 161. 

Plenteliche, plentifully, 105. 

Ple3es, plays, sports, 207, 214. 

Poer, power, 170. 

Pokoc, Pokoce, peacock, 257, 270. 

Pond, pound, 190. 

PorehaceJ?, 176, 219. 

Porchaci, Purchaci, to purchase, 
obtain, or earn a living, 193, 

Porpos, purpose, 209. 

Pors, Porse, purse, 187, 188. 

Poruaye, Porueye, to foresee, pro- 
vide for, 152. 

PoruayeJ, Porueyp, provide for* 
distribute, 145. 

Poruay]?, provides for, 138. 

Porueynde, taking thought for, 

Porueyonce, prudence, 156. 

Possessioun, 149, 150. 

Posst, Posste, post, 148, 207. 

Poty, to put, 135. 

Poudres, powders, 148. 

Pouer, power, 164. 

Pouer, Poure, poor, pi. Poueren, 

Pouerehede, poverty, 138. 

Pourehede, poorness, 130, 216. 

Pouri, to pore, 177. 

Pouringe, lookinge, 177. 

Pourpre, purple, 229. 

Poyns, points, 160. 

Praysy, Prayzy, to praise, 134, 
135, 152, 227; pi. pres. PrazeJ>, 
143 ; pret Prayzede, 243. 

Prechinge, 191. 

Prede, pride, 258. 

Prekief, prick, 230, 257. 

Prekiinde, pricking, 148. 

Prekiynges, Prekyinges, prick- 
ings, stings, 203. 

Prelat, prelate, pi. Prelas, 175. 

Presense, presence, 161. 

Present, Presont, 189, 218. 

Preste, proudest, 267 ; pridest, 



Prestliche, readily, 140. 
Presumcion, 182, 195, 
Prette, prided, 258. 
Preus, brave, 83. 
Pris, value, price, 234, 
Priueliche, secretly, 225. 
ProdeJ), pi. pride, 79. 
Profiti, to profit, 126. 
Prou, profit, 85. 
Proudliche, proudly, 168, 
Prouduol, proud, 217. 
Prouesse, Prowesse, 162, 164. 
Prous, bold, hardy, 83. 
Provi, to prove, 158. 
Pryente, print, mark, 81. 
Punissi, to punish, 148. 
Purgi, to purge, 132. 
Purte, purity, 202. 

Qualites, 153. 
Quarel, arrow, 71. 
Quaynte, gay, 89. 
Quaynteliche, gaily, 47. 
Quead, Qued, bad. See Kuead. 
Queayntese, Qeyntise, craft, de- 
ceit, 38, 90. 
Queme, to please. See Kueme, 
QuemeJ?, please, 149. 
Quern}), pleases, 231. 
Quen, queen. See Kuen. 
Quereles, quarrels, 83, 142. 
Queme, mill, 181 ; A.S. cweorn. 
Quic, alive, living. See Kuic. 
Quit. See Kuit. 

Rage, 141. 

Rasour, razor, 66. 

Rajje, early, soon, 52 ; comp. Rapre, 

rather, sooner, 61, 71, 120, 140. 
Raymi, to accuse, 44 ; A.S. reo- 

mian, to cry out. 
Rearde, speech, sound, 24, 211 ; 

A.S. reard. 
Rebel, rebellion, 68. 
Rebele, v. rebel, 28. 
Rebours, rebellious, 68. 
Recorde, 142, 203. 
Recorder, 55. 
Recordi, Recordy, to record, call 

to mind, 21, 59, 208. 
Recordinge, 55. 
Recreyd, recreant, 195. 
Red, Rede, counsel, advice, con- 
spiracy, 23 ; pi. Redes, 9, 10, 

23, 89, 165, 183, 184. 
Redde, advised, 184. 
Rede, to counsel, 38, 104, 154. 
Rederes, advisers, 184. 
Reforme, 81. 
Refter, rafter, 175. 
Refye, to move, shake, 116 ; A.S. 

reafian, to seize. 
Reg (pbliq. case, Regge), back, 

116, 133, 177; A.S. rig. 
Regne, reign, kingdom, 85. 
Regne, to reign, 67. 
Rekeni, Rekeny, to reckon, 35, 

37, 173, 214. 
Rekeninge, Rekenynge, account, 

35, 171, 214. 
Religioun, 41. 
Relikes, 64. 



Eemedie, 207. 
Eemenont, remnant, 100. 
Eemue, to remove, 104. 
Eenable, reasonable, 95, 163. 
Eenay, Eeney, apostate, 19. 
Eenaye, Eeneye, deny, forsake, 

disbelieve, 19. 
Eenayrie, apostasy, 19. 
Eene, rain, 130. 

Eenoyre, Eonoyrye, unbelief, apo- 
stasy, 17. 
Eentes, revenue, 37, 41, 144. 
Eepente, 238. 
Eepentonce, 201. 
Eesemble, 59. 
Eespit, 39. 

Eesse, a rush, 253 ; A.S. resce. 
Eeste, to rest, 7, 31, 119, 260. 
Eestede, 7. 

Eesteuol, Eestuolle, contempla- 
tive, 199. 
Eesye, to quake, resound, 23. 
Eet, advises, 22, 184, 187. 
Eet, reads, 147, 231. 
Eeule, rule, 150. 
Eeule, to rule, 124. 
Eeujje, EewJ>e, mercy, pity, 186, 

Eeujjevol, merciful, 116, 186, 188, 

Eeven, sheriffs, reeves, 37, 39, 

Eeverence, 20. 
Eeverte, 128. 
Eeward, regard, 74. 
Eewjeuolle, merciful, 198. 

Eibaud, ribald, 51, 127. 

Eibaudie, Eibaudy, ribaldry, 
128, 203, 220. 

Eibaus, pi. of Eibaud, a ribald, 

Eiche, kingdom, 197; A.S. r'yce. 

Eichesse, riches, 24, 77. 

Eidinges, ridings, 24. 

Eine, rain, 49. 

Eiotouse, 170. 

Eipe, to reap, 214. 

Ei3t, Ei3te, Ey3te, right, 8. 

Ei3tes, 40. 

Ei3tuol, just, equitable, 44, 105, 
135, 196. 

Ei3tuolliche, equitably, right- 
fully, 196, 201. 

Ei3tuolnesse, Ei3tnesse, rightful- 
ness, righteousness, 3, 29, 124, 

Eobbere, robber, 39, 79. 
Eobbi, to rob, 39. 
Eobbynges, thefts, 39. 
Eoberie, Eoberye, robbery, 9, 34. 
Eobes, 24. 
Eoche, rock, 142/ 
Eocky, to rock, 116. 
Eod, rode, cross, 1, 114. 
Eomongours, horse-dealers, 44. 
Eond, round, 1. 
Eonsoune, ransom, 35. ' 
Eoppes, entrails, 62; A. S. roppas. 
Eote, root, 34, 95 ; pi Eoten, 

34, 35, 68, 116. 
Eoted, rotten, 205. 
Eofer, rudder, 160. 



Rotie, Rotye, to rot, decay, 32, 

Ruby, 76. 

Ruieles, rules, 97. 

Russoles, rissoles, cakes made in 
the frying-pan, from O.Fr. m- 
soler, to fry, 253. 

Rybaus, 259. 

Ryche, kingdom, 66. 

Rynde, rind, 99. 

Ryote, rote, 99. 

Ryjtnesse, righteousness, 266. 

Ry^-uolliche =ry3t-uolliche, right- 
fully, 265. 

Sabat, sabbath, 7. 

Sacrefices, 187. 

Sacrement,^Z. Sacremens, 14, 40, 

48, 238. 
SacreJ), makes sacred, 235. 
Sacrifice, 187. 
Sacrilege, 34, 40. 
Safyr, sapphire, 76. 
Salamandre, 167. 
Sanguine, 157. 
Sanynt, Saynt, saint, 262. 
Satisfaccion, 32. 
Savour, 138. 
Sauf, safe, 36. 
Sause, sauce, 55. 
Sautere, psalter, 27. 
Sayn, Sanyn (for Saynt), saint, 1, 

2, 12, 14. 
Saysine, Sayzine, possession, 144, 

Scallede, having the scall or 

scab, 224. 

Scarse, scant, 53, 54. 

Scarsliche, niggardly, 34. 

Scarsnesse, niggardliness, 159. 

Scele, Sckele, skill, reason, 11, 
12, 18, 53, 54. 

Sceluol, Sceluolle, skilful, reason- 
able, 51, 169, 259. 

Scin, Scinne, skin, 44, 137, 230. 

Sclondre, slandre, 6. 

Scluse, Sluice, 255. 

ScofFe, scorn, ridicule, 128. 

Scolde, to scald, 66. 

Scole, school, 34. 

Scolere, scholar, 39. 

Scome, scum, 44. 

Scorne, pi Scornes, 22, 74, 128. 

Scorne, to scorn, 22. 

Scornere, pi Scorneres, 63, 177. 

Scorni, to scorn, 211. 

Scorpioun, 62. 

Scot, payment, 51 ; A.S. sceat. 

Scriveyns, scriveners, 44. 

Seculeres, pi. Seculeer, 215. 

SembleJ>, pi, resemble, 176. 

Semblont, pretence, 27, 137. 

Sengle, single, 48, 175. 

Sentense, opinion, 69. 

Sercle, circle, 141. 

Sergond, Sergont, Seriont, ser- 
vant, officer, pi Sergons, Se- 
rious, 32, 33, 35, 39, 188. 

Sermon, Sermoun, 20, 138. 

Servi, Seruy, to serve, 5, 6, 24, 
54, 79, 225. 

Servise, 7, 20. 



Seruons = seriions, servants, 

officers, 37. 
Simple, 134. 

Simpleliehe, simply, 134. 
Simplesse, simplicity, 140. 
Simulacion, 23. 
Skele, reason, cause, 6, 7, 8, 38 ; 

pi Skeles, 80, 117. 
Skeluol, reasonable. 
Skeluolliche, reasonably, with. 

reason, 6. 
Slac, slack, slow, 32. 
Slacnesse, slowness, idleness, 33, 

138, 159. 
Sla3e, to slay (3rd pers. sing. 

Sla3», 8, 34, 61, 89, 174. 
Sla3)>e, slaughter, death, 90. 
Sle, Slea, to slay, 48, 223. 
Sleaujje, Sleawjje, Sleujje, sloth, 

16, 31, 34, 40, 67, 157, 163. 
Sleauuol, Sleauuolle, Sleawol, 

slothful, 170, 174. 
Slep, sleep, 31, 264. 
Slepe, to sleep, 29, 51. 
Slep]?, sleeps, 56, 127. 
Slepinde, sleeping, 158. 
Sleuuol, Sleawolle, Sleuuolle, 
. slothful, 31, 32, 34, 67. 
Sleuuolliche, slothfully, 32. 
Sle3e, adj. prudent, 265. 
Sle3fe, sleight, craft, prudence, 

18, 78, 118, 124, 265. 
Slyt, slides, 149. 
Smac, Smak, taste, relish, 33, 

82, 83, 106, 245 ; pi Smackes, 


Smackinde, tasting, relishing, 

245, 260. 
Smacky, to taste, 247, 269. 
Smake]?, taste, relish, 92, 106. 
Smal, small, 74, 137 ; pi Smale, 

23, 130. 
Smalliche, adv. minutely, 111 ; 

A.S. smealice. 
Smel, smell, 123, 177. ' 
Smerie, to smear, anoint, 60; A.S. 

Smeringe, anointing, 148. 
Smeryels, Smeriels, ointment, 

187, 217; A.S. smerels. 
Smit, smites, 30, 116. 
Smite, sound, voice, 140. 
Smijjes, carpenters. 
Smot, smote, 48. 
Snaw, snow, 267. 
Snegge, snail, 32 ; A.S. sneg-el, 

Snode, morsel, 77, 111 ; pi 

Snoden, 218 ; A.S. smd, from 

snidan, to cut. 
Sobre, 254. 

Sobreliche, soberly, 248, 265. 
Sobrete, sobriety, 4, 254. 
Sodaynliche, suddenly, 64, 248. 
SofFre, suffer, 139. 
Soigneus, busy, 155. 
Solaci, to please, 63, 213. 
Solas, solace, 72, 108. 
Solemnes, pi Solemn, 224. 
Solempne, solemn, 225. 
Somblont, pretence, 211. 
Somme, sum, 261. 



Somoni, to summon, 87, 104. 
Sophistrie, 65. 
Sopiere, supper, 133. 
Sostene, Sostyne, to sustain, 35, 

38, 39, 45, 56, 57, 104. 
Sostinonce, 54, 139. 
Sotil, subtle, crafty, pi. Sotyls, 

26, 59, 82, 99. 
Sotilliche, subtlety, 26, 46, 99. 
Sotylhede, subtlety, 117. 
Soucouri, to succour, 186. 
Soudeurs, soldiers, 146. 
Soupi, to sup, 52. 
Soverayn, 189. 

Sovi, Sovy, to save, 98, 162, 226. 
Spacialliche, specially, 252. 
Spade, 108. 

Spari, to spare, abstain, 157, 224. 
Speche, speech, 21. 
Special, 15, 16, 94. 
Specialliche, specially, 2, 7, 16, 

Spek, spake, 251. 
Speke, to speak, 33 ; 3rd pers. 

sing. SpekJ?, Spec]), speaks, 10, 

34, 56, 126 ; pi. SpekeJ>, 18. 
Spekeman, spokesman, 60, 99. 
Spekenne, to speak, 94, 103, 104, 

Spekinde, speaking, 226. 
Spekinge, speaking, speech, 50. 
Spelle, story, gospel, 5, 6, 57, 

58, 109. 
Spendere, expender, treasurer, 

Spendinge, expense ; pi. Spend- 

inges, 21, 34, 37. 
Sperringe, a sparrow, 52 ; A.S. 

Spille, to destroy, 232 ; 3rd pers. 

sing. Spilf, 182, 212. 
Spirituallyche, spiritually, 14. 
Spifre, spider, 164. 
Sposayles, espousal, wedding, 

189, 235. 
Spotty, blemished, faulty, 192. 
Spousbreche, adultery, 37. 
Spouse, 10, 118. 
Spousede, espoused, 118. 
Spoushod, marriage, 10, 43, 185. 
Spousy, to marry, 225. 
Spousynge, marriage, 227. 
Sprede, to spread, 29. 
Spret, spreads, 23, 131. 
Ssake, to shake, 4, 116* 
Ssame, shame, 8 ; pi. Ssanies, 

21, 82. 
Ssamie, to be ashamed, 229. 
Ssamnesse, shame, 142. 
Ssamuest, Ssamueste, modest 3 

193, 216, 222. 
Ssamuol, shameful, 117. 
Ssamuolliche, shamefully, 181. 
Ssarnbodde, sharn-bude, a dung 

beetle; A.S. scearn, dung, 61. 
Ssarp, sharp, 165. 
Ssarpnesse, sharpness, penance, 

142, 165, 186. 
Ssast = ssla^st = sla^st, slayest, 

Ssat = sseat, shot, 45. - 
Sseawere, a mirror, 84, 177. 




Sseawinge, revelations, appear- 
ance, 2 ; pi. Sseawynges, 1 4. 

Sseawy, ssewy, to show, 56, 73, 
100; pt. Sseawef, 21, 26, 
110; pret. Sseawede, 13. 

Ssed, Ssede, shade, shadow, 77, 
95, 97, 137. 

Ssedde, shed, 1, 107. 

Sseduy, to take shade or shelter, 

Ssefpes = sseppes, forms, 62. 

Ssel, (1.) shall, 2, 5, 104 ; (2.) 
owes, ought, 113, 115, 145, 

Sseld, shield, 1, 167. 

Sselt, shalt, 5, 129. 

Ssende, to destroy, confound, 
ruin, 28, 126, 148 ; 3rd pers. 
sing. pres. Ssent; A.S. scendan. 

Ssep, Ssepe, sheep, 50, 88, 137, 

Ssepe, reward, pay, hire, 33, 40, 
86, 113, 146; pi Ssepes, 
wages, 39. Chaucer uses Shype 
(Parson's Tale) in the same 
sense ; cp. A.S. sceoppa, a 

Ssepinges, forms, creatures, 64, 
108, 245. 

Sseppere, creator, 6, 7, 18, 145. 

Ssepf, giveth reward, 209. 

Sseppe, creature, form, 5, 6, 81, 
151, 270; pi SsepJ?es, 13, 
64, 84, 112; A.S. sceppan, to 
form; sceaft, creature. 

Sserte, shirt, 190. 

Sset, shuts, 186, 218. 

Ssette, to shut, 179, 188; pret. 

Ssette, 189. 
Ssette-pors, a shut-purse, 187. 
Ssetteles, bars, 94 ; A.S. scyttel, 

lock, bar, bolt. 
Ssrewees, mirrors, 176. 
Ssewy, to show, 44, 69. See 

Ssewynge, appearance, 36. See 

Ssine, to shine, 188. 
SsinJ?, shines, 64. 
Ssip, Ssipe, ship, 112, 129. 
Ssipmen, shipmen, sailors, 60, 

Ssmak, taste, 83. 
Sso, shoe, 220. 
Ssoinge, shoes, 154. 
Ssofjj, shoves, 174. 
Ssolde, should, 12 ; 2nd per. sing. 

Ssoldest ; 3rd pi Ssolden, 6, 

12, 20. 
Ssolle, Ssollen,^>Z. shall, 1, 3, 5, 8. 
Ssop, created, 87. 
Ssornede, scabby, 224. See Ssarn- 

Ssort, Ssorte, short, brief, 81, 98, 

99, 189. 
Ssorthede, brevity, 99. 
Ssortlaker, more briefly, 252. 
Ssortliche, briefly, 24, 79, 99, 123. 
Ssrede, to clothe, 90, 258 ; A.S. 

scrydan, to clothe. 
Ssredinge, clothing, 177, 258. 
Ssrewe, wretch, 32. 



Ssrifte, Ssryfte, Ssriffe, shrift, 4, 

14, 20, 31, 32. 
Ssrifp, shrives, 174. 
Ssriue, p.p. shriven, 174. 
Ssriuere, confessor, 174. 
Ssriufteuader, father confessor, 

38, 155. 
Ssrive, Ssryve, to shrive, confess, 

5, 32, 70, 132. 
Ssrof, shrove, confessed, 178. 
Ssroud, covering, dress, 258. 
Ssyetere, shooter, archer, 174. 
Ssylde, to shield, 271. 
Ssyne, to shine, 267. 
Ssynynde, shining, 76. 
Stable, 83. 
Stablen, stables, 210. 
Stages, 122. 
Stale, stealing, theft, 9. 
Stape, step, 3, 47 ; pi. Stapes, 32, 

Stas (pi. of Stat), states, 28. 
Stat, state, 7, 28, 48. 
Stea3, ascended, 13, 213 ; A.S. 

stigan (pret. stdh), to ascend. 
Stech, Stechehe, piece, pi. Sfcech- 

ches, 62, 111 ; A.S. sticce, 
Stede, place, 7, 140. 
Stedeuest, stedfast, 84, 116, 232. 
Stedeuestliche, stedfastly, 11, 86, 

105, 233. 
Stedeuestnesse, stedfastness, 83, 

Stef, staff, pi. Steues, 156. 
Stefhede, stiffness, strength, 263. 
Stefliche, strongly, 258, 

Stele, to steal, 79 ; 2nd per. sing. 
Stelst, 38 ; 3rd sing. StelJ>, 23, 
37 ; pi. SteleJ?, 26, 37. 

Stempe, to stumble, 206. Stumpe 
occurs in this sense in Owl and 

Stench, stink, 248. 

Stene, to stone, 213. 

Steple, 23, 180. 

Sterie, to stir, direct, endeavour, 
173, 186. 

Sterre, star, 164. 

Sterren, stars, 267. 

Sterue, to die, 2, 70, 143 ; pi. 2nd 
dug. Sterfst, 71 ; 3rd sing. 
Sterf}>, 54, 71; 3rd pi. Ster- 
ue J?, 36, 71 ; subj. pret. Storue, 
54 ; pret. Sterf, 70. 

Steruinde, dying, 75. 

Steruinge, death, 10, 73, 95, 165. 

Steve, staff, 156. See Stef. 

Stillehede, solitude, 142. 

Stilliche, secretly, 65. 

Stinkinde, Stynkynde, stinking, 
32, 49, 81, 189. 

Stole, stool, 239. 

Ston, stone, 1 ; pi. Stones, 140. 

Stonchi, to staunch, 73, 110. 

Stondinde, standing, 170; stiff, 

Stoppi, to stop, 257. 

Stor, incense, 211 ; A.S. stor. 

Storue, Storuen, died, 12, 67. 
See Sterue. 

Stoupi, to stoop, bend, 151. 

Strait, Strayt. Strayte, 54, 78, 130. 




Straitliche, Straytliche, Streyt- 

liche, straitly, strictly, 7, 18, 

34, 171. 
Strang, strong, 16; pi. Stronge, 

Stranger, stronger, 168. 
Stranglaker, more strongly, 17, 

25, 88, 116. 
Stranglakest, most strongly, 157. 
Strangliche, strongly, firmly, 15, 

127, 212. 
Strayny, to restrain, 263. 
Strechche, to stretch, 103. 
Streme, Stream e, stream, 72. 
Strenger, stronger, 170. 
Strengfe, force, 3, 45, 161 : no 

strengj?e = no fors, no matter, 

Strengju, to strengthen, 86 , 180. 
Strepe, to strip, 98, 105. 
Strif, Stryf, strife, dispute, 23, 

57, 66. 
Strini, to strive, dispute, 65. 
Striuinde, striving, 154. 
Stryfinge, strife, 57. 
Strok, stroke, 34. 
Stude, Studie, Studye, to study, 

24, 34, 70, 78, 232. 
Substance, 113. 

Substanciel, Substancieler, 113. 
Sudyakne, Sufdeakne, subdea- 

con, 225, 235. 
Suspiciouses, pi. suspicious, 226. 
Sustyene]?, pi. sustain, 57. 
Symoniaks, 41. 
Symony, 34, 41, 42. 

Tables (commandments), 5. 
Tables, games of hazard, 45, 52. 
Take, to give, 22 ; touch upon, 

56; 3rd sing. Takjj, 175. 
Takinges, touchings, handlings, 

9, 10, 46. 
Tale, number, estimation, 1 1 , 108, 

Talyinde, tale-bearing, 207. 
Tauerne, 56. 
Tauernyer, a tavern-keeper, 44 ; 

a tavern-goer, 51. 
Tayles, duties, tollage, 38. 
Te, to, 172. 
Tealde, told, 239. 
Techches, habits, bad habits, 32, 

Teche, to teach ; 3rd sing. TekJ>, 

6, 49 ; pi. Teche]?, 8. 
Techinge, teaching, 68. 
Tedra^ynge, detraction, 61. 
Telle, to number, reckon, 17, 21. 
Telleres, narrators, 58. 
Tellinge, numbering, 1. 
Tel>, tells, 62. 
Temperance, 4, 124. 
Tempeste, 73. 
TempreJ), tempers, 254. 
Tende, tenth, 2, 11, 13. 
Tendes, tithes, 41. 
Tendre, tender, 77, 148. 
Teppe (obliq. case of Tep), a tap, 

Terestre, 50. 
Terme, 33. 
Tef, teeth, 67. 



Teue = to eue, yesterday even- 
ing, 51. 

Te^ele, tile, 167. 

Tidyinges, tidings, 58. 

Tiene, to annoy, weary, 34. See 

Timlich, Timliche, timely, tem- 
poral, 19, 30, 44, 52. 

To, too, 6. 

To-ayens, against, 6, 10, 26, 158. 

To-brekeJ>, pi. break in pieces, 64. 

Tobre3j), breaks in pieces, 6. 

Tobroke, broken in pieces, 30. 

Tocleue, burst in pieces, 50, 56. 

Tocne, Tokne, a token, sign, 226. 

Tocnen, Toknen, tokens, signs, 
10, 69, 216. 

Todele, to divide, separate, dis- 
tinguish, distribute, 2, 17, 80; 
Todel (imp.) 73, 74 ; pp. To- 
deld, 83, 86; pret. Todelde, 
226, 164 ; To-dele we, let us 
depart, 72. 

Todelinge, division, separation, 3, 
72, 189. 

To-delp, divides, separates, dis- 
tinguishes, 16, 17, 119. 

To-di^t, explained, rendered, 164. 
See Di3te. 

Todi^tinge, division, 72. 

To-dra3inge, detraction, 57, 62. 

To-drajj?, detracts, depreciates, 62. 

Togidere, Togydere, together, 43, 

To-heawe, to hew to pieces, 62 ; 
to-heau]), curtails. 

Tokne, token, 68, 177. 

Toknen, tokens, signs, 2. 

Tckninge, sign, 50. 

Tol, toll, 192. 

To-moche, very much, 14. 

Tomochelhede, excess, 248. 

Tonge, tongue, 24, 50. 

Tongen, tongues, 22, 142. 

Tonne, a tun, barrel, 27, 167. 

Tonnen, tuns, 35. 

Toparte, to divide, distribute, 170. 

Toppe, above, 6, 106, 163. 

Torment, sb. 29, 79 ;pl Tormens, 
73, 166, 167. 

Torniente, v. 53. 

Tornement, Tornoyment, a tour- 
nament, 46, 101, 117, 252 ; pi 
Tornemens, Tornoymens, 166, 

To Jan, to that, 56. 

ToualJ, falls back, perishes, 33, 

Tounes, towns, 30. 

Touore, before, 7. 

Tour, tower, 23, 47. 

Toyans, Toyeans, Toyens, against, 
towards, 20, 86. 

To3te, taught, 96, 149. 

Trau, Traw, Traue, Trawe, 
Trauwe, tree, 28, 57, 95, 201, 

Trauail, sb. labour, 130. 

Trauailinde, running, 167. 

Trauayli, to labour, oppress, 33, 
39, 171. 

Traues, Trawes, trees, 25, 94, 95. 



Traysoun, treason, 37. 

Tresor, Trezor, treasure, 57, 96. 

Tresoriere, treasurer, 231. 

Tretable, tractable, 94, 167. 

Trete, to treat, 142. 

Trewe, true, 101. 

Treueliche, Treweliche, Triewe- 

liche, truly, 79, 134, 169. 
Treu]>e, Trewjje, truth, troth, 221, 

Triacle, remedy, medicine, 17, 

Trobli, Troubli, to trouble, 104, 

Trone, throne, 266. 
Trossinge, tressing of hair, 176. 
Trost, imp. trust, 241. 
Trosti, to trust, 242. 
Trufles, jests, 56, 58. 
Truont, a beggar, 174 ; pi. Tru- 

ons, 194. 
Tuay, Tuaye, two, 1, 30, 67. 
Tuelf, twelve, 2, 11. 
Tuelfte, twelfth, 14. 
Tuo, two, 2. 
Turle, turtle dove, 226. 
Tuyes, Tuies, twice, 35, 36. 
Tuyg, a twig, 22 ; pi Tuygges, 

Tuyegges, 17, 41. 
Tuyste, to twist, 159. 
Tyares, Tyeares, Tyeres, tears, 

74, 83, 173, 267. 
Tyene, anger, grief, disinclination, 

31, 66, 124 ; A.S. teona. 
Tyeni, Tyeny, to grow weary of, 

73, 99, 142, 161 ; A.S. teonan. 

Tymlich, Tymliche, temporal, 2. 

Tyrans, tyrants, 182. 

Jpa, /. the, that, 33. 

J?an, dot. that (man), 23. 

Jpan, those, 21, 265. 

J)ane, }?anne, ace. the, 27, 34, 66. 

J)ank,]thanks, 18. 

Jeanne, than, then, when, 12, 16, 

18, 20, 30. 
pannes, thence, 12. 
J?a3, though, 9. 

J^les, yet, nevertheless, 6, 8, 9. 
j)e, thou-thyself, 54. . 
)?eauwes, Jjeawes, practices, habits, 

17, 78, 131 ; A.S. }edw. 
J?ellich,J?3lliche, this, these, such, 

7, 8, 9, 10, 27, 266 ; A.S. 

\yllic, Ipylc, the like. It is pro- 
bable that the pi. IpelUche, O.E. 

pelke,ha,s been confounded with 

A.S. \a ylca, the same. 
J^enche, to think, 47, 55 ; imp. 

Thench, 20 ; J?engst, 2nd per. 

sing. 214 \ 3rd s. J?eng]>, 18, 

65, 92. 
Jpenchinde, thinking, 212. 
Jjenchinge, thought, 6, 72, 212. 
J)er, there, where, 1, 5, 6, 58. 
Jperhuile, Jperhuils, Jperhuyl, whilst, 

139, 217. 
})erles, windows, 204 ; A.S. \>6rel 9 

a hole. 
J?ermide, therewith, 127. 
J^erne, for ])esne, ace. this, 94, 

111, 113, 214. 
})erteyens, there-against, 11, 



fees, m. this, 53, 65, 150. 

feet, rel that, 1, 14, 19. 

feet, the article neuter, the, 2, 14, 

16, 19, 181. 
feet oJ>er, second, 16. 
feet-to-Jjan, in order that, 170. 
feewes, customs, habits, 79. 
feider, thither, 140. 
feiefye, theft, 9. 
feierne, a maid servant, 129. 
feiesterliche, darkly, 244. 
feiesternesse, darkness, 201. 
feiestre, dark, 159 ; A.S.'peoster. 
feincj?, feing]?, appears, 18, 108, 

143, 164. 
feinen (of), thine, 194. 
feis {dot. feise, feisen), 2, 6, 7, 

44, 121. 
feis, Jpise, fees, these, 1, 7. 
feo,/. the, that, 1, 12, 13. 
feo, pi. the, those, 8, 9, 13. 
feo, when, 141. 

feole, imp., suffer, endure, 117. 
feolemodnesse, patience, endur- 
ance, 68, 132, 183, 185. 
feolie, feolye, to suffer, endure, 1 2, 

22, 33, 74, 162; A.S. \6lian. 
feoliynge, feolyinge, endurance, 

suffering, 157, 163, 164. 
feolynde, enduring, 167. 
feon, those, 11, 12, 135. 
feondre, thunder, 130. 
feonke, feonkes, thanks, 18, 55, 

feonki, feonky, to thank, 6, 7. 
feorn-hog, hedge-hog, 66. 

feorst, thirst, 73, 96. 

Jpor^, through, 81. 

feos, feous, thus, 39, 184. 

feoume, thumb, 43. 

feousend, feouzen, feousond, 67, 
75, 77, 268. 

feo3t, feo3te, thought, 6, 9. 

ferauwe, ferawe, to throw, 139, 

ferawj), ferauj?, throws, 17, 23, 

fereapni, fereapny, to threaten, re- 
prove, 97, 162, 184 ; A.S. 

fereapninge, fereapnynge, threat- 
ening, 38, 65, 66, 72. 

ferel, pi. ferelles, thrall, slave, 
19, 67, 86, 87. 

fereldom, fereldome, slavery, 
bondage, 86, 87. 

ferestes, crowds, hosts, 183. 

fereu, threw, 133. 

feri, three, 2, 3, 7 ; ferisife, three 
times, 234. 

feridde, third, 2, 12. 

feries, thrice, 35, 36. 

ferin, therein, 167. 

feritta3te, thirtieth, 234. 

feritti, thirty, 141, 234. 

ferote, throat, 14. 

feyef, obliq. case, feyeve, thief, 
37, 263 ; pi. feyeues, 37. 

feyef J)e, theft, 38, 192. 

feyester, feyestre, dark, 45, 264, 
266, 276 ; A.S. peoster. 

feyesternesse, darkness, 189. 



Jtyues = Jtyeues, thieves, 254. 

Uader, father, pi. Uaderes, 155. 

Uaderlease, Uaderlyese, father- 
less, 188, 193. 

Uair, Uayr, Uaire, Uayre, fair, 
16, 27, 81. 

Ualle, to fall, 29, 31. 

Ual]>, falls, 66 ; Ualle]), pi fall, 

Ualouwe, to fade, 81. 

Uals, Ualse, false, 6, 10, 18. 

Ualse, to forge, 40, 62. 

Ualsere, a falsifier, 62. 

Ualshede, falsehood, 10, 39, 63. 

Ualsliche, Ualslyche, falsely, 28, 

Ualsne, ace. false, 24. 

Uand, found, 57, 181. 

Uanite, vanity, 77. 

Uanni, to fan, winnow, 139. 

Uare, to fare, 1. 

UayreJ?, becomes fair, 95 ; makes 
fair, 232. 

Uayrhede, beauty, 16, 18, 75. 

Uayrliche, fairly, smoothly, 1, 

Ueawe, few, 162, 254. 

Uedde, fed, 96, 190. 

Uede, to feed, 199. 

Uelaje, fellow, participator, ac- 
cessory, 36, 37, 67. 

Uelaje, to join, share, participate, 
101, 102, 256. 

Ue^rede, fellowship, commu- 
nion, 9, 10, 14, 38. 

Ueld, Uelde, Uelden, filled, 55, 

Ueld, Uelde, field, 81, 131. 

Uele, Uelen, many, 5, 13, 102, 
103 ; uelestye, uelezipe, many 
times, 20, 257 ; ueleuald, man y 
fold, 212. 

Uele, to feel, 154, 180. 

Uelinge, feeling, 241. 

Uelle, skin, 210. 

Uelle, to fill, 77, 92. 

Uelle]?, pi. fill, 44. 

Ueljj, feels, 23, 25, 131. 

UelJ>, fills, 58. 

Uelfe, filth, 56, 61, 81. 

Uend, Uiend, Uyend, enemy, 
fiend, devil, 1, ei passim. 

Uendonginge, vendage, sale, 36. 

Uenial, Uenyal, 16, 73. 

Uenim, Uenym, 17, 22. 

Uenimouse {jpl. Uenimouses), 27, 

Uer, Uere, fire, 30, 65, 66, 74. 

Uer,far, 133, 143. 

Uerliche, suddenly, hastily, 55, 

Uerlichhede, haste, 55 ; A.S. fder, 
sudden ; fcfrrlice, suddenly. 

Uerre, far, distant, 204. 

Uerri, to put at a distance, re- 
move, 178 ; A.S. feorrian. 

Uers, verse, 128. 

Uerst, Uerste, first, 1, 2, 31. 

Uerste, to delay, 173 ; A. S. fyrst, 
interval ; fyrstan, to give re- 



Uerjje, fourth, 2, 3. 
Uerpinge, farthing, 193. 
Uest, Ueste, fast, 50, 91, 178. 
Ueste, to fast, 51, 52. 
Uestemens, vestments, 41. 
Uestinges, fasts, 33, 51, 52. 
Uestliche, fast, firm, 166, 252, 

Uestnesse, firmness, stability, 1 04, 

Uestni, to fasten, strengthen, 

establish, 106, 117, 213. 
Uet, feet, 14, 15. 
Uet, Uette, fat, 35, 53. 
Uete, obliq. case of Uet, a vat, 

vessel, 199. 
Ueteres, fetters, 128. 
Ueth, feedeth, 241. 
UeJ?eren, feathers, 270. 
UetteJ>, pi fatten, 241. 
*Uice, 27. 
Uif, five, 46. 
Uifte, Uyfte, fifth, 2. 
Uil, Uile, Uyl, Uyle, vile, 82, 

132, 180. 
Uil, fell {pi Uille, Uillen), 16, 

67, 98. 
Uilayn, Uileyn, Uileyne, wicked, 

disgraceful, vile, 59, 194. 
Uile, Vile, oil, 93, 
Uile, will, 152. 
Uiles, pi vile, 76. 
Uileynie, Uileyneye, Uileynye, 
disgraceful conduct, wicked- 
ness, 18, 31, 75. 
Uileynlaker, more wickedly, 64. 

Uileynliche. Uileynlyche, wick- 
edly, 64, 69. 
Uilhede, vileness, 130. 
Uilliche, vilely, shamefully, 133. 
Uinde, Uynde, to find ; 2nd 

pers. sing. Uinst; 3rd pers. 

ring. Uint, 38, 39, 74, 207. 
Uingre, finger, 5, 63. 
Uisage, 45. 

Uiss, Uisse, fish, 50, 110, 170. 
Uissere, fisherman, 60, 238. 
Ui]?ele, fiddle, 105. 
Uijt, Uiy3te, fight, 131, 169. 
Ui 3 te, to fight, 15, 157. 
Ui^tinde, fighting, 219. 
U^tinge, fighting, fight, 37, 170, 

Ulateri, to flatter, 61. 
Ulatours, flatterers, 256. 
Ula3e, pp. flayed, 73. 
Ulea3, fled, 130, 141. 
Uledde, Uledden, fled, 204. 
Uless, Ulesse, flesh, 9, 31, 47, 

80, 110, 180. 
Ulesslich, Ulessliche, Ulesslyche, 

fleshly, carnal, 10, 35, 42, 87, 

Ulej), flies, flieth, 25, 41. 
Ule3e, fly, 136. 
Ule3en, flies, 39, 58, 270. 
Ulindre, moth, 206. This is con- 
nected with flitter and flutter. 

Cp. Prov. E. flinder, flitter, 

fragment; Prov. Ger. flandern, 

to flutter. 
Uli3jj, Uly3>, flies, 165, 206, 254. 



Ulod, Ulode, flood, 247. 

TJly, to fly; Ulyefc pi fly, flee, 

Ulyinde, flying, 66, 71. 
Ulynte, flint, 136. 
Unonynge, discord, 65. 
Uol, Uolle, full, complete, 1, 28, 

44, 96, 156, 160, 259. 
Uolc, Uolk, folks, people, 15, 43, 

TJoldest, completest, 270. See 

Uoldo, perfect, perfected, 28, 96, 

Uolhede, fulness, complete, 119. 
Uolkerede, people, 196. 
Uolle, Uolnesse, fulness, 133, 266. 
Uolleres, fullers, 167. 
Uolliche, Uollyche, fully, 73, 78, 

Uolmad, perfect, 28, 260. 
Uolserue, to serve fully, 33. 
Uolueld, Uoluelde, fulfilled, 88, 

96, 149. 
Uoluelle, to fulfil, 64, 93. 
Uoluellinde, perfect, 88, 113. 
Uoluellinge, completion, 260. 
Uoluel)), fulfils, 7, 83, 122. 
Uo^eJ), follows, 12, 24, 36. 
Uo^i, U0I3V, imp. Uo^e, follow, 

74, 83, 166. 
Uotynde, Uo^ynde, following, 

Uon, foes, 255. 
Uondere, temper, 116. 
Uondi, Uondy, to tempt, 15, 46, 

116, 170; A.S. fandian. 
Uondinge, Uondynge, Uondingge, 

temptation, 1, 25, 31, 116, 

168, 176. 
Uor, for, 1, 2. 
Uorbegge, to atone for, 78. 
Uorbere, to forbear, abstain, 148. 
Uorberinge, forbearing, abstin- 
ence, 148, 205. 
Uorberne, to consume, 225. 
Uorberned, Uorbernde, consumed, 

burnt, 30, 67, 265. 
UorbernJ), consumes, 74. 
UorberJ), forbears, bears with, 

Uorbisne, Uorbysne, pi. Uor- 

bisnen, example, 46, 47, 87, 

89, 237 ; A.S. forebysen. 
Uorbode, forbidden, 8, 9, 45. 
Uorbyet, forbids, 6. 
Uorde)>, does away with, destroy, 

121. See Uordo. 
Uore-yzede, aforesaid, 190. 
Uorkest, cast forth (as dead). 
Uorlay, lay with, ravished, 230, 

Uorleas, lost, 181, 184. 
Uorlet, forsakes, forsook, left, 

184, 259. 
Uorlete, to leave, forsake, forgive, 

126, 165, 262; A.S. forUtan. 
Uorlore, lost, ruined, 11, 14, 128. 
Uorlorene,^?. lost, ruined, 13, 14. 
Uorlyese, to lose, 57. 
Uorlyesinge, Uorlyezinge, loss, 

156, 243. 



Uor-roted, Uor-rotede, rotten, de- 
cayed, 148, 205. 

TJorspeche, prologue, preface, 2, 
105, 165. 

TJorte, for to, until, 220. 

UorJ>, forth, 119. 

"dorian, because, 181. 

Uorjjenche, to repent, forthink, 
5, 29, 125, 159. 

Uorjenchinde, repenting, 4, 20, 
28, 32, 178. 

Uorjjenchinge, repentance, 73. 

UorJ>ingJ>, repents, 27, 29, 62. 

UorJ?rawe, overthrow, 86. 

Uorwerde, bargain, 36 ; A.S. 

Uoryaf, forgave, 114. 

Uoryef, imp. forgive, 110, 114. 

Uoryef), forgives, 28, 112, 179. 

Uoryet, forgets, 18. 

Uoryet, imp. forget, 73. 

Uoryete, to forget, 6, 46, for- 
gotten, 115. 

Uoryete)), pi forget, 6, 78. 

Uoryetinde, forgetful, 32. 

Uoryetinge, forgetfulness, 18, 32, 

Uoryeue, to forgive, 29. 

Uoryeuenesse, forgiveness, 32, 
113, 179. 

Uorzake, to forsake, 48, 195. 

UorzakJ, Uorza3p, forsakes, 18, 
43, 221. 

Uorzede, aforesaid, 190. 

Uorzok, forsook, 77. 

Uorzoke, forsaken, 179. 

UorzoJ>e, forsooth, 16, 79. 

Uorzual}, devoured, 67. 

Uorzue^e, to devour, 15, 56, 
111, 174,^. Uorzue^eJ?, 52. 

Uorzuelp, Uorzue^J, devours, 17, 

Uorzuerie, perjure, forswear, 6. 

Uorzueriinge, perjury, 57. 

Uorzuol3e, pp. devoured, 111, 206. 

Uorzuorene, perjured, 19. 

Uorzuyl)>, devours, 61. 

Uot, foot, 56, 127. 

Uoul, Uoule, foul, 22, 25, 35. 

Uoulhede, crime, disgrace, dis- 
honour, 25, 75. 

Uoulliche, foully, wickedly, 41, 

Uounde, pp. found, 83. 

Uour, four, 3. 

Uourta3te, fortieth, 4, 13. 

Uourti, forty, 13, 67. 

Uox, fox, 151. 

Uo$el, bird, 71, 178. 

Uo^elere, fowler, 254. 

Uo3eles, birds, 105. 

Uram, from, 7, 12. 

Ureme, advantage, profit, 43, 69, 
94, 117; A.S.freme. 

Ureinuol, advantageous, bene- 
ficial, 80. 

Urend, Uriend, Uryend, friend, 
30, 67. 

Urendrede, friendship, 149. 

Urete, to eat, devour, 39. 

Urefie, to keep free or holy ; A.S. 
freodian, f vidian. 



Uri, to deliver, 262. 

Uri, Ury, free, 86. 

Uridom, Urydom, freedom, 1, 41, 

85, 87. 
Uriliche, Urilyche, freely, 70, 86. 
Urind = Uriend, friend, 96. 
Uriwyl, free will, 86. 
Urostes, frosts, 108. 
Us, use, 55. 

Usi, Usy, to use, 48, 79. 
Uyealdinde, folding, 239. 
Uyend, enemy, devil, 75, 117. 
Uynde, to find, 1, 31, invent, 24. 
Uynt, finds, 31. 
Uy3te, to fight, 117. 

Waki, Waki, to watch, 52, 263. 

Wakinde, waking, watching, 158. 

Wakinge, vigil, 33, 52, 232. 

Wale we, to wallow, 126. 

Wanhope, despair, 29, 34. 

Wantrokiynge, lack, want, 265 ; 
A.S. trucan, to fail, abate. 

Waste, 19. 

Wayn, profit, advantage, 43. 

Waynye, to diminish, 88; A.S. 

Wayte, to watch, lie in wait, 
121, 179. 

Way tinge, watching, 15. 

Wa3e, wave, 206 ; A.S. wdeg. 

Wed, pledge, 36, 102, 113; A.S. 

Wed-dyad, Wedde-dyad, mort- 
gage, 35. 

Weder, weather, 129. 

Wedercoc, vane, 180. 

Wefde, altar, 112. See Wyefde. 

Wei, very, 16, 22. 

Wellen, wells, 80. 

Wel-wilynde, well-wisher, friend, 

Wende, Wenden, thought, 108. 
Wende, to turn, go, 6, 13, con- 
vert, 90. 
Wende]), pi. turn, go, 60. 
Wendinge, Wendynge, departure, 

separation, 70, 71. 
Wene, to think, 179. 
WeneJ),j9?. think, 21. 
Wenst, weenest, 129. 
Went, turns, 69, 180. 
Wen)>, thinks, 21, 22, 128. 
Wenynge, thought, 113. 
Wepindeliche, weepingly, 192. 
WepJ), weeps, 93. 
Wereden, protected, 266. 
Were]?, guards, 124. 
Were]), becomes weary, 17. 
Weri, Wery, (1) to become 

weary, 33, 99. (2) weary, 84. 
Werie, to guard, 129, 182 ; A.S. 

Werihede, weariness, 33. 
Werm, reptile, worm, 137, 215, 

Wermene, of worms, 216. 
Wermethe, worm-eaten, 229. 
Wernde, denied, 189 ; A.S. wyr- 

nan, to refuse. 
Werre, war, 30, 43, 
Werren, wars, 239. 



Werreres = werres, wars, strife, 

WerreJ), wars against, opposes, 17, 

Werri, to war against, oppose, 29, 

Werye, to defend, protect, 69, 

Wes, was, 7, past existence, 104. 
Wesse, to wash, 171. 
Wessinge, washing, 178. 
Wesst, washes, 202. 
Westen, knew, 72. 
Weter, water, 66 t 74, 98. 
Wetery, to water, 96, 98. 
Weued, altar, 167. See Wyefde. 
Wexe, to grow, 95 ; grown, 26. 
Wexep, pi grow, increase, 23. 
Wext, grows, 3, 18. 
Weyuerindemen, wayfaring men, 

travellers, 39. 
We$e, to weigh, 44, 91, 255, 256. 
We3f, weigheth, 255. 
Wichen, Wychen, witches, 19, 

Wile, Wyle (3rd pers. ting.), 

will, pi. Willef, 16. 
Willinge, willingness, 9. 
Wilni, Wylny, to desire, 35, 36. 
Wiluolliche, willingly, wilfully, 

Winne, to profit, 90. 
Wisliche, wisely, 210. 
WiJ>-begge, redeem, 186. 
WiJ>-bo3t, redeemed, 186. 
Wijj-cleped, recalled, 189. 

Wijjdra^e, to withdraw, 28. 

WlafFere, a silly babbler, 262. 

Wlatiinge, Wlatiynge, disgust, 
178, 192, 216; A.S. wlatian, 
grieve, loathe. 

Wlatuol, hateful, disgusting, 241. 

Wod, Wode, mad, 56, 140. 

Wode, wood, 23, 96. 

Wodewe, widow, 48, 190. 

Wodewen, Wodewon, widows, 
193, 225. 

Wodewhod, widowhood, 48, 185. 

Wodhede, madness, rage, 17, 18. 

Woke, week, 7, 212. 

Wolde (pi Wolden), would, 16, 

Woldest, wouldst, 73. 

Wolle, wool, 137. 

Wombe, belly, Womben, pi 53. 

Wonde, wound, 174, 217. 

Wonden, wounds, 148. 

Wonderliche, Wonderlyche, won- 
derfully, 14, 267. 

Wonderuol, Wonderuolle, won- 
derful, 15, 266. 

Wondrinde, wondering, 266. 

Wone, habit, custom, 6, 22, 38 ; 
A.S. icune. 

Wonef, accustoms, 7. 

Wonie, Wonye, to dwell, 4$, 54, 
87, 109; to accustom, 220; 
A.S. wunian. 

Woniynge, Wonyinge, dwelling, 
abode, 149, 267. 

Wop, weeping, 71, 93, 265; A.S. 



Wordle, world, 7. 

Wordleliehe, worldly, 164, 210. 

Workinde, working, 206. 

Workuol, active, 199. 

Wors, worse, 20. 

Worsi, to become worse, 33. 

Worjj, 4s worj),' signifies, 7; avails, 

Worjj, shall be, 74. 
WorJ>, Worfe, worthy, fit, 23, 74. 
Worjj, value, 82. 
Worjje, to be worfe = to avail, 

Worfssipe, Worssipe, honour ; sb. 

worship, 8, 18, 20, 75, 104. 
Worfssipie, Worssipie, to honour, 

worship, 5, 6, 8, 75. 
Wor)>ssiphede, honour, esteem, 

Worjjssiplich, honourable, 80. 
Wor J?ssipliche, Worssipliche, hon- 
ourably, 54. 
Worfssipuol, honourable, 80, 83, 

Worjmolle, honourable, 16. 
Wose, Woze, mud, 87, 89, 186; 

vapours, 186; A.S. ivase. 
Wot, knows, 9, 10. 
Wounden, wounds, 266. 
Wo3e, wall, 72. 
Wrang, wrong, 208. 
Wraye, to bewray, betray, 175 ; 

A.S. wregan. 
Wrechchen, wretches, niggards, 

187, 188, 189. 
Wreche, Wreche, a wretch, 25, 

30, 31, 70, 129. 
Wreche, vengeance, 45. 
Wrek, thrust out, 189, 215 ; A.S. 

wrckcan, to exile (pret. ivrckc). 
Wrench, craft, deceit, 129. 
WreJ> = Wre3jj, hides, 61. 
Wrejje, wrath, 8, 30. 
WrefeJ?, is angry, 17, 34. 
WreJ?i, Wre)>J>i, to make angry, 

be angry, 8, 60, 232. 
Wrefuolle, angry, enraged, 30. 
WrikJ>, Wri$J>, hides, 128. 
Writ, writes, 5. 
Wrongliche, wrongfully, 8. 
WroJ), angry, 22. 
Wrofe, badly, 20. 
Wry, hide, cover, 258 ; AS. tori- 

WryeJ?, hide, 61, 175. 
Wychche, witch, 41. 
Wychecreft, witchcraft, 43. 
Wychkedhede, Wyckedhede,